In the arts, bricolage is the construction or creation of a work from a diverse range of things that happen to be available, or a work created by mixed media. The term bricolage has been used in many other fields, including anthropology, critical theory, computer software, business. Bricolage is a French loanword; the word is derived from the French verb bricoler, with the English term DIY being the closest equivalent of the contemporary French usage. In both languages, bricolage denotes any works or products of DIY endeavors. Instrumental bricolage in music includes the use of found objects as instruments, such as: Spoons Musical saw Australasian slap bass made from a tea chest Comb and wax paper for humming through Gumleaf humming Lagerphone Trinidadian steel drums African drums and thumb pianos made from recycled pots and pans. American super instruments made from recorders and bicycle bells or metal rods and keys Stomp dancing is an example of the use of bricolage in music and dance, utilizing everyday objects, such as trash cans and broom sticks, to produce music.
Many of the musical instruments created by American composer Harry Partch utilize unusual items, such as automotive hubcaps and pyrex carboys. Stylistic bricolage is the inclusion of common musical devices with new uses. Shuker writes, "Punk best emphasized such stylistic bricolage". Musical bricolage flourishes in music of sub-cultures where: experimentation is part of daily life, access to resources is limited which limits commercial influence, there is a political or social drive to seek individuality Unlike other bricolage fields, the intimate knowledge of resources is not necessary. Many punk musicians, for instance, are not musically trained, because they believe training can discourage creativity in preference for accuracy. Careful observation and listening is not necessary, it is common in spontaneous music to welcome'errors' and disharmony. Like other bricolage fields, bricolage music still values trusting one's ideas and self-correcting structures such as targeted audiences. In art, bricolage is a technique or creative mode, where works are constructed from various materials available or on hand, is seen as a characteristic of many postmodern works.
These materials may be mass-produced or "junk". See also: Merz, collage, assemblage. Bricolage can be applied to theatrical forms of improvisation, where the main strategy is to use the environment and materials at hand; the environment is the stage and the materials are pantomimed. The use of the stage and the imaginary materials are all made up on the spot, so the materials which are at hand are things that the players know from past experiences. Bricolage is applied in interior design, through blending styles and accessorizing spaces with what is "on hand". Many designers use bricolage to come up with unique ideas. Bricolage is considered the jumbled effect produced by the close proximity of buildings from different periods and in different architectural styles, it is a term, admiringly applied to the architectural work of Le Corbusier, by Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter in their book Collage City, suggesting that he assembled ideas from found objects of the history of architecture. This, in contrast to someone like Mies Van der Rohe, whom they called a "hedgehog", for being overly focused on a narrow concept.
In literature, bricolage is affected by intertextuality, the shaping of a text's meanings by reference to other texts. In cultural studies bricolage is used to mean the processes by which people acquire objects from across social divisions to create new cultural identities. In particular, it is a feature of subcultures such as the punk movement. Here, objects that possess one meaning in the dominant culture are acquired and given a new subversive meaning. For example, the safety pin became a form of decoration in punk culture; the term "psychological bricolage" is used to explain the mental processes through which an individual develops novel solutions to problems by making use of unrelated knowledge or ideas they possess. The term, introduced by Jeffrey Sanchez-Burks, Matthew J. Karlesky and Fiona Lee of the University of Michigan, draws from two separate disciplines; the first, “social bricolage,” was introduced by cultural anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss in 1962. Lévi-Strauss was interested in how societies create novel solutions by using resources that exist in the collective social consciousness.
