Public-access television is traditionally a form of non-commercial mass media where the general public can create content television programming, narrowcast through cable TV specialty channels. Public-access television was created in the United States between 1969 and 1971 by the Federal Communications Commission, under Chairman Dean Burch, based on pioneering work and advocacy of George Stoney, Red Burns, Sidney Dean. Public-access television is grouped with public and government access television channels, under the acronym PEG. PEG channels are only available on cable television systems. In the United States of America, the Public Broadcasting Service produces public television, offering an educational television broadcasting service of professionally produced curated content, it is not public-access television, has no connection with cable-only PEG television channels. Although non-commercial educational television bears some resemblance to the E of PEG, PBS bears little resemblance to public-access television.
The PBS does not offer local programming content. Instead, it broadcasts content produced for a national audience distributed via satellites. There is no accepted right of access for citizens to use broadcast studio facilities of PBS member stations, nor right of access by community content producers to the airwaves stewarded by these television stations outside of some universities or technical colleges such as Milwaukee's Milwaukee Area Technical College, which owns the area's two PBS member stations and offers students the limited ability to produce their own programs to air on a public television station for television production experience; these qualities are in stark contrast to PEG channel content, locally produced in conjunction with local origination studio facilities. And in the case of the P, public-access television, the facilities and channel capacity are uncurated free-speech zones available to anyone for free or little cost. Since 53% to 60% of public television's revenues come from private membership donations and grants, most stations solicit individual donations by methods including fundraising, pledge drives, or telethons which can disrupt scheduled programming.
PBS is funded by the federal government of the United States. PEG channels are funded by cable television companies through revenues derived from cable television franchise fees, member fees and contributions. In the United States, public-access television is an alternative system of television which originated as a response to disenchantment with the commercial broadcasting system, in order to fulfill some of the social potential of cable television; the first experiments in public-access television and/or non-commercial community television began in 1968 with Dale City, Virginia's Dale City Television and 1970 with Bob & Janeen Burrel at Stoughton, Wisconsin's WSTO TV. At that same time in New York City, Fred Friendly, head of the Cable TV and Communications Commission, made recommendations for a leased-access channel for public use; the rent for equipment usage and studio time was opposed and dropped. This free-access requirement was the contractual beginnings of PEG. Filmmakers George Stoney, Red Burns, along with Sidney Dean, were instrumental in developing the theoretical legal basis and the practical need for public-access television, helped to obtain public-access television requirements in the franchise agreement between the city government and the cable company.
The legal basis of the local municipality regulating cable companies—which use public rights-of-way in order to make profits—to meet certain minimum standards of public service requirements, i.e. facilities and equipment, channel capacity, funding, came out of this work of these pioneers. The public policy origins begin at the federal level with the concept of local origination, it was the first attempt by officials at the Federal Communications Commission to create a service like PEG through regulation of the cable industry. In 1969, in the First Report and Order, the FCC stated, "no CATV system having 3,500 or more subscribers shall carry the signal of any television broadcast station unless the system operates to a significant extent as a local outlet by cablecasting and has available facilities for local production and presentation of programs other than automated services." In a report filed with this regulation, the Commission said, " recognize the great potential of the cable technology to further the achievement of long-established regulatory goals in the field of television broadcasting by increasing the number of outlets for community self-expression and augmenting the public's choice of programs and types of services....
They reflect our view that a multi-purpose CATV operation combining carriage of broadcast signals with program origination and common carrier services, might best exploit cable channel capacity to the advantage of the public and promote the basic purpose for which this Commission was created:" In 1971, this rule was rescinded, replaced with a requirement for PEG facilities and channel capacity. The concept of local programming persisted, however the rules have been modified to say Origination cablecasting. Programing carried on a cable television system over one or more channels and subject to the exclusive control of the cable operator. In contrast with public-access television, government-mandated access for programming, local programming is now programming of local interest produced by the cable operator or PEG
Amaury de Montfort was the third son of parliamentary pioneer Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, Eleanor of England, daughter of King John. Amaury entered the priesthood as a young man, held the positions of Treasurer of York Cathedral, canon of Rouen, Évreux and Lincoln, he served as a papal chaplain as well. After the deaths of his father and older brother Henry de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, Amaury fled to France with his mother, younger sister, surviving brothers. Amaury de Montfort soon began studying theology at the University of Padua, his older brothers, Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola and Simon de Montfort the Younger were seeking their fortunes in Italy. A tragic turn of events lead to the bloody 1271 confrontation between Guy and Simon and their cousin Henry of Almain. Henry, whom the de Montfort sons considered a traitor to their father's ideals, was attacked during mass at Viterbo, murdered on the altar steps, resulting in the excommunication of both de Montfort sons.
