The Angels (Australian band)
The Angels are an Australian rock band which formed in Taperoo, a small beach side suburb in Adelaide in 1974 as The Keystone Angels by John Brewster on rhythm guitar and vocals, his brother Rick Brewster on lead guitar and vocals, Bernard "Doc" Neeson on lead vocals and guitar. They were joined by Graham "Buzz" Bidstrup on drums and vocals, Chris Bailey on bass guitar and vocals. In 1981 Bidstrup was replaced on drums by Brent Eccles, their studio albums on the Kent Music Report Albums Chart top 10 are No Exit, Dark Room, Night Attack, Two Minute Warning and Beyond Salvation. Their top 20 singles are "No Secrets", "Into the Heat", "We Gotta Get out of This Place", "Am I Ever Gonna See Your Face Again", "Let the Night Roll On" and "Dogs Are Talking". In the international market, to avoid legal problems with named acts, their records have been released under the names, Angel City and The Angels from Angel City; the Angels have been cited by Guns N' Roses, Seattle grunge bands Pearl Jam and Nirvana, as having influenced their music.
Neeson left the group in 1999 due to spinal injuries sustained in a car accident and they disbanded in the following year. Subsequently, competing versions of the group performed using the Angels name, until April 2008 when the original 1970s line-up reformed for a series of tours until 2011, when Neeson left again. Alternative versions continued with new members; the Angels were inducted into the ARIA Hall of Fame in October 1998 with the line-up of Bailey and Rick Brewster and Neeson. Australian musicologist, Ian McFarlane, declared that "The Angels had a profound effect on the Australian live music scene of the late 1970s/early 1980s. Helped redefine the Australian pub rock tradition... brand of no-frills, hard-driving boogie rock attracted pub goers in unprecedented numbers. In turn, The Angels' shows raised the standard expected of live music. After 20 years on the road, the band showed little sign of easing up on the hard rock fever." Chris Bailey died on 4 April 2013, aged 62, after being diagnosed with throat cancer.
Doc Neeson died on 4 June 2014, aged 67, of a brain tumour. In November 1970 future member of the Angels, John Brewster on guitar, harp, backing vocals and washboard, his brother Rick on violin, jug, backing vocals and percussion formed the Moonshine Jug and String Band, an acoustic ensemble, in Adelaide. Fellow members were Craig Holden on guitar, Bob Petchell on banjo and harp, Pete Thorpe on tea chest bass, bass guitar, wash tub and backing vocals. In 1971 they were joined by Belfast-born immigrant, Bernard "Doc" Neeson, on guitar and lead vocals, an arts student and former Army sergeant, who performed locally as Doc Talbot; the folk band gigged at local university cafes. Holden left in 1972. In 1973 Spencer Tregloan joined Moonshine Jug and String Band on banjo, jug and backing vocals, they released their debut four-track extended play, Keep You on the Move, which made the top 5 in Adelaide. It contained a cover version of Canned Heat's "On the Road Again" and three original tracks: one written by John, one by John and Rick, one by Neeson.
It was followed in 1974 by a single, "That's All Right with Me". Both releases were on the Sphere Organisation label owned by John Woodruff, who became the Angels' talent manager for two decades. In 2015 the group were inducted into the Adelaide Music Collective Hall of Fame. In mid-1974 Moonshine Jug and String Band changed their name to the Keystone Angels, with the line up of John Brewster on lead vocals and bass guitar, Rick on guitar, Neeson on bass guitar and vocals, Peter Christopolous on drums and Laurie Lever on keyboards, they began playing 1950s rock and roll on the pub circuit. Rick recalled "There was a cult following with The Jug Band but if we wanted any real success we had to start an electric band. So we threw ourselves in the deep end. I went from playing washboard to playing lead guitar. I hadn't played an electric guitar before then!"During July and August 1974 they ran a series of ads in Go-Set, the national teen pop music magazine, announcing that "The Keystone Angles are coming".