The second, "creative cognition,” is an intra-psychic approach to studying how individuals retrieve and recombine knowledge in new ways. Psychological bricolage, refers to the cognitive processes that enable individuals to retrieve and recombine unrelated knowledge they possess. Psychological bricolage is an intra-individual process akin to Karl E. Weick’s notion of bricolage in organizations, akin to Lévi-Strauss' notion of bricolage in societies. In his book The Savage Mind, French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss used "bricolage" to describe the characteristic patterns of mythological thought. In his description it is opposed to the engineers' crea
In Christianity, missional living is the adoption of the posture, thinking and practices of a missionary in order to engage others with the gospel message. The missional church movement, a church renewal movement predicated on the necessity of missional living by Christians, gained popularity at the end of the twentieth century due to advocates like Tim Keller and others in the Gospel and Our Culture Network. Advocates contrast missional living with the concept of a select group of "professional" missionaries, emphasizing that all Christians should be involved in the Great Commission of Jesus Christ; the missional living concept is rooted in the Missio dei. In 1934, Karl Hartenstein, a German missiologist, coined the phrase in response to Karl Barth and his emphasis on actio Dei. In their view, missional activities stemming from God; the Triune God is the primary acting agent within the church. According to Lesslie Newbigin and Jesus' statements in the Gospel according to John, every Christian has been sent by Jesus with the gospel together in community to those in the surrounding culture for the sake of the King and His kingdom: “The Church is sent into the world to continue that which he came to do, in the power of the same Spirit, reconciling people to God.”
Jesus said, “As the Father has sent Me, I am sending you”. "No one can say: ‘Since I’m not called to be a missionary, I do not have to evangelize my friends and neighbors.’ There is no difference, in spiritual terms, between a missionary witnessing in his home town and a missionary witnessing in Katmandu, Nepal. We are all called to go—even if it is only to the next room, or the next block.”" Missional living is the embodiment of the mission of Jesus in the world by incarnating the gospel. "It is imperative that Christians be like Jesus, by living within the culture as missionaries who are as faithful to the Father and his gospel as Jesus was in his own time and place." This embodiment of the gospel is referred to as "contextualization" or "inculturation." "Both refer to more than a simple translation of the gospel into different languages and cultures in the way that one translates a history book or a science text. Rather, they point to the embodiment of the living Word in human culture and social settings in such a way that its divine nature and power are not lost.
True contextualization is more than communication. It is God making them new and forming them into a new community, it is his Word transforming their lives, their societies, their cultures." These five biblical distinctives form the foundation of a missional perspective: The Church is sent by Jesus Christ The Church is sent with the Cross The Church is sent in Community The Church is sent to every Culture The Church is sent for the King and His Kingdom Jesus sent His disciples on a mission. The missional church defines itself in terms of its mission—being sent ones who take the gospel to and incarnate the gospel within a specific culture. "Jesus was the first apostle. He was sent by his Father. He, in turn, sent the Twelve, they went to people who would take the gospel to the rest of the world. Whoever received it would understand that they, had been sent. With the gospel being what it is, the church as bearer of the gospel is bound to be apostolic." Jesus Christ said that He came to earth to seek and to save that, lost.
He accomplished salvation through the cross. By dying on the cross, He satisfied God's wrath. According to Scripture, without the cross, there is no salvation, no forgiveness, no hope; the mission and message of Jesus surround the cross. “For the word of the cross is to those who are perishing foolishness, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God”. Jesus loves the Church and He gave His life to redeem the Church. Community exists for Mission! Christians are to bring the gospel together to the culture. "The church is called to do the work of Christ, to be the means of his action in and for the world.... Mission, in its widest as well as its more focused senses, is. God intends to put the world to rights; those who belong to Jesus are called and now, in the power of the Spirit, to be agents of that putting-to-rights purpose." George Peters notes, “If man is to be reached, he must be reached within his own culture.” This principle is observed when God became a man in the form of Jesus to come to earth and incarnate the gospel.
