United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
90th United States Congress
The ninetieth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from January 3, 1967, to January 3, 1969, during the last two years of the second administration of U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson; the apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Eighteenth Census of the United States in 1960. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. April 4, 1967: Supplemental Defense Appropriations Act, Pub. L. 90–8, 81 Stat. 8 November 7, 1967: Public Broadcasting Act, Pub. L. 90–129, 81 Stat. 365 December 15, 1967: Age Discrimination in Employment Act, Pub. L. 90–202, 81 Stat. 602 December 18, 1967: National Park Foundation Act, Pub. L. 90–209, 81 Stat. 656 January 2, 1968: Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of 1967, Pub. L. 90–247, including Title VII: Bilingual Education Act, 81 Stat. 816 March 1, 1968: Fire Research and Safety Act of 1968, Pub.
L. 90–259, 82 Stat. 34 April 11, 1968: Civil Rights Act of 1968, Pub. L. 90–284, 82 Stat. 73, including Title II: Indian Civil Rights Act, 82 Stat. 77 May 29, 1968: Truth in Lending Act, Pub. L. 90–321 June 19, 1968: Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, Pub. L. 90–351, 82 Stat. 197 July 21, 1968: Aircraft Noise Abatement Act, Pub. L. 90–411, 82 Stat. 395 October 2, 1968: Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, Pub. L. 90–542, 82 Stat. 906 October 2, 1968: National Trails System Act, Pub. L. 90–543, 82 Stat. 919 October 15, 1968: Health Services and Facilities Amendments of 1968, Pub. L. 90–574, 82 Stat. 1006, including Title III: Alcoholic and Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Amendments of 1968 October 18, 1968: Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968, Pub. L. 90–602, 82 Stat. 1173 October 22, 1968: Foreign Military Sales Act of 1968, Pub. L. 90–629, 82 Stat. 1320-2 October 22, 1968: Gun Control Act of 1968, Pub. L. 90–618, 82 Stat. 1213 February 10, 1967: Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states to become part of the Constitution The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated.
Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. Democratic: 247 Republican: 187 Vacant: 1 TOTAL members: 435 President: Hubert Humphrey President pro tempore: Carl Hayden Permanent Acting President pro tempore: Lee Metcalf Majority Leader: Mike Mansfield Majority Whip: Russell B. Long Caucus Secretary: Robert Byrd Minority Leader: Everett Dirksen Minority Whip: Thomas Kuchel Republican Conference Chairman: Margaret Chase Smith Republican Conference Secretary: Milton Young National Senatorial Committee Chair: George Murphy Policy Committee Chairman: Bourke B. Hickenlooper Speaker: John William McCormack Majority Leader: Carl Albert Majority Whip: Hale Boggs Democratic Caucus Chairman: Dan Rostenkowski Caucus Secretary: Leonor Sullivan Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Michael J. Kirwan Minority Leader: Gerald Ford Minority Whip: Leslie C. Arends Conference Chair: Melvin Laird Policy Committee Chairman: John Jacob Rhodes House Democratic Caucus Senate Democratic Caucus This list is arranged by chamber by state.