While Amaury was not in Viterbo, was not involved in the murder, Edward swore vengeance upon all of Simon de Montfort's sons, Amaury included. Simon the younger died that year of a tertian fever, while Guy managed to appeal to the pope, resulting in his return to the church. In 1275, after the death of his mother at Montargis Abbey, Amaury, by a Papal Chaplain, accompanied his younger sister Eleanor de Montfort on a winter sea voyage to Wales and her new husband, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. Intercepted at sea by mercenaries in the employ of now King Edward I, both Amaury and Eleanor were taken captive. Following two paragraphs taken from Chronica, ascribed to William Rishanger, a monk of St. Albans, ed. Henry Thomas Riley, 87, 99. While Eleanor's captivity was gentle and short-lived, Amaury was held'without rigour' in Corfe Castle and in Sherborne Castle. After requests from the Pope, Prince Llywelyn and Archbishop John Peckham of Canterbury, Amaury was released after swearing at London not to return to England unless invited by the king.
Upon his release in mid April 1282, Amaury returned to France, never again to see his sister, who died in childbirth that year, mere months before the death of her husband Llewylyn and the annexation of North Wales to the English crown. Amaury after some years renounced his clerical career and became a knight dying soon afterwards in Italy after 1301. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Montfort, Almeric of". Dictionary of National Biography. 38. London: Smith, Elder & Co
The Handley Page H. P.47 was a British single-engined low-wing monoplane built to an Air Ministry specification for a general-purpose bomber and torpedo bomber aircraft. Only one was built; the Handley Page H. P.47 was the company's submission to Air Ministry specification G.4/31 which called for a single-engined general-purpose aircraft to replace the Vickers Vincent in its Imperial role, to act as a bomber flying from unprepared airstrips and to be a torpedo bomber in the Tropics Aden. Handley Page were awarded a contract for one prototype. P.47 used construction methods similar to those of companies like Junkers. He had become interested in the use of thick wing sections such as RAF34 for which the centre of pressure moved little with angle of attack, making the design of a single-spar monoplane wing easier; the H. P47 was a low-wing cantilever monoplane. Forward of the single spar the wing was covered with a stressed metal skin. Behind the spar it was fabric-covered, the trailing edge carrying flaps inboard, from the wing fillet out to the ailerons, though the centre section was metal-skinned throughout.
The leading edge carried slats in three sections to form slots across the whole span. The inboard pair were opened when the flaps were lowered and the outer slots were automatic, with interceptors connected to the ailerons for lateral control at high angles of attack. Behind the radial Bristol Pegasus IM3 engine, producing 650 hp and enclosed in a Townend ring, the semi-monocoque, corrugated-skinned fuselage grew in diameter to the pilot's midwing cockpit remaining constant rearwards to the gunner's position, he sat facing rearwards below the upper fuselage line and out of the slipstream, at a point where the fuselage stepped to a slim and narrowing oval boom. There was usable space inside the fuselage between the cockpits, enough to carry three passengers or two stretcher cases. All the tail surfaces moved. All these rear control surfaces were covered with corrugated stressed skin. Specification G.4/31 included the dropping of torpedoes, so the underside of the aircraft had to be clear and with wing fuel tanks the main undercarriage was fixed.