Lever left during that year. In January 1975 the remaining members performed, as a four-piece, at the Sunbury Pop Festival they supported AC/DC during a South Australian tour, that year they were the backing band for Chuck Berry; the Keystone Angels issued a sole single, "Keep on Dancin'", on Sphere during that year. In 1976 the Angels signed a recording deal with the Albert Productions label, upon the recommendation of Bon Scott and Malcolm Young; the group dropped "Keystone" from their name and became the Angels, relocated to Sydney with the line-up of Neeson on lead vocals and bass guitar, King on drums, Rick on lead guitar and John Brewster on lead vocals and rhythm guitar. According to Ian McFarlane, an Australian musicologist, the group "had toughened its sound into a unique brand of beefy hard rock."The Angels' first single, "Am I Ever Gonna See Your Face Again", was released in April 1976, produced by Vanda & Young. It was co-written by the Neeson, they made their TV debut on Countdown.
In August King was replaced by Graham "Buzz Throckman" Bidstrup on drums. In January 1977 Chris Bailey joined on bass guitar, which allowed Neeson to concentrate on lead vocals. Bailey had been a member of Mount Lofty Rangers, with Bon Scott
Prahran is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 5 km south-east of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Stonnington local government area. Prahran recorded a population of 12,982 at the 2016 Census. Prahran is a part of Greater Melbourne, with many shops and cafes; the area of Prahran, centred along Commercial Road was one of Melbourne's gay villages, but no longer is. The shopping street Chapel Street is a mix of upscale fashion cafes. Greville Street, once the centre of the Melbourne's hippie community, has many cafés, restaurants, clothing shops and music shops. Prahran takes its name from Pur-ra-ran, a compound of two Aboriginal words, meaning "land surrounded by water"; the proximity of the Yarra River and a swamp to the southwest explains that description. In 1837 George Langhorne named the area Pur-ra-ran, a compound of two Aboriginal words, meaning "land surrounded by water"; when he informed the Surveyor-General Robert Hoddle of the name, it was written as "Prahran".
Prahran Post Office opened on 1 April 1853. Describing Prahran, as it was in the mid 1850s, F. R. Chapman remembered: Between the 1890s and 1930s Prahran built up a huge shopping centre, which by the 1920s had rivalled the Melbourne Central Business District. Large emporiums sprang up along Chapel Street. Prahran became a major entertainment area; the Lyric theatre, built on the corner of Victoria Street in 1911, burnt down in the 1940s. The Royal was the second old theatre built; the Empress, another popular theatre on Chapel Street, was destroyed by fire in 1971. The site was operated by the cut-price clothes and homewares chain Waltons for the next decade and was developed into the Chapel Street Bazaar. In the 1960s, in an effort to boost the growing local population and inject new life into the suburb, the Victorian Government opened the Prahran Housing Commission estate, just off Chapel Street, together with a larger estate, located just north in South Yarra. Further complementing the high rise developments was a low density development between Bangs and Bendigo Streets.
In the 1970s, the suburb began to gentrify, with much of the remaining old housing stock being renovated and restored. The area had a substantial Greek population and many took advantage of the rise in property values during the 1980s, paving the way for further development and a subsequent shift in demographics. During the 1990s, the population increased markedly, with demand for inner-city living fuelling a medium-density housing boom, which continues in the area, as part of the Melbourne 2030 planning policy, it was during the 1990s. Many gay and gay-friendly businesses were found along Commercial Road, between Pran Central and the railway overpass, the last of these closing around 2012. In Prahran, 61.2% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 4.2%, Greece 3.5%, New Zealand 3.4%, China 1.6% and India 1.3%. Prahran is home to a large collection of architecturally significant commercial buildings, with many on the Victorian Heritage Register; the Chapel Street section of Prahran is notable for its collection of turn of the century emporiums and large buildings, which include: Prahran Arcade – Built in 1889 on Chapel Street, is a richly detailed building both externally and internally.
Retains the original arcade, but decorative roof was removed in the 1950s. Known locally as "Birdland" due to pigeons which once bred in the recessed balconies of the building and the large eagles which adorn the facade, but are now screened by chicken wire. Was a Dan Murphy's cellar for many years, but a JB HiFi store. Now heritage registered. Reads Emporium – Built in 1914 on the corner of Chapel Street and Commercial Road. A landmark of the area, its twin beacons, which sit atop large copper clad domes, were once visible like lighthouses for miles around, but no longer operate. During the 1970s, the site traded as a department store under the name Moore's before the lower stories were converted into shops in the 1980s and named "Pran Central"; the upper stories were restored and converted into fashionable apartments in 2005. Now heritage registered. Big Store – Built in 1902 and closed in 1968 on Chapel Street. A second store as large as the main store, once stood in the carpark to the west, beyond Cato Street, linked by cross-over walkways.