As missionaries sent by Jesus, every Christian must learn to exegete their surrounding culture, uncovering the language and ideas of the culture. Using this information, they take steps to reach people with the gospel message in the context of the surrounding culture; the kingdom was central to Jesus' mission. The Book of Acts ends with Paul, under house arrest in Rome, “proclaiming the kingdom of God and teaching about the Lord Jesus Christ with all boldness and without hindrance”. Christians are sent to proclaim the gospel of the kingdom. George Hunsberger conveys the idea; the Church is not an end in itself. The kingdom and the Church must never be divorced, yet they must never
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
A church is a Christian religious organization or congregation or community that meets in a particular location. Many are formally organized, with constitutions and by-laws, maintain offices, are served by clergy or lay leaders, and, in nations where this is permissible seek non-profit corporate status. Local churches relate with, affiliate with, or consider themselves to be constitutive parts of denominations, which are called churches in many traditions. Depending on the tradition, these organizations may connect local churches to larger church traditions and defrock clergy, define terms of membership and exercise church discipline, have organizations for cooperative ministry such as educational institutions and missionary societies. Non-denominational churches are not part of denominations, but may consider themselves part of larger church movements without institutional expression; the word church is used in the sense of a distinct congregation in a given city in under half of the 200 uses of the term in the New Testament.
John Locke defined a church as "a voluntary society of men, joining themselves together of their own accord in order to the public worshipping of God in such manner as they judge acceptable to him". A local church may be run using congregationalist polity and may be associated with other similar congregations in a denomination or convention, as are the churches of the Southern Baptist Convention or like German or Swiss Landeskirchen, it may be united with other congregations under the oversight of a council of pastors as are Presbyterian churches. It may be united with other parishes under the oversight of bishops, as are Anglican, Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox churches; the local church may function as the lowest subdivision in a global hierarchy under the leadership of one bishop, such as the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Such association or unity is a church's ecclesiastical polity. Among congregational churches, since each local church is autonomous, there are no formal lines of responsibility to organizational levels of higher authority.
Deacons of each church are elected by the congregation. In some Baptist congregations, for example, deacons function much like a board of directors or executive committee authorized to make important decisions. Although these congregations retain the right to vote on major decisions such as purchasing or selling property, large spending and the hiring or firing of pastors and other paid ministers. In many such local churches, the role of deacons includes nurturing responsibilities. Congregational churches have informal worship styles, less structured services, may tend toward modern music and celebrations. Local churches united with others under the oversight of a bishop are called "parishes", by Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Lutheran communions; each parish has one active parish church and more than one. The parish church has always been fundamental to the life of every parish community in rural areas. For example, in the Church of England, parish churches are the oldest churches to be found in England.
A number are of Anglo-Saxon date and all subsequent periods of architecture are represented in the country. Most parishes have churches. Thus, such local churches tend to favor traditional, formal worship styles and classical music styles, although modern trends are common as well. Local parishes of the Roman Catholic Church, like episcopal parishes, favor formal worship styles, still more traditional structure in services; the importance of formal office is a distinctive trait. Vestments are valued to inculcate the solemnity of the Holy Eucharist and are more elaborate than in other churches. A local church may be a mission, a smaller church under the sponsorship of a larger congregation, a bishop, or a greater church hierarchy. Congregational churches prefer to call such local mission churches "church plants." A local church may work in association with parachurch organizations. While ParaChurch Organizations/Ministries are vital to accomplishing specific missions on behalf of the church they do not take the place of the local church.
Ministries, Bible Studies and other such Parachurch partnerships may be seen as beneficial and as a great means of personal growth and effective ministry but without superseding the local body of Christ. Every Christian is connected to this building known as church; the Local Churches Ecclesia Ecclesiastical polity Congregational church Parish Particular church Simple church Early centers of Christianity An article on the Church as The Bride of Christ
A cafe church is a Christian church centered in cafés. These edifices are associated with alternative worship and the emerging church movements, seek to find new forms and approaches to existing as a church in the 21st century; these churches are focused on relationship aspects of Christian fellowship and outreach to their local community, use the modern gathering place of a café in their ministry. The cafe church can be viewed as an organically based philosophy for planting churches, centered around the idea of making the message of Christ's love relevant to the needs of the local community that the church seeks to serve; the Alma Mount Hope Coffeehouse Church, of Alma, MI, says: "The ministry statement for AMH Coffeehouse Church is found in Acts 2:42:'And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, in prayers.'" The goal of cafe church endeavors is to impact their local community with a message of God's love and the transforming power of Christ's love.
