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Psychosurgery

Psychosurgery called neurosurgery for mental disorder, is the neurosurgical treatment of mental disorder. Psychosurgery has always been a controversial medical field; the modern history of psychosurgery begins in the 1880s under the Swiss psychiatrist Gottlieb Burckhardt. The first significant foray into psychosurgery in the twentieth century was conducted by the Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz who during the mid-1930s developed the operation known as leucotomy; the practice was enthusiastically taken up in the United States by the neuropsychiatrist Walter Freeman and the neurosurgeon James W. Watts who devised what became the standard prefrontal procedure and named their operative technique lobotomy, although the operation was called leucotomy in the United Kingdom. In spite of the award of the Nobel prize to Moniz in 1949, the use of psychosurgery declined during the 1950s. By the 1970s the standard Freeman-Watts type of operation was rare, but other forms of psychosurgery, although used on a much smaller scale, survived.

Some countries have abandoned psychosurgery altogether. In some countries it is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and other disorders. Psychosurgery is a collaboration between neurosurgeons. During the operation, carried out under a general anaesthetic and using stereotactic methods, a small piece of brain is destroyed or removed; the most common types of psychosurgery in current or recent use are capsulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy and limbic leucotomy. Lesions are made by thermo-coagulation, freezing or cutting. About a third of patients show significant improvement in their symptoms after operation. Advances in surgical technique have reduced the incidence of death and serious damage from psychosurgery. Interest in the neurosurgical treatment of mental illness is shifting from ablative psychosurgery to deep brain stimulation where the aim is to stimulate areas of the brain with implanted electrodes. All the forms of psychosurgery in use today target the limbic system, which involves structures such as the amygdala, certain thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei and orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus — all connected by fibre pathways and thought to play a part in the regulation of emotion.

There is no international consensus on the best target site. Anterior cingulotomy was first used by Hugh Cairns in the UK, developed in the US by H. T. Ballantine jnr. In recent decades it has been the most used psychosurgical procedure in the US; the target site is the anterior cingulate cortex. Anterior capsulotomy was developed in Sweden, where it became the most used procedure, it is used in Scotland and Canada. The aim of the operation is to disconnect the orbitofrontal cortex and thalamic nuclei by inducing a lesion in the anterior limb of internal capsule. Subcaudate tractotomy was the most used form of psychosurgery in the UK from the 1960s to the 1990s, it targets the lower medial quadrant of the frontal lobes, severing connections between the limbic system and supra-orbital part of the frontal lobe. Limbic leucotomy is a combination of subcaudate anterior cingulotomy, it was used at Atkinson Morley Hospital London in the 1990s and at Massachusetts General Hospital. Amygdalotomy, which targets the amygdala, was developed as a treatment for aggression by Hideki Narabayashi in 1961 and is still used for example at the Medical College of Georgia.

There is debate about. Success rates for anterior capsulotomy, anterior cingulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, limbic leucotomy in treating depression and OCD have been reported as between 25 and 70 percent; the quality of outcome data is poor and the Royal College of Psychiatrists in their 2000 report concluded that there were no simple answers to the question of modern psychosurgery's clinical effectiveness. Research into the effects of psychosurgery has not been able to overcome a number of methodological problems, including the problems associated with non-standardised diagnoses and outcome measurements, the small numbers treated at any one centre, positive publication bias. Controlled studies are few in number and there have been no placebo-controlled studies. There are no systematic meta-analyses. Modern techniques have reduced the risks of psychosurgery, although risks of adverse effects still remain. Whilst the risk of death or vascular injury has become small, there remains a risk of seizures and personality changes following operation.

A recent follow-up study of eight depressed patients who underwent anterior capsulotomy in Vancouver, classified five of them as responders at two to three years after surgery. Results on neuropsychological testing were unchanged or improved, although there were isolated deficits and one patient was left with long-term frontal psychobehavioral changes and fatigue. One patient, aged 75, was left mute and akinetic for a month following surgery and developed dementia. In China, psychosurgical operations which make a lesion in the nucleus a

Waving the bloody shirt

In the American election campaigns in the 19th century, "waving the bloody shirt" was a phrase used to ridicule opposing politicians who made emotional calls to avenge the blood of the northern soldiers that died in the Civil War. The pejorative was most used against Republicans, who were accused of using the memory of the Civil War to their political advantage. Democrats were not above using memories of the Civil War in such a manner as well in the South; the phrase gained popularity with a fictitious incident in which Representative and former Union general Benjamin Butler of Massachusetts, when making a speech on the floor of the U. S. House of Representatives held up a shirt stained with the blood of a carpetbagger whipped by the Ku Klux Klan during the Reconstruction Era. While Butler did give a speech condemning the Klan, he never waved anyone's bloody shirt. White Southerners mocked Butler, using the fiction of his having "waved the bloody shirt" to dismiss Klan thuggery and other atrocities committed against freed slaves and Republicans.