The legs were mounted at the end of the centre section, each with a rearward strut and a long bracing strut outwards to the main spar. These struts were faired and both main and tail wheels were spatted; the main wheels were fitted with brakes. The first flight, without Townend ring, spats or undercarriage fairings, was on 27 November 1934. Several modifications followed, including the abandonment of the forward-sliding front cockpit hood, extension of the rudder and mass-balancing of the elevators. Trials with full military load and with the Pegasus IM3 replaced by a more powerful IIIM3 followed at RAF Martlesham Heath in the G.4/31 trials. The main criticism was of the lack of the consequent trimming difficulty; the competition winner was the Vickers Type 246, put into production as the Vickers Wellesley. The H. P.47 continued to fly at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, testing its combination of slots and flaps at low speeds. Data from Barnes & James 1987, pp. 346General characteristics Crew: two Length: 37 ft 7½ in Wingspan: 58 ft Height: Wing area: 438 ft2 Empty weight: 5,362 lb Loaded weight: 7,708 lb Powerplant: 1 × Bristol Pegasus IIIM 9-cylinder radial, 690 Performance Maximum speed: 161 mph Range: 1,250 miles Service ceiling: 19,900 ft Armament Guns: 1 × 0.303 in Vickers machine gun fixed forward firing and 1× 0.303 in Lewis machine gun on high speed mounting in rear cockpit Aircraft of comparable role and era Fairey G.4/31 Parnall G.4/31 "The Next War In The Air" Popular Mechanics, January 1936 middle-photo pg 69
Corynne Elliot, better known as Speech Debelle, is a British rapper signed to the Big Dada record label. She was the winner of the 2009 Mercury Prize for her debut album Speech Therapy, she released her second album, Freedom of Speech in 2012 and her third album, tantil before i breathe in 2017. Debelle's single from Speech Therapy, "Spinnin" has been re-worked by Tinchy Stryder and Dionne Bromfield and was used as one of the official anthems of the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, she has been politically and active with a number of charities and movements, hosted the BBC documentary Hidden Homeless in 2012. Corynne Elliot was born in 1983 in London and was raised by her mother in a middle-class Jamaican household in London, south of the River Thames, she attended Harris City Academy, at age 9 began writing poetry. While she wanted to be a singer, she disliked her singing voice when younger, so decided to try rapping at age 13. Within a week other students in her class had learned all her lyrics.
At age 16, writing became an emotional outlet for her. Debelle drew inspiration from Michael Jackson and in particular the song "Human Nature", as well as Blackstreet, Mary J. Blige, TLC and reggae music, she left home after arguing with her mother at the age of 19, for three years Debelle lived in London in either homeless hostels or with friends. While estranged from her mother at the time, she has said. Now reconciled with her mother, Speech cites these years as formative in developing her ambition and material. Debelle began calling record labels. In November 2007 she was signed by a small imprint of Ninja Tune, she has said the label helped her develop artistically, gave her complete creative control of her music. Debelle's debut album, Speech Therapy, was released in the United Kingdom on 31 May 2009; the album was led by a white label limited release of "Searching". Thereafter the album had three singles released, "The Key", "Better Days" featuring Micachu, "Go Then, Bye" and "Spinning". Recorded in Australia, the album was created by Debelle, Wayne Lotek and Plutonic Lab, Big Dada founder Will Ashon, the album documented her formative years in London.
She has cited her biggest influences on the album as he biggest inspiration for the first album was Tracy Chapman and Meshell Ndegeocello. Unlike many other hip hop albums, the tracks eschew the use of samples and rely instead on live instrumentals."The Key" won Best Budget Video for Pop, Urban at the UK Music Video Awards in 2009. In 2009, she performed at Glastonbury Festival, her 2009 Glastonbury appearance was accompanied with her first live TV performance of "Searching". As the broadcast was made the after Michael Jackson died, after the song she gave her sentiments to a formative figure to her artistry. In the year during an interview with The Guardian, when asked what/who she could bring back to life, she answered Michael Jackson. Debelle's single from the Speech Therapy, "Spinnin" has been re-worked by Tinchy Stryder and Dionne Bromfield and will be used as one of the official anthems of the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. In March 2011 she performed three songs from the album for Canal Street TV in France.
On 21 July 2009 Speech Therapy was announced as one of the twelve shortlisted albums for the year's Mercury Music Award. She became the first woman to win the award in seven years. Speech Therapy was considered an upset to more well-known competitors including The Horrors and the Machine and Friendly Fires. After the win, sales of Speech Therapy were comparatively low to other Mercury winners; as of 2012, the album has sold 15,000 copies. The album peaked on the UK Albums Chart at 65. Despite the Mercury Prize win, 10,000 units of Speech Therapy were sold by November 2009 in comparison to the 300,000-album sales of the 2008 winner, Elbow's The Seldom Seen Kid and 2010's winners The xx whose winning album xx went platinum shortly after winning the award. Debelle quit the Big Dada record label in November 2009, blaming them for failing to adequately market and distribute the album. A few months she said "as an artist, you get upset with your label, you get upset with your team. I'm entitled to do that.
In the same way, they are entitled to get upset with me... If we're all on the same page, it's all good."Debelle reunited with Big Dada Recordings in 2011 to work on her second album entitled Freedom of Speech. OHM Monthly cited Speech's work as "biggest thing in UK hip-hop for many a long year"; the Times named it the 76th best album of the 2000s. In the US, Pitchfork gave a favourable review and praising her relaxed, conversational delivery. According to Pitchfork, "Some hip-hop fans will write her off because the usual American rap signifiers-- samples, seething synths, bombastic beats, buckets of braggadocio-- play scant part in her artistic agenda."In a review of the album, The Guardian said "Debelle's songs are vulnerable, unafraid. The overall sound... is full of acoustic guitars and pianos. There is a gracious stately air to the record, yet the songs still sound joyous." Paul Macinnes of The Guardian wrote "There's something intriguing about Speech Debelle, with a voice both husky and sweet, a back story that's emotive if unclear."