Senators are listed by their classes, Representatives are listed by district. Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1970; the names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, are preceded by an "At-large," and the names of those elected from districts, whether plural or single member, are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 4 Democratic: 2 seat net loss Republican: 2 seat net gain Deaths: 2 Resignations: 2 Total seats with changes: 5 Replacements: 6 Democratic: 1 seat net loss Republican: 1 seat net gain Deaths: 4 Resignations: 4 Expulsion: 1 Total seats with changes: 9 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Aeronautical and Space Sciences Agriculture and Forestry Appropriations Banking and Currency Commerce District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations Government Operations Interior and Insular Affairs Judiciary Nutrition and Human Needs Organization of Congress Post Office and Civil Service Public Works Small Business Standards and Conduct Subcommittee on Internal Security Whole Agriculture Appropriations Banking and Currency District of Columbia Education and Labor Foreign Affairs Government Operations House Administration Interior
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Mister Rogers' Neighborhood
Mister Rogers' Neighborhood is an American half-hour educational children's television series, created and hosted by Fred Rogers. The series Misterogers debuted on October 1962, on CBC Television. In 1966, Rogers moved back to the United States creating Misterogers' Neighborhood called Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, on the regional Eastern Educational Network; the US national debut of the show occurred on February 19, 1968. It aired on NET and its successor, PBS, until August 31, 2001; the series is aimed at preschool ages 2 to 5, but it was labelled by PBS as "appropriate for all ages". Mister Rogers' Neighborhood was produced by Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania public broadcaster WQED and Rogers' non-profit production company Family Communications, Inc. known as Small World Enterprises prior to 1971. In May 1997, the series surpassed Captain Kangaroo as the longest-running children's television series, a record the series held until July 2002, when Sesame Street beat Mister Rogers' record; the series could be seen in reruns on most PBS stations until August 31, 2007, when it began to be removed by various PBS stations, was permanently removed from the daily syndicated schedule by PBS after August 29, 2008.
Eleven years after Mister Rogers' Neighborhood concluded, PBS debuted an animated spin-off, Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood. A 50th-anniversary tribute show, hosted by actor Michael Keaton, titled Mister Rogers: It's You I Like, premiered on PBS stations nationwide on March 6, 2018; the series had its genesis in 1953, when Rogers and Josie Carey joined the newly formed public television station WQED. On April 5, 1954, WQED debuted The Children's Corner, a program featuring Rogers as puppeteer and composer with Carey as host and lyricist, in an unscripted weekday afternoon live television program, it was this program where many of the puppets and music used in the series were developed, such as King Friday XIII, Daniel Tiger, X the Owl. It was the time when Rogers began wearing his famous sneakers, as he found them to be quieter than his work shoes while he was moving about behind the set; the show won a Sylvania Award for best children's show, was broadcast nationally on the NBC Television Network.
Rogers moved to Toronto, Ontario, in 1961 to work on a new series based on The Children's Corner, called Misterogers, a 15-minute program on CBC Television. Misterogers aired on CBC for about four years and a number of the set pieces that he would take with him back to the United States, such as the trolley and castle, were created for the Canadian program by CBC designers and in collaboration with producer Bruce Attridge. Most Rogers appeared on camera in the new show rather than only appearing through puppets or characters. Fred Rainsberry, head of Children's Programming at CBC, persuaded Rogers to appear on camera in the new show after seeing him interact with children. Ernie Coombs, one of the Americans whom Rogers brought with him to help develop the CBC show, would remain with CBC after Rogers returned to the United States. Coombs first appeared as Mr. Dressup in the CBC program Butternut Square and produced by Attridge. Coombs helped to develop what became Mr. Dressup which continued for several decades.
In 1966, Rogers acquired the rights to his program from the CBC and moved the show to WQED in Pittsburgh, where he had worked on The Children's Corner. He renamed the show Misterogers' Neighborhood, which aired regionally in the northeastern US through EEN, including educational stations in Boston, Washington, D. C. and New York City. The 100 episodes of the half-hour show incorporated the "Neighborhood of Make-Believe" segments from the CBC episodes with additional reality-based opening and closing material produced in Pittsburgh; the series was cancelled in 1967 due to lack of funding, but an outpouring of public response prompted a search for new funding. In 1967, The Sears Roebuck Foundation provided funding for the program, which enabled it to be seen nationwide on National Educational Television; the first national broadcast of Misterogers' Neighborhood appeared on most NET stations on February 19, 1968. In 1970, when PBS replaced NET, it inherited this program. Around the same time the show had a slight title change, to the more-familiar Mister Rogers' Neighborhood.