The Red Shirts white supremacist paramilitary organization took their name from the term

Benjamin Lessennes

Benjamin Lessennes is a Belgian racing driver competing in the TCR International Series and TCR Benelux Touring Car Championship. Having competed in several karting championships. Lessennes began his career in 2010 in karting, he took several good results in many different karting championships. In 2011 he finished second in the Belgian KF5 championship standings. In 2013 he won both Belgian X30 Junior karting titles. In 2014 he won the IAME International Finale X30 Seniors title. In 2016 he made the switch to the TCR Benelux Touring Car Championship, he finished the season fifth in the standings after one victory and three podiums. With his teammate Renaud Kuppens taking four victories, he continued in the series again in 2017. In April 2017 it was announced that he would race in the TCR International Series, driving a Honda Civic Type R TCR for Boutsen Ginion Racing. † Driver was classified as he completed over 90 % of the race distance. Official website Benjamin Lessennes career summary at DriverDB.com

Voices in Shadows

Voices in Shadows is the first studio album by Christian alternative rock band The Choir, released in early 1985. Youth Choir was part of a group of Christian alternative rock bands based out of Orange County, that got their start under the aegis of Calvary Chapel. While bands like Altar Boys and Crumbacher were blatantly evangelical in their approach, Youth Choir's lyrics were more measured and subtle—even questioning—and this would remain one of the defining aspects of the band. Musically, Thom Roy referred to the band's early style as the "San Francisco Sound," but the influences are British, echoes of U2 can be felt all over the record, for the most part critically well received; the album's first single, "Someone's Calling," was a popular hit on Christian rock radio at the time. Although credited as the band's drummer, Steve Hindalong did not play a single beat on this record due to the producers insistence on using a drum machine for a modern sound. All songs performed by Youth Choir. "Someone's Calling" – 4:21 "Wounds of a Young Heart" – 2:38 "Dreams" – 3:48 "Another Heart" – 3:32 "Why Are All the Children Crying" – 4:31 "Another World" – 3:54 "Here in the Night" – 4:17 "Alright Tonight" – 2:54 "Anyone But You" – 3:34 "A Million Years" – 3:41The crashing sound during the instrumental break in "Someone's Calling" is the sound of a hubcab being thrown across the studio floor by Steve Hindalong.

Derri Daugherty – guitars, vocals Mike Sauerbreybass guitar Steve Hindalong – drums, percussion Thom Roy – producer and engineer

Sohr Damb

Sohr Damb is an archaeological site, located near Nal, in central Balochistan, Pakistan that predates the Indus Valley civilization. It has been known as'Nal', gave its name to the prehistoric'Nal culture'; the site extends over 4 hectares. The cultural stratum is less than 2 m deep; the excavations reveal four periods of occupation dating from 3800 to 2200 BC. They could be further divided into several sub-periods; the locality was first discovered in 1903. In the following years, various minor excavations took place, including by Sir Aurel Stein. Since 2001, the site has been systematically excavated by the German Archaeological Institute and the Department of Archeology and Museums, Government of Pakistan; the oldest period belongs to the cultural complex called Togau. Numerous burials were found; some of them were found located in small chambers, they contained up to 16 skeletons. The grave goods included pearls, as well as semi-precious stones and shells. During Period II, we see the appearance of the Nal culture complex.

The dead were now buried in individual graves. There are only a few vessels offered as grave goods; the excavated mud-brick houses are small. There was a lot of utility ceramics, but some brightly painted ceramics typical of the Nal culture. There were millstones, bone implements, pearls. Period III is related to the other cultures of the area, such as Mehrgarh, Mundigak in Afghanistan; the mud-brick architecture has now become larger. Copper and ceramics were processed/produced on site; the Period IV layers are badly eroded. Overall, this period belongs to the Kulli culture, as well as the Indus culture. Domesticated cattle bones are plentiful in the settlement, bull figurines are found; the bones were identified as coming from Zebu cattle. Sheep and goats were kept; the inhabitants had dogs. Wild mammals account; the crops like wheat, hulled and naked barley were used from the earliest period. The crops indigenous to the Indian subcontinent, like sesame, millet became more popular; the sesame sample from Period III is the oldest, stratified record from this crop until now.

Both wild and cultivated fruits were exploited. Fig, dwarf palm and grape vine were quite popular. Sohr Damb/Nal is stratigraphically earlier than the Kulli culture phase. At Surab, Nal occupations are than the Kili Gul Mohammad phase. In the past, the Nal cemetery was understood as belonging to the Kulli Culture, but more Nal is rather understood as belonging to its own pottery tradition, linked more to Baluchistan. Sohr Damb ceramics, wheel-turned, with polychrome decoration, shows some parallels with Mundigak period III1-6. There's some controversy about the absolute chronological framework of the transition from Period II to III at Nal; this transition has a bearing on the chronology of both Shahr-e Sokhta, of the Indus civilization. The transition can be dated either to the mid-3rd millennium, or to the late 3rd millennium BC. Early Nal has an affinity with Sindh, their pottery is quite similar. Kulli-Mehi culture is in some ways a continuation of Nal. Sothi Nindowari Paul Yule, Silver Grave Goods from the Sohr Damb near Nal, Pakistan.