This large Edwardian building is used by Coles Supermarkets. Maples Corner -- Built in 1910 on the corner of High Streets. Converted into offices in the 1980s and many deteriorating decorative features were replaced with post modern elements. Love & Lewis – Built in 1913 on Chapel Street and converted into a mix of offices and apartments in 2004. Now heritage registered. Other significant Prahran emporiums include Conway's Buildings and the large Colosseum building, lost to fire in 1914. Other heritage buildings include the former Prahran Town Hall, the adjacent former City Hall, the neighbouring police station and court house and Rechabite Hall, in the Second Empire style; the Prahran Fire Tower is on Macquarie Street. State School number 2855 Prahran Primary School, on High Street was converted into apartments in 2005. St Matthew's Church, a large bluestone church on High Street built in the 1880s, was converted into offices in the 1980s. Residenti
Kevin Nicholas Borich is a New Zealand-born Australian guitarist and singer-songwriter. He was a founding member of The La De Das, the leader of Kevin Borich Express, a founding member of The Party Boys, as well as a session musician for numerous acts. Borich wrote "Gonna See My Baby Tonight" for The La De Das, which became a top 10 hit in 1971 on the Australian singles chart, he performed at some of Australia's biggest rock events including the 1972 Sunbury Pop Festival and the late 1970s Rockarena tours with 60,000 people, featuring Fleetwood Mac and The Little River Band. He played in two New Year's Eve celebrations at the Sydney Opera House with 70,000 people as well as support shows for international acts including Elton John, Status Quo, Jeff Beck and Buddy Guy. Australian rock music historian Ian McFarlane has described Borich as "one of the most celebrated guitar players in the history of Australian rock, he remains an underrated songwriter, his live reputation has been reflected in record sales".
His son Lucius Borich joined Kevin Borich Express as a drummer and was a member of Sydney-based progressive rock band Cog. Kevin Borich was born in 1948 in Huapai north west of Auckland on New Zealand's North Island, he attended secondary school at Rutherford High School in a suburb of Auckland. In 1961, at the age of 12, Borich recorded a private single on Astor Records with sisters Judi and Sue Donaldson; as a guitarist, Borich formed The Mergers in late 1963 with fellow students Brett Neilsen on drums and Trevor Wilson on bass guitar. They performed covers of The Shadows' material as an instrumental band after school and on week-ends. Borich is of Croatian descent. With the addition of vocalist/rhythm guitarist Phil Key, The Mergers with Borich on lead guitar/vocals, Neilsen on drums/vocals and Wilson on bass guitar, were renamed as The La De Das in 1964 in Auckland, New Zealand. In June 1965 they recorded their debut single, "Little Girl", that year added Bruce Howard on keyboards. From 1966 to 1967 they had five New Zealand top 10 hits, "How is the Air Up There?", "On Top of the World", "Hey Baby", "All Purpose Low" and "Rosalie".
By 1968 they were based in Sydney and recorded their concept album, The Happy Prince, in 1969 on EMI. Line-up changes occurred, with Borich and Key joined by Peter Roberts on bass guitar and Keith Barber on drums by 1971's Australian Kent Music Report top 10 hit single, "Gonna See My Baby Tonight", it had been written by Borich, who had established a reputation as "Australia's guitar hero supremo" and performed "All Along the Watchtower" using Jimi Hendrix' interpretation of the Bob Dylan song to close The La De Das' live set. In late January 1972, they appeared at the inaugural Sunbury Pop Festival and featured on the subsequent double album, released in October by EMI/HMV; the La De Das recorded further albums and singles and despite critical acclaim had little chart success. Only Borich remained throughout until he disbanded the group in 1975. After The La De Das, Borich toured with John Paul Young & the Allstars for some months before forming a new band. Kevin Borich Express was formed in early 1976 by Borich on lead guitar, lead vocals and occasional flute with Harry Brus on bass guitar and Barry Harvey on drums.
