The Hylinae are the largest of three subfamilies of Hylidae, the "tree frogs". It contains nearly 700 species in 41 genera, they are found in North and South America, temperate Asia, Africa north of the Sahara. The 41 recognized genera are: http://www.tolweb.org/Hylinae
Copan stream frog
The Copan stream frog is a species of frogs in the family Hylidae found in Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, rivers and degraded former forests, it is threatened by habitat loss
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Ptychohyla salvadorensis is a species of frog in the family Hylidae found in El Salvador and Honduras. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, rivers and degraded former forests, it is threatened by habitat loss. Cruz, G. Wilson, L. D. McCranie, R. Köhler, G. Acevedo, M. & Mendelson III, J. 2006. Ptychohyla salvadorensis. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 22 July 2007
A frog is any member of a diverse and carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura. The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago. Frogs are distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is in tropical rainforests. There are accounting for over 85 % of extant amphibian species, they are one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders. Warty frog species tend to be called toads, but the distinction between frogs and toads is informal, not from taxonomy or evolutionary history. An adult frog has a stout body, protruding eyes, anteriorly-attached tongue, limbs folded underneath, no tail. Frogs have glandular skin, with secretions ranging from distasteful to toxic, their skin varies in colour from well-camouflaged dappled brown and green to vivid patterns of bright red or yellow and black to show toxicity and ward off predators.
Adult frogs live on dry land. Frogs lay their eggs in water; the eggs hatch into aquatic larvae called tadpoles that have internal gills. They have specialized rasping mouth parts suitable for herbivorous, omnivorous or planktivorous diets; the life cycle is completed. A few species bypass the tadpole stage. Adult frogs have a carnivorous diet consisting of small invertebrates, but omnivorous species exist and a few feed on fruit. Frog skin has a rich microbiome, important to their health. Frogs are efficient at converting what they eat into body mass, they are an important food source for predators and part of the food web dynamics of many of the world's ecosystems. The skin is semi-permeable, making them susceptible to dehydration, so they either live in moist places or have special adaptations to deal with dry habitats. Frogs produce a wide range of vocalizations in their breeding season, exhibit many different kinds of complex behaviours to attract mates, to fend off predators and to survive.
Frogs are valued as food by humans and have many cultural roles in literature and religion. Frog populations have declined since the 1950s. More than one third of species are considered to be threatened with extinction and over 120 are believed to have become extinct since the 1980s; the number of malformations among frogs is on the rise and an emerging fungal disease, has spread around the world. Conservation biologists are working to resolve them; the use of the common names "frog" and "toad" has no taxonomic justification. From a classification perspective, all members of the order Anura are frogs, but only members of the family Bufonidae are considered "true toads"; the use of the term "frog" in common names refers to species that are aquatic or semi-aquatic and have smooth, moist skins. There are numerous exceptions to this rule; the European fire-bellied toad has a warty skin and prefers a watery habitat whereas the Panamanian golden frog is in the toad family Bufonidae and has a smooth skin.
The origin of the order name Anura — and its original spelling Anoures — is the Ancient Greek "alpha privative" prefix ἀν- "without", οὐρά, meaning "animal tail". It refers to the tailless character of these amphibians; the origins of the word frog are debated. The word is first attested in Old English as frogga, but the usual Old English word for the frog was frosc, it is agreed that the word frog is somehow related to this. Old English frosc remained in dialectal use in English as frosh and frosk into the nineteenth century, is paralleled in other Germanic languages, with examples in the modern languages including German Frosch, Icelandic froskur, Dutch vors; these words allow us to reconstruct a Common Germanic ancestor *froskaz. The third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary finds that the etymology of *froskaz is uncertain, but agrees with arguments that it could plausibly derive from a Proto-Indo-European base along the lines of *preu = "jump". How Old English frosc gave rise to frogga is, uncertain, as the development does not involve a regular sound-change.
Instead, it seems that there was a trend in Old English to coin nicknames for animals ending in -g, with examples—themselves all of uncertain etymology—including dog, pig and wig. Frog appears to have been adapted from frosc as part of this trend. Meanwhile, the word toad, first attested as Old English tādige, is unique to English and is of uncertain etymology, it is the basis for the word tadpole, first attested as Middle English taddepol meaning'toad-head'. About 88% of amphibian species are classified in the order Anura; these include over 7,000 species in 56 families, of which the Craugastoridae, Hylidae and Bufonidae are the richest in species. The Anura include any fossil species that fit within the anuran definition; the characteristics of anuran adults include: 9 or fewer presacral vertebrae, the presence of a urostyle formed of fused vertebrae, no tail, a long and forward-sloping ilium, shorter fore limbs than hind limbs and ulna fused and fibula fused, elongated an
Mountain stream tree frog
The mountain stream tree frog, is a species of tree frog native to highland areas of NSW, Australia stretching from the Myall Lakes area, north to around Dorrigo National Park and west to Barrington Tops National Park. Litoria barringtonensis may be conspecific to the Pearson's green tree frog. Morphological differences have not been studied yet, but visible physical differences between frogs from Barrington Tops and Dorrigo, New South Wales, in comparison to frogs from south-eastern Queensland and northern NSW are discussed in a key on the leaf green tree frog page; these are representative of frogs described as L. pearsoniana. The mountain stream tree frog is a small tree frog growing up to 45 mm in length, it is light green to dark/olive green on the dorsal surface and sometimes brown morphs are encountered. The thighs are a mango-yellow colour and the belly is off-white. A pale brown stripe runs from the nostril, across the eye, over the tympanum, down to the shoulder, where the line widens and dissipates.
Randomly placed black dots are scattered over the dorsal surface. Metamorphs resemble the adults, although they are brown in colour; the tadpoles of the L. phyllochroa complex are similar in appearance and are hard to tell apart. Range is best used to distinguish the species; this species inhabits flowing creeks in mountainous areas, in rainforests and adjacent wet sclerophyll forests, as its name suggests. Males call from stream-side vegetation during summer; this species is described in field guides due to its similarity to the Pearson’s green tree frog and due to the taxonomy being under review. It is kept as a pet. Anstis, M. 2002. Tadpoles of South-eastern Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney. Article Road: List of All Frog Breeds: Things You Can Do to Ensure Your Frog Has a Long and Healthy Life: Mountain Stream Tree Frog Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, New South Wales: Amphibian Keeper's Licence: Species Lists