Depending on the leadership, some cafe church leaders will provide a clear doctrinal perspective, while others may be more open-minded and comfortable with members and visitors asking questions of speakers. For example, One World Coffeehouse in Columbia, Maryland was founded by a church member who said, "I felt that our church needed an outreach effort... and a way to express principles such as multiculturalism and acceptance of others different from yourself."And the Glebe Café Church, in New South Wales, Australia states that: "Café Church is a Glebe-based, non-traditional Christian faith community. We aim to provide an inclusive and welcoming space for everybody, no matter what their spiritual path. Café Church revolves around open discussion, creative expression and alternative approaches to worship. Our core values include hospitality, creativity and social and environmental justice." Churches using the cafe as a model for their organization can take different forms. Some cafe churches maintain a permanent cafe or restaurant, which offers the local community a high-quality array of coffee and food, provides a venue where the members of the church fellowship meet.
Church members may volunteer their time to support the enterprise. Other churches use the cafe model as a way to build community, facilitating variation within their normal service structure and within the confines of their building, by serving coffee after or during the service in a predesignated area, or holding a coffeehouse event. Ebenezer's Coffeehouse, in Washington, DC, operated by the National Community Church, is one example of a cafe church, its website asks, "How much more comfortable can you get sipping a Chai in church?" This church is a multi-location church located at sites accessible by public transit, which links its indie music coffeehouse broadcasts to other locations via the Internet. Located in Washington is the Potters House, an outreach ministry of the Church of the Savior, its website states, "We, the members of that church, asked ourselves,'Would Jesus want to hang out with folks at a traditional institutional church? or would he want to hang out over a beer in a bar or coffee in a restaurant?'
The resounding answer was the latter. We chose coffee over beer because of our support for the budding AA movement in 1960."An old congregation house of Oxford University, dating back to 1320, is home to The Vaults and Garden Cafe, operated by the University Church of St Mary the Virgin, which specializes in organically grown and locally sourced foods. The cafe serves the community by catering events, donating funds. Another religious organization specializing in healthy food is the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, which runs a chain of vegetarian restaurants called Govinda's; the Loft coffeehouse, a project of Alamo Heights United Methodist Church, San Antonio, TX includes "a food bank, thrift store and a resource center for the needy."Café churches became more popular in the Christian community of South Korea around 2016 among younger Protestants, as an alternative to the traditional Korean megachurches' conservatism and perceived corruption. Church-sponsored coffeehouses have a long history in the United States.
For example, Nameless Coffeehouse has operated for over 50 years on the site of The First Parish Unitarian Universalist Church in Cambridge, MA. And fifty years ago, it was The Sacred Mushroom coffeehouse in OH that hosted Phil Ochs. "God only knows the songs he performed there." In fact, Unitarian Universalists are a denomination known for sponsoring folk coffeehouses. "The welcoming environment of Unitarian Universalist coffeehouses has provided an artistic haven for a variety of performers and helped launch the entertainment careers of folk musicians such as Pete Seeger and Arlo Guthrie. Folk music is featured at The Old Ship Coffeehouse Off The Square, located in the parish house of Old Ship Church in Hingham, MA, The First Congregational Church in Branford, CT sponsors the Branford Folk Coffeehouse, a monthly folk music concert series held in its auditorium. Mom & Pop's Coffeehouse, a folk concert series held in the sanctuary at United Christian Church in Levittown, PA, uses the altar as the stage, has been held since 1994.
And in 2011, the Good Folk Coffeehouse began its 21st concert season at the Rowayton United Methodist Church, in Rowayton, CT. Coffeehouse Coffeehouse Emerging church Internet church Multi-site church Pub church Coffehousech
Rowan Douglas Williams, Baron Williams of Oystermouth, is a Welsh Anglican bishop and poet. He served as the 104th Archbishop of Canterbury from December 2002 to December 2012; the Bishop of Monmouth and Archbishop of Wales, Williams was the first Archbishop of Canterbury in modern times not to be appointed from within the Church of England. Williams' primacy was marked by speculation that the Anglican Communion was on the verge of fragmentation over disagreements on contemporary issues such as homosexuality and the ordination of women. Williams worked to keep all sides talking to one another. Notable events during his time as Archbishop of Canterbury include the rejection by a majority of dioceses of his proposed Anglican Covenant and, in the final General Synod of his tenure, his unsuccessful attempt to secure a sufficient majority for a measure to allow the appointment of women as bishops in the Church of England. Having spent much of his earlier career as an academic at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford successively, Williams speaks three languages and reads at least nine.