They recorded a track, "The End of Me", before Brus and Harvey were soon replaced by Reuben San Fiansco on bass guitar and Gil Matthews on drums. Subsequent line-ups were a three piece with a succession of bass guitarists and drummers, they released their debut single, "Goin' Somewhere", in October using Fiansco, John Annas on drums. Following in March 1977 was their debut album, Celebration! with Annas, Tim Partridge on bass guitar. The album was peaked in the top 30 on the Australian albums charts. In early 1977, Borich supported the tour by UK rock guitarist Jeff Beck. Mid-1977 saw the release of the band's follow-up album Lonely One; this was followed in October by supporting the Rockarena tour with Fleetwood Mac and Little River Band. In May 1978, the band toured the US in support of Australian heavy rockers AC/DC, with Annas, Paul Christie on bass guitar and keyboard player Tim Shafer; this line-up recorded No Turning Back, released in March 1979. By mid-year, Partridge had returned with both Christie and Shafer departing, together with Annas, Borich recorded Live!, using the 2JJ mobile studio equipment over performances in Melbourne and Wollongong.
Live! Contains one of the most incendiary and atmospheric versions of "Little Red Rooster" recorded, along with a number of Borich standards. In July, Kevin Borich Express appeared on Renée Geyer's album Blues License. A European tour by Kevin Borich Express resulted in a compilation album being released in Germany. After the tour, John Watson replaced Annas on drums and the band recorded Angel's Hand in November 1979. Similar line-up changes continued into the early 1980s with Michael Deep replacing Partridge in April 1980; this line-up collaborated with solo artist Dutch Tilders to record Blues Had a Baby and They Called It Rock'n'Roll in 1981 on RCA Records. Kerry Jacobsen replaced Watson on drums for the Shy Boys Shy Girls mini-LP in late 1981. By mid-1982, Annas returned on drums, with Steve Balbi on bass guitar, Andy Cowan on keyboards; that year, Borich on guitar joined The Party Boys, formed by previous band member Paul Christie on bass guitar and backing vocals, Harvey James (Sh
Alan Charles Lancaster is an English bassist, best known as a founding member of the English rock band Status Quo from 1967 to 1985, with brief reunions in 2013 & 2014. As well as contributing to songwriting, he was one of the lead vocalists on albums and live concerts taking the lead on tracks such as "Backwater", "Bye Bye Johnny", "High Flyer" and "Roadhouse Blues", etc. Alan Lancaster formed the group in 1962 with his schoolmate Francis Rossi, his final performance as a full-time member of Status Quo was at Wembley Stadium on 13 July 1985 for the opening of Live Aid. In March 2013 he collaborated with his old bandmates for a series of "Frantic Four" concerts in the UK. Born in Peckham in 1949, in the 2012 Status Quo documentary Hello Quo, Lancaster stated that he had a "great" upbringing, he attended Sedgehill Comprehensive School, where he met future "Quo" frontman Francis Rossi in the school orchestra. Rossi and Lancaster became close friends and, along with other schoolmates formed the band "The Scorpions" - an early Quo forerunner.
While attending Sedgehill Comprehensive School in 1962, Lancaster befriended future Status Quo singer and guitarist Francis Rossi while playing in the school orchestra. With classmates Alan Key and Jess Jaworski, the pair formed a band called The Scorpions, who played their first gig at the Samuel Jones Sports Club in Dulwich. At another gig at the sports club, manager Pat Barlow approached the band, Lancaster's mother agreed to let him manage the band. Key was replaced by Air Cadets drummer and future Quo member John Coghlan, the band was renamed The Spectres. "We were novices," noted Lancaster. "None of us could play a note but we were good together."The Spectres wrote their own material and played live shows, in 1965 played at a Butlins holiday camp in Minehead. Here they met future Quo guitarist Rick Parfitt, playing as part of a cabaret act called "The Highlights"; the band became close friends with Parfitt, they agreed to continue working together. In 1966, The Spectres signed a five-year deal with Piccadilly Records, releasing three singles that failed to chart.