Universität Heidelberg Benecke N, Neef R. 2005. Faunal and plant remains from Sohr Damb/Nal: a prehistoric site in central Balochistan. In: Franke-Vogt U, Weishaar J, editors. South Asian Archaeology 2003. Aachen: Linden Soft. P 81–91. Jochen Görsdorf, Ute Franke-Vogt, IMPLICATION OF RADIOCARBON DATES FROM SOHR DAMB/NAL, BALOCHISTAN. RADIOCARBON, Vol 49, Nr 2, 2007, p 703-712 Hargreaves H. 1929. Excavations in Baluchistan 1925. Sampur Mound and Sohr Damb, Nal. New Delhi: Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India 35. Salvatori S, Tosi M. 2005. Shahr-e Sokhta revised sequence. In: Jarrige C, Lecomte O, editors. South Asian Archaeology 2001. Paris: ADPF Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations. P 281–91. Archaeology of Ancient Balochistan - Slide show - harappa.com

Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano

Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano is an Italian quantum physicist. He is a professor of theoretical physics at the University of Pavia, where he is the leader of the QUIT group, he is a member of the Center of Photonic Computing at Northwestern University. His primary areas of research are Quantum information theory, the mathematical structure of quantum theory, foundational problems of contemporary physics; as one of the pioneers of Quantum Information Theory, he has made major contributions to the informational-theoretical derivation of Quantum Theory. D'Ariano was born on 11 May 1955, he got Laurea cum laude in Physics in 1978 from Pavia University. In 1978, he started a research fellowship in Polymer Science at Politecnico di Milano and in 1979, a research fellowship at Pavia University. In 1984, he was appointed as research assistant at the University of Pavia and as a result of national competitions he became associate professor in 1992 and full professor in 2000. At the time of his appointment, there were no PhD schools in Italy and D'Ariano became one of the first PhD supervisors in the country.

He took on the role of the group leader. In the same year, he was selected as a member of the Photonic Communication and Computing at Northwestern University. D'Ariano has played a major role in making quantum information theory a new paradigm for the foundations of quantum theory and fundamental physics in general. In 2010, he proposed a set of information-theoretical postulates for a rigorous derivation of Quantum Theory, a derivation subsequently achieved in his collaboration with Giulio Chiribella and Paolo Perinotti; this project led to a new way of understanding, working with, developing quantum theory, presented in a comprehensive textbook entitled Quantum Theory from First Principles. In the mid 2010s, D'Ariano extended this program to a derivation of Quantum Field Theory from informational-theoretical postulates, which enabled him and his team to derive the complete free Quantum field theory. A historical perspective, from Dirac's discovery of quantum electrodynamics to the present time, on this work was given by Arkady Plotnitsky in The Principles of Quantum Theory, From Planck's Quanta to the Higgs Boson.

In an article in New Scientist, Lucien Hardy wrote that "their work and their approach is extraordinary", Časlav Brukner wrote that he was "impressed" by their work writing that "there's something deep about quantum mechanics in this work". A book by Oliver Darrigol offers an extensive commentary on D'Ariano and co-workers' derivation of Quantum Mechanics emphasizing how it overcomes certain ad hoc assumptions of previous derivations. D'Ariano and his collaborators introduced the first exact algorithm for quantum homodyne tomography of states, they subsequently generalized the technique used to do to a universal method of quantum measurement. D'Ariano developed the first experimental scheme—now called "ancilla-assisted tomography"—that made the characterization of quantum channels and measuring apparatuses feasible to be done in the laboratory, by exploiting a single entangled input state. D'Ariano proposed quantum entanglement as a tool for improving the precision of quantum measurement, an idea that, parallel to works of other authors, suggested the new field of Quantum metrology.

He has introduced several new types of measurement. With his team, he solved a number of long-standing problems of quantum information theory, such as the optimal broadcasting of mixed states. D'Ariano and collaborators introduced the concept of "quantum comb", which generalizes that of "quantum operation", has a wide range of applications in optimization of quantum measurements, communication and protocols, he and his group subsequently used quantum combs to find the optimal apparatuses for Quantum tomography. The quantum-comb framework enabled a new understanding of causality in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory; this understanding had a wide and diverse impact in several areas of research, beginning with the study of quantum causal interference and causal-discovery algorithms, used in recent attempts, along quantum informational lines, at reconciling quantum theory and general relativity, one of the great outstanding problems of fundamental physics. Giacomo Mauro D’Ariano is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America and of the American Physical Society.

He won the third prize for the FQXi essay world competitions of 2011, 2012 and 2013. His paper on the informational derivation of quantum theory has been selected for an APS Viewpoint. Integrable Systems in Statistical Mechanics Quantum Communication and Measurement 2 Quantum Theory from First Principles: An Informational Approach