The show was broadcast from February 19, 1968 to February 20, 1976, again from August 20, 1979 to August 31, 2001. The final episode was taped on December 1, 2000; the studio at WQED in Pittsburgh where the series was taped was renamed "The Fred Rogers Studio". During each half-hour segment, Rogers speaks directly to the viewer about various issues, taking the viewer on tours of factories, demonstrating experiments and music, interacting with his friends. Rogers made a point to behave on camera rather than acting out a character, stating that "One of the greatest gifts you can give anybody is the gift of your honest self. I believe that kids can spot a phony a mile away." The half-hour episodes were punctuated by a puppet segment chronicling occurrences in the Neighborhood of Make-Believe. Another segment of the show consisted of Rogers going to different places around the neighborhood, where he interviews people to talk about their work and other contributions that focused on the episode's theme, such as Brockett's Bakery, Bob Trow's Workshop, Negri's Music Shop.
In one episode, Rogers took the show behind-the-scenes on the set of The Incredible Hulk, whi
Robert Conley (reporter)
Robert Conley was an American newspaper and radio reporter. Conley was a foreign correspondent for The New York Times in the 1950s and 1960s, bureau chief for NBC News, Africa, as well as a foreign correspondent for NBC News' The Huntley-Brinkley Report throughout the 1960s, editor for and contributor to National Geographic magazine in late 1960s to early 1970s, first host of the groundbreaking and popular Peabody Award winning National Public Radio radio news and cultural program All Things Considered in the 1970s. In the 1970s Conley worked with legal teams in Washington, which dealt with reforming of federal copyright laws, he appeared and had interviews on such shows as Today Show, Face the Nation and CSPAN. In 2016 the first show of All Things Considered, hosted by Conley, was inducted into the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress. Before going overseas for The New York Times, Conley was first based in New York City, reporting on national events for the front page; as major news events in Africa began to develop throughout the 1960s, The New York Times made Conley its foreign correspondent for Africa, based in Nairobi, Kenya.
In the mid 1960s, NBC News asked Conley on as bureau chief of its Africa bureau. From its base in Nairobi, Conley travelled across the African continent covering events and filing stories for NBC News and its affiliated programs such as The Huntley-Brinkley Report. Conley's news beat took him from Angola to Zanzibar, a time when overseas news bureaus for the United States were not so ubiquitous as in times. National Public Radio was incorporated on February 26, 1970, following the passage of the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, of which Conley was a part of, that established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and led to the creation of the Public Broadcasting Service. All Things Considered made its debut on May 3, 1971, broadcasting in 32 states, with the program's creator Conley as host; as described in an article by Hal Klopper for the Fall 2006 newsletter of the Carnegie Corporation of New York: The inaugural broadcast included a report on a 26-year-old woman's attempts to deal with heroin addiction.
C. against US involvement in the Vietnam War. The show began, with a remarkable and dramatic 20-minute sound montage of the demonstration in Washington introduced by All Things Considered's first host, former New York Times staff member and NBC correspondent Robert Conley. In 2016 that first show of All Things Considered, hosted by Conley, was inducted into the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress for its "cultural and historical importance to American society and the nation's audio heritage." "All Things Considered," first broadcast The National Public Radio flagship news program All Things Considered launched on May 3, 1971, one month after the network itself began broadcasting. With an emphasis on "interpretation, investigative reporting on public affairs, the world of ideas and the arts," in the words of programming head Bill Siemering, "All Things Considered" aimed to give voice to diverse segments of American society in a relaxed, conversational mode; the first broadcast, featuring recorded excerpts from a huge antiwar protest in the nation's capital that took place the same day, was "raw and took listeners to the heart of America's agonies over the war in Vietnam," remembered Susan Stamberg, an NPR staffer at the time, who became a co-host of the show the following year.
While the inaugural program was broadcast to 90 stations across the nation, reaching only a few hundred thousand listeners, "All Things Considered" has since become, according to NPR, "the most listened-to afternoon drive-time news radio program in the country." He was married to Mary Jane and they had 5 children, Dermot, Helen and Shelagh, three grandchildren, Mark and Daniel. Born in Massachusetts, Conley died at age 85 in Virginia, he is buried at Quantico National Cemetery. Segments from the inaugural broadcast of All Things Considered, more on NPR's Happy 40th To All Things Considered; the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress, 2016 inductees.\