The group again changed this time to "Traffic Jam", after embracing psychedelia. Following "Live Aid", Lancaster's relationship with Francis Rossi became strained when Rossi and Rick Parfitt covertly began recording a new album under the name of "Status Quo". Unbeknownst to Lancaster — by now living in Australia - and the group's recording company, Rossi had utilised the assistance of the group's manager to draw down on the group's contracted recording advances. Lancaster was substituted with session musician John'Rhino' Edwards, recording on a solo project of Parfitt's - "Recorded Delivery" -, scrapped. Edwards remains Quo's bassist to this day. Lancaster continues to live in Australia, he joined a new line-up of Australian band The Party Boys in 1987 and co-produced a hit album, achieving platinum sales. Achieving'gold' and reaching the number one spot with hit single "He's Gonna Step On You Again". In 1988, he formed The Bombers, which signed to A&M Records in the US, it was paid the largest advance paid to an Australian-based band, but after the band had completed one album, A&M was sold to Phonogram.
The Bombers' original drummer was Lancaster's ex-Status Quo bandmate John Coghlan. Lancaster had been complicit in Coghlan's departure from Status Quo in 1981; the Bombers supported Alice Cooper and Skid Row on their tours of Australia. When the Bombers disbanded, Lancaster continued with his partner John Brewster with "The Lancaster Brewster Band", in which Angry Anderson performed as a guest artist for some time. Lancaster formed his own band: Alan Lancaster's Bombers which released an E. P. and toured Scandinavia before disbanding in 1995. As well as writing the theme song for the film Indecent Obsession, he produced an album for classical pianist Roger Woodward, which achieved platinum sales in Australia. In March 2010 Lancaster and Rossi met in Sydney leading to speculation of the original line-up reuniting; this was denied by current bassist, who explained in an interview that Lancaster was in poor health and unable to participate in any such reunion. However his health improved and it was announced that the classic "Frantic Four" line-up of Francis Rossi, Rick Parfitt, Alan Lancaster and John Coghlan would perform a series of concerts together in March 2013.
In 2014, Lancaster again participated in the original four piece Quo lineup and went on another successful tour. Although he appeared to be somewhat physically fragile on stage, his vocals were well-received by the crowds. Lancaster's final appearance with Status Quo on the 2014 tour took place on 12 April at The O2 in Dublin, he appeared in the 2012 documentary on Status Quo, titled Hello Quo. Bbc.co.uk
Blues rock is a fusion genre combining elements of blues and rock. It is an electric ensemble-style music with instrumentation similar to electric blues and rock: electric guitar, electric bass, drums with Hammond organ. From its beginnings in the early- to mid-1960s, blues rock has gone through several stylistic shifts and along the way it inspired and influenced hard rock, Southern rock, early heavy metal. Blues rock continues to be an influence in the 2010s, with performances and recordings by popular artists. Blues rock started with rock musicians in the United Kingdom and the United States performing American blues songs, they recreated electric Chicago-style blues songs, such as those by Muddy Waters, Jimmy Reed, Howlin' Wolf, Albert King, at faster tempos and with a more aggressive sound common to rock. In the UK, the style was popularized by groups such as the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds, the Animals, who managed to place blues songs into the pop charts. In the US, Lonnie Mack, the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, Canned Heat were among the earliest exponents and "attempted to play long, involved improvisations which were commonplace on jazz records".
John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers and Peter Green's Fleetwood Mac developed this more instrumental, but traditional-based style in the UK, while late 1960s and early 1970s groups, including Ten Years After, Savoy Brown, the Climax Blues Band and Foghat became more hard rock oriented. In the US, Johnny Winter, the Allman Brothers Band, ZZ Top represented a hard rock trend. Although around this time, the differences between blues rock and hard rock lessened, there was a return to more blues-influenced styles. In the 1980s, the Fabulous Thunderbirds and Stevie Ray Vaughan, recorded their best-known works and the 1990s saw guitarists Gary Moore, Jeff Healey, Kenny Wayne Shepherd become popular concert attractions. Groups such as the Jon Spencer Blues Explosion and the White Stripes, brought an edgier, more diverse style into the 2000s, as do contemporary artists such as the Black Keys. Blues rock can be characterized by bluesy improvisation, the twelve-bar blues, extended boogie jams focused on the electric guitar player, a heavier, riff-oriented sound and feel to the songs than might be found in traditional Chicago-style blues.