Macinnes nominated Speech Therapy as his favourite album of 2009. In March 2010 Speech Debelle teamed up with Bonobo to co-write and sing on the song "Sun Will Rise", taken from Ninja Tune's'XX' Boxset. In August 2011, Speech gave away a new track, via her SoundCloud page; the track features Roots M
George Feeney is a British former boxer, British lightweight champion between 1982 and his retirement in 1984. Born in Hartlepool, Feeney learned to box at the Boys Welfare gym, made his professional debut in August 1977, he won ten of his first fifteen fights, which included defeats to more experienced boxers including Cornelius Boza-Edwards and Clinton McKenzie. In October 1980, he faced Ricky Beaumont in a British lightweight title eliminator and lost a narrow points decision. In March 1981, he stopped Winston Spencer in the ninth round of another title eliminator, he got his shot at the British title in October that year, against defending champion Ray Cattouse at the Royal Albert Hall. In a fought contest, Feeney emerged the winner, after stopping Cattouse in the fourteenth round to become the new champion. In 1983, he travelled to Italy. Feeney was decisively beaten on points the following month, however, by Howard Davis Jr. Back in England he made the first defence of his British title in December, 1983 against Tony Willis, stopping the challenger in the first round.
He made a second successful defence in February 1984 against Paul Chance, winning the Lonsdale Belt outright. Pursuing the European title, he travelled to Frankfurt on 1984 to challenge Rene Weller; the fight went the distance, with defending champion Weller retaining his title. Feeney suffered a detached retina; this proved to be Feeney's final fight, he retired after eye surgery in 1985. Feeney's younger brother, John Feeney, was British bantamweight champion between 1983 and 1985. Career record at Boxrec.com
Dawsonia is a genus of acrocarpous mosses. Dawsonia, along with other members of the order Polytrichales, are taller than most mosses and have thicker leaves, their sporophytes have conducting systems analogous to those of vascular plants. Dawsonia superba is found in New Zealand and New Guinea. D. longifolia is found in the Philippines, Indonesia and Australia. There is uncertainty as to whether D. superba and D. longifolia are distinct species. Dawsonia was named in honor of Dawson Turner, distinguished cryptogamist and friend of Robert Brown, who named the genus in 1811. Moss gametophytes lack internal transport tissues, coupled with the absence of cuticles, leads to the water-loss characteristic of bryophytes; as bryophytes can only grow when hydrated, the lack of conducting tissue restricts most mosses in wet habitats, to a low stature. However, Dawsonia reaches heights comparable to those of vascular plants. Polytrichales are acrocarpous mosses – they have vertical stems with terminal reproductive structures, with the sporophyte growing vertically.
The tallest moss in the world is D. superba. The leaves of Polytrichum and Dawsonia differ from those of most mosses, which are only one or two cells thick; the Polytrichaceae have lamellae – upright sheets of small, photosynthetic cells on the upper surface of the leaves with a function analogous to the mesophyll cells of vascular plant leaves. They increase the surface area of cell walls available for CO2 uptake, while at the same time maintaining layers of moist air between lamellae, reducing water loss. Lamella margins have a surface wax layer which prevents water from flooding into the interlamellar spaces; the stems of Polytrichales have conducting systems which are analogous to the xylem and phloem of vascular plants. The water-conducting tissue is the hydrome, made up of elongated cells known as hydroids. Unlike the xylem of vascular plants, there is no secondary thickening of cell walls, as bryophytes lack lignin; the phloem analogue in Polytrichales is the leptome, made up of leptoids, they are similar to sieve cells.
Hydrome and leptome are well-developed in Polytrichales, appear in a number of other bryophytes. Glime, Janice M.. "Bryophyte Ecology: Water relations: conducting structures". Physiological Ecology. 1. Michigan Technological University and International Association of Bryologists. Retrieved 9 March 2009. Hébant, Charles. "Polarized accumulations of endoplasmic reticulum and other ultrastructural features of leptoids in Polytrichadelphus magellanicus gametophytes". Protoplasma. 81: 373–382. Doi:10.1007/BF01281050. Interactive, virtual slide cross-section of Dawsonia