After standing down as Archbishop, Williams took up the positions of Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge in 2013, Chancellor of the University of South Wales in 2014. He delivered the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh in 2013. Justin Welby succeeded Williams as Archbishop of Canterbury on 9 November 2012, being enthroned in March 2013. On 26 December 2012, 10 Downing St announced Williams' elevation to the peerage as a Life Baron, so that he could continue to speak in the Upper House of Parliament. Following the creation of his title on 8 January and its gazetting on 11 January 2013, he was introduced to the temporal benches of the House of Lords as Baron Williams of Oystermouth on 15 January 2013, sitting as a crossbencher. Williams was born on 14 June 1950 in Swansea, into a Welsh-speaking family, he was the only child of Aneurin Williams and his wife Nancy Delphine Williams – Presbyterians who became Anglicans in 1961. He was educated at the state-sector Dynevor School in Swansea, before going on to study theology at Christ's College, whence he graduated with starred first-class honours.
He went to Wadham College, where he studied under A. M. Allchin and graduated with a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1975 with a thesis entitled The Theology of Vladimir Nikolaievich Lossky: An Exposition and Critique. Williams lectured and trained for ordination at the College of the Resurrection in Mirfield, West Yorkshire, for two years. In 1977, he returned to Cambridge to teach theology as a tutor at Westcott House. While there, he was ordained a priest the Petertide following, by Peter Walker, Bishop of Ely, at Ely Cathedral. Williams did not have a formal curacy until 1980, when he served at St George's, until 1983, after having been appointed a university lecturer in divinity at Cambridge. In 1984 he became dean and chaplain of Clare College and, in 1986 at the age of 36, he was appointed to the Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity at Oxford, a position which brought with it appointment to a residentiary canonry of Christ Church Cathedral. In 1989 he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity and, in 1990, was elected a Fellow of the British Academy.
On 5 December 1991, Williams was elected Bishop of Monmouth in the Church in Wales: he was consecrated a bishop on 1 May 1992 at St Asaph Cathedral and enthroned at Newport Cathedral on 14 May. He continued to serve as Bishop of Monmouth after he was elected to be the Archbishop of Wales in December 1999, in which capacity he was enthroned again at Newport Cathedral on 26 February 2000. In 2002, he was announced as the successor to George Carey as Archbishop of Canterbury — the senior bishop in the Church of England and "first among equals" in the Anglican Communion; as a bishop of the disestablished Church in Wales, Williams was the first Archbishop of Canterbury since the English Reformation to be appointed to this office from outside the Church of England. His election by the Chapter of Canterbury Cathedral was confirmed by nine bishops in the customary ceremony in London on 2 December 2002, when he became Archbishop of Canterbury, he was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 27 February 2003 as the 104th Archbishop of Canterbury.
The translation of Williams to Canterbury was canvassed. As a bishop he had demonstrated a wide range of interests in social and political matters and was regarded, by academics and others, as a figure who could make Christianity credible to the intelligent unbeliever; as a patron of Affirming Catholicism, his appointment was a considerable departure from that of his predecessor and his views, such as those expressed in a published lecture on homosexuality were seized on by a number of evangelical and conservative Anglicans. The debate had begun to divide the Anglican Communion and Williams, in his new role as its leader was to have an important role; as Archbishop of Canterbury, Williams acted ex officio as visitor of King's College London, the University of Kent and Keble College, governor of Charterhouse School, since 2005, as chancellor of Canterbury Christ Church University. In addition to these ex officio roles, Cambridge University awarded him an honorary doctorate in divinity in 2006.