Blues rock bands "borrow the idea of an instrumental combo and loud amplification from rock & roll". It is often played at a fast tempo, again distinguishing it from the blues; the core blues rock sound is created by bass guitar and drum kit. Bands included a harmonica called "a harp." The electric guitar is amplified through a tube guitar amplifier or using an overdrive effect. Two guitars are commonplace in blues rock bands: one guitarist focused on rhythm guitar, playing riffs and chords as accompaniment. While 1950s-era blues bands would sometimes still use the upright bass, the blues rock bands of the 1960s used the electric bass, easier to amplify to loud volumes. Keyboard instruments, such as the piano and Hammond organ, are occasionally used; as with the electric guitar, the sound of the Hammond organ is amplified with a tube amplifier, which gives a growling, "overdriven" sound quality to the instrument. Vocals typically play a key role, although the vocals may be equal in importance or subordinate to the lead guitar playing.
As well, a number of blues rock pieces are instrumental-only. Blues rock pieces follow typical blues structures, such as twelve-bar blues, sixteen-bar blues, etc, they use the I-IV-V progression, though there are exceptions, some pieces having a "B" section, while others remain on the I. The Allman Brothers Band's version of "Stormy Monday", which uses chord substitutions based on Bobby "Blue" Bland's 1961 rendition, adds a solo section where "the rhythm shifts effortlessly into an uptempo 6/8-time jazz feel"; the key is major, but can be minor, such as in "Black Magic Woman". One notable difference is the frequent use of a straight eighth-note or rock rhythm instead of triplets found in blues. An example is Cream's "Crossroads". Although it was adapted from Robert Johnson's "Cross Road Blues", the bass "combines with drums to create and continually emphasize continuity in the regular metric drive". Cream uses some of the lyrics from "Traveling Riverside Blues" to create their own interpretation of the song.
Rock and blues have always been linked, with driving rhythms and electric guitar techniques such as distortion and power chords used by 1950s blues guitarists Memphis bluesmen such as Joe Hill Louis, Willie Johnson and Pat Hare. Characteristics that blues rock adopted from electric blues include its dense texture, basic blues band instrumentation, rough declamatory vocal style, heavy guitar riffs, string-bending blues-scale guitar solos, strong beat, thick riff-laden texture, posturing performances. Precursors to blues rock included the Chicago blues musicians Elmore James, Albert King, Freddie King, who began incorporating rock and roll elements into their blues music during the late 1950s to early 1960s. In 1963, American rockabilly soloist Lonnie Mack had an idiosyncratic, fast-paced electric blues guitar style that came to be identified with blues rock, his instrumentals from that period were recognizable as blues or R&B tunes, but he relied upon fast-picking techniques derived from traditional American country and bluegrass genres.
The best-known of these are the 1963 hit singles "Memphis" and "Wham!". However, blues rock was not named as such, or recognized as a distinct movement w
An Australian pub or hotel is a public house or pub for short, in Australia, is an establishment licensed to serve alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises. They provide other services, as entertainment venues, serving meals and providing basic accommodation; the Australian pub is a direct descendant of the Irish pub. The production and consumption of alcoholic drinks has long played a key role in Western commerce and social activity, this is reflected in the importance of pubs in the British colonisation of Australia after 1788. However, in the 19th century the local version evolved a number of distinctive features that set it apart from the classic British or urban Irish pub. In many cases, pubs were the first structures built in newly colonised areas on the goldfields, new towns grew up around them. Pubs served multiple functions serving as hostelry, post office, meeting place and sometimes general store. Pubs proliferated during the 19th century during the gold rush that began in the 1850s, many fine examples were built in the state capitals and major regional cities and towns.
Some of the best colonial-era pubs in Australia's major cities have fallen victim to urban re-development, which has destroyed a significant portion of Australia's 19th-century architectural heritage. State capitals like Melbourne and Adelaide, large regional cities and towns such as Kalgoorlie in Western Australia still boast some examples, many other 19th century pubs survive in country towns. Among the colonial-era hotels, now lost to development, were the Bellevue Hotel in Brisbane and two of Sydney's pub-hotels – the Hotel Australia, which stood on the corner of Castlereagh St and Martin Place and the Tattersall's Hotel in Pitt St, its marble bar was dismantled and reinstalled in a basement under the Sydney Hilton Hotel, built on the site of the Tattersall's Hotel in the early 1970s. The development that solidified the characteristic style of the modern Australian pub was the introduction of the American-style bar counter in the early nineteenth century. Customers began to sit apart from the publicans, the atmosphere became commercial rather than home-like and the pub became a distinctly public, Australian male-dominated establishment.
Australia's beer-drinking culture is descended from the northern European tradition, which favoured grain-derived beverages like beer and spirits, whereas in southern European countries like Italy and Greece wine was the drink of choice. Beer was for many years the largest-selling form of alcoholic drink in Australia, Australia has long had one of the highest per capita rates of beer consumption in the world. Australia did not develop a significant wine-making industry until the 20th century and while the wine industry grew wine did not become a major consumer drink until the late 20th century. Therefore, for the period between 1800 and 1950, alcohol production and consumption in Australia was dominated by beer and spirits, with Australian pubs becoming synonymous with ice-cold pilsener beer. Liquor licensing policies in early colonial Australia were liberal, but in the late 19th century there was growing pressure from conservative Christian groups, known as the Temperance Leagues, to restrict the sale of alcohol.
In 1916 after drunken soldiers rioted in Sydney new licensing laws restricted alcohol in all Australian states, in most cases banning sales after 6 pm. The new legislation forced publicans seeking a spirits licence to obtain a beer licence and to provide accommodation; the licensing laws restricted the sale and service of alcohol exclusively to pubs for decades. Alcohol could be purchased only in pubs, many states placed restrictions on the number of bottles per customer that could be sold over the counter, it was not until the late 20th century that "bottle-shops" and chain-store outlets became common and restaurants and cafes were more licensed to serve liquor or to allow customers to "bring their own". Opening hours were heavily restricted, pubs were open only from 10 am to 6 pm, Monday to Saturday; some pubs were granted special licences to open and close earlier – e.g. opening at 6 am and closing at 3 pm – in areas where there were large numbers of people working night shifts. Pubs were invariably closed on Sundays, until the various state Sunday Observance Acts were repealed during the 1950s and early 1960s.
These restrictions created a small but lucrative black market in illegal alcohol, leading to the proliferation of illegal alcohol outlets in many urban areas. After the Federation of Australia in 1901, Australia's new constitution ruled that the Commonwealth of Australia had no power to legislate in this area, so each state enacted and enforced its own liquor licensing regulations; this meant the Prohibition lobby in Australia had to lobby each individual state government, was unable to achieve any nationwide ban on the sale of alcohol. Although liquor sales remained restricted for many years, Australia did not experience the many social ills, including the vast expansion of organised crime that resulted from Prohibition in the United States in the 1920s; because of the hot, dry climate, Australian beer drinkers soon came to favour chilled pilsener style beers. This trend was reinforced with the expansion and consolidation of the Australian brewing industry, by the development of hop growing in Tasmania.
The dominance of chilled pilsener beer was further reinforced by the invention of refrigeration. Australia was one of the first countries to adopt
INXS were an Australian rock band, formed as The Farriss Brothers in 1977 in Sydney, New South Wales. The band's founding members were bassist Garry Gary Beers, main composer and keyboardist Andrew Farriss, drummer Jon Farriss, guitarist Tim Farriss, lead singer and main lyricist Michael Hutchence, guitarist and saxophonist Kirk Pengilly. For twenty years, INXS was fronted by Hutchence, whose "sultry good looks" and magnetic stage presence made him the focal point of the band. Known for their new wave/pop style, the band developed a harder pub rock style that included funk and dance elements. In 1984, INXS scored their first number-one hit in Australia with "Original Sin"; the band would achieve international success in the mid-to-late 1980s and early 1990s with the hit albums Listen Like Thieves, X, as well as the singles "What You Need", "Need You Tonight", "Devil Inside", "Never Tear Us Apart", "Suicide Blonde" and "New Sensation". Following Hutchence's death from suicide in November 1997, INXS made appearances with several guest singers and toured and recorded with Jon Stevens as lead singer beginning in 2002.