A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer and cider. It is a relaxed, social drinking establishment and a prominent part of British, Breton, New Zealand, South African and Australian cultures. In many places in villages, a pub is the focal point of the community. In his 17th-century diary Samuel Pepys described the pub as "the heart of England". Pubs can be traced back to Roman taverns, through the Anglo-Saxon alehouse to the development of the tied house system in the 19th century. In 1393, King Richard II of England introduced legislation that pubs had to display a sign outdoors to make them visible for passing ale tasters, who would assess the quality of ale sold. Most pubs focus on offering beers and similar drinks; as well, pubs sell wines and soft drinks and snacks. The owner, tenant or manager is known as the pub landlord or landlady, or publican. Referred to as their "local" by regulars, pubs are chosen for their proximity to home or work, the availability of a particular beer or ale or a good selection, good food, a social atmosphere, the presence of friends and acquaintances, the availability of recreational activities such as a darts team, a skittles team, a pool or snooker table.
The pub quiz was established in the UK in the 1970s. The inhabitants of the British Isles have been drinking ale since the Bronze Age, but it was with the arrival of the Roman Empire on its shores in the 1st century, the construction of the Roman road networks that the first inns, called tabernae, in which travellers could obtain refreshment, began to appear. After the departure of Roman authority in the 5th century and the fall of the Romano-British kingdoms, the Anglo-Saxons established alehouses that grew out of domestic dwellings; the Anglo-Saxon alewife would put a green bush up on a pole to let. These alehouses evolved into meeting houses for the folk to congregate and arrange mutual help within their communities. Herein lies "pub" as it is colloquially called in England, they spread across the kingdom, becoming so commonplace that in 965 King Edgar decreed that there should be no more than one alehouse per village. A traveller in the early Middle Ages could obtain overnight accommodation in monasteries, but a demand for hostelries grew with the popularity of pilgrimages and travel.
The Hostellers of London were granted guild status in 1446 and in 1514 the guild became the Worshipful Company of Innholders. A survey in 1577 of drinking establishment in England and Wales for taxation purposes recorded 14,202 alehouses, 1,631 inns, 329 taverns, representing one pub for every 187 people. Inns are buildings where travellers can seek lodging and food and drink, they are located in the country or along a highway. In Europe, they first sprang up when the Romans built a system of roads two millennia ago; some inns in Europe are several centuries old. In addition to providing for the needs of travellers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. In Europe, it is the provision of accommodation, if anything, that now distinguishes inns from taverns and pubs; the latter tend to provide alcohol, but less accommodation. Inns tend to be older and grander establishments: they provided not only food and lodging, but stabling and fodder for the traveller's horse and on some roads fresh horses for the mail coach.
Famous London inns include The George and The Tabard. There is, other kinds of establishment. Many pubs use "Inn" in their name, either because they are long established former coaching inns, or to summon up a particular kind of image, or in many cases as a pun on the word "in", as in "The Welcome Inn", the name of many pubs in Scotland; the original services of an inn are now available at other establishments, such as hotels and motels, which focus more on lodging customers than on other services, although they provide meals. In North America, the lodging aspect of the word "inn" lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn, in some state laws that refer to lodging operators as innkeepers; the Inns of Court and Inns of Chancery in London started as ordinary inns where barristers met to do business, but became institutions of the legal profession in England and Wales. The 18th century saw a huge growth in the number of drinking establishments due to the introduction of gin. Brought to England by the Dutch after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, gin became popular after the government created a market for "cuckoo grain" or "cuckoo malt" by allowing unlicensed gin and beer production while imposing a heavy duty on all imported spirits.
As thousands of gin-shops sprang up all over England, brewers fought back by increasing the number of alehouses. By 1740 the production of gin had increased to six times that of beer and, because of its cheapness, it became popular with the poor, leading to the so-called Gin Craze. Over half of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London were gin shops; the drunkenness and lawlessness created by gin was seen to lead to the ruination and degradation of the working classes. The different effects of beer and gin were illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane; the Gin Act 1736 imposed high taxes on retailers and led to riots in the streets