In 2005, members of INXS participated in Rock Star: INXS, a reality television series that culminated in the selection of Canadian J. D. Fortune as their new lead singer. Irish singer-songwriter Ciaran Gribbin replaced Fortune as lead singer in 2011. During a November 11, 2012 concert, INXS stated that the performance would be their last, though they did not announce a permanent band retirement. INXS won six Australian Recording Industry Association awards, including three for "Best Group" in 1987, 1989 and 1992. INXS has sold over 60 million records worldwide; the origins of the band began with Andrew Farriss convincing his fellow Davidson High School classmate, Michael Hutchence, to join his band, Doctor Dolphin. The band contained two further classmates, Kent Kerny and Neil Sanders, as well as Garry Beers and Geoff Kennely, both from a nearby high school, Forest High School. In 1977, Tim Farriss, Andrew's older brother, invited Andrew and Beers to join him and his schoolmate Kirk Pengilly. Tim and Pengilly had been playing together since 1971 as either an acoustic duo and Tim, or as a four-piece band called Guinness.
Together with younger brother Jon Farriss they formed the Farriss Brothers, who consisted of Garry Beers on bass guitar, Andrew Farriss on keyboards, Jon Farriss on drums, Tim Farriss on lead guitar, Michael Hutchence on lead vocals and Kirk Pengilly on guitar and saxophone. The band made their debut on 16 August 1977 at Whale Beach, 40 km north of Sydney; the parents of the Farriss boys relocated to Perth, Western Australia in 1978, taking Jon to continue his schooling and, as soon as Hutchence and Andrew finished school, the rest of the band followed. They performed as The Vegetables, singing "We Are the Vegetables", before returning to Sydney ten months where they recorded a set of demos. At a chance meeting in the car park of the Narrabeen Antler, a pub in Narrabeen on the Northern Beaches of Sydney, New South Wales, Tim was approached by Gary Morris, the manager of Midnight Oil; the band began to support Midnight Oil and other local bands. Morris advised that a member of the Oils crew had come up with a new name and suggested they change it to INXS.
The name INXS was inspired by English band XTC and Australian jam makers IXL. Pengilly explained that Morris was interested in turning the group into a Christian band, which the band considered before rejecting the idea; the band's first performance as INXS was on 1 September 1979 at the Ocean Beach Hotel in Umina on the Central Coast of New South Wales and by the end of 1979, after passing on the Christian band image, they hired Chris "CM" Murphy as their manager and continued taking on the Oz pub circuit. Murphy was an adept business manager and negotiator and by early 1980 the band had signed a five-album record deal with a Sydney independent label, Deluxe Records, run by Michael Browning, a former manager of AC/DC. INXS released their first single, "Simple Simon"/"We Are the Vegetables", in Australia and France in May 1980; the single had its debut TV performance on Simon Townsend's Wonder World. Their self-titled debut album, INXS, was recorded at Trafalgar Studios in Annandale, Sydney, it was co-produced by the band and Duncan McGuire, with all songs attributed to the entire band, at the insistence of Murphy.
Deluxe gave them a budget of $10,000 to record the album, so to keep within the budget they had to record from midnight to dawn after doing one or more performances earlier that night. The album was released in October 1980, it featured "Just Keep Walking", their first Australian Top 40 single, with the album peaking in the Top 30 of the Kent Music Report for Australian albums. The album went gold but it took a number of years to do so; these early records demonstrated their new wave/ska/pop style, were followed by near constant touring with 300 shows during 1981 as the band developed their status as a live act. In 1981, they signed Gary Grant as their tour manager, who became co-manager a year later. Between touring commitments, the band released their third single in May 1981, "The Loved One", a cover of a 1966 song by Australian group The Loved Ones; the song was recorded at Studios 301 in Sydney, produced by Richard Clapton, peaked in the Top 20. The success of the single led to Clapton and the band returning to Studios 301 between July and August 1981 to create an album.
In October 1981, their second album Undern