Visitors are able to listen to, mash-up, or interact with music in a variety of ways including the download and use of tracks and samples in their own remixes. Most sampling or mash-up web sites on the Internet stipulate that users forgo their rights to the new song once it is created. By contrast, the material on ccMixter. org is generally licensed to be used in any arena, the ccMixter site contains over 10,000 samples from a wide range of recording artists, including high profile artists such as Beastie Boys and David Byrne. The project maintains close ties to independent minded, open music labels such as Magnatune. The site runs on ccHost, an award winning open source content management system that is able to keep track of how content is being remixed. In February 2009, Victor Stone, project lead of ccMixter, posted a memoir detailing the history, ccMixter began in 2004 as the host of the Wired CD remix contest. That was followed by several other remix contests where prizes included recording contracts, in 2007 ccMixter eschewed remix contests, in part, due to concerns in the member community that the site was losing its focus on open music.
Instead major artists such as DJ Vadim, Bucky Jonson and Trifonic have contributed the studio tracks to entire albums making them available under Creative Commons licenses that allowed remixes. In addition there have been calls for remixes by members that post a cappellas, looking to create albums from remixes such Colin Mutchler, Brad Sucks, Tamara Barnett-Herrin, in May 2008, Creative Commons posted a Request for Proposals to take over the stewardship and operations of ccMixter. The RFP received broad coverage including Boing Boing, AdAge, Tamara Barnett-Herrin Brad Sucks Bucky Jonson DJ Vadim Fort Minor Kristin Hersh Murat Ses Shannon Hurley Official website
Creative Commons is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. The organization has released several copyright-licenses known as Creative Commons licenses free of charge to the public and these licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy-to-understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, Creative Commons licenses do not replace copyright, but are based upon it. The result is an agile, low-overhead and low-cost copyright-management regime, Wikipedia uses one of these licenses. The organization was founded in 2001 by Lawrence Lessig, Hal Abelson, the first article in a general interest publication about Creative Commons, written by Hal Plotkin, was published in February 2002. The first set of licenses was released in December 2002. In 2003 the Open Content Project, a 1998 precursor project by David A.
Wiley, announced the Creative Commons as successor project, matthew Haughey and Aaron Swartz played a role in the early stages of the project. As of January 2016 there were an estimated 1.1 billion works licensed under the various Creative Commons licenses, as of March 2015, Flickr alone hosts over 306 million Creative Commons licensed photos. Creative Commons is governed by a board of directors and their licenses have been embraced by many as a way for creators to take control of how they choose to share their copyrighted works. Beyond that, Creative Commons has provided institutional and legal support for individuals and groups wishing to experiment, Creative Commons attempts to counter what Lawrence Lessig, founder of Creative Commons, considers to be a dominant and increasingly restrictive permission culture. Lessig describes this as a culture in which creators get to create only with the permission of the powerful, as of 2017, they are Paul Keller, Jonathan Nightingale, Chris Thorne. As of 2015, there are more than 100 affiliates working in over 75 jurisdictions to support, Creative Commons Korea is the affiliated network of Creative Commons in South Korea.
In March 2005, CC Korea was initiated by Jongsoo Yoon, the major Korean portal sites, including Daum and Naver, have been participating in the use of Creative Commons licences. In January 2009, the Creative Commons Korea Association was consequently founded as an incorporated association. Since then, CC Korea has been promoting the liberal. Since March 15,2012 he has been detained by the Syrian government in Damascus at Adra Prison, on October 17,2015 Creative Commons Board of Directors approved a resolution calling for Bassel Khartabil release. All current CC licenses require attribution, which can be inconvenient for works based on other works. Critics worried that the lack of rewards for content producers will dissuade artists from publishing their work, Creative Commons founder Lawrence Lessig countered that copyright laws have not always offered the strong and seemingly indefinite protection that todays law provides
Joichi Joi Ito is a Japanese activist, venture capitalist, Director of the MIT Media Lab and Professor of the Practice of Media Arts and Sciences at MIT. Ito has received recognition for his role as a focused on Internet and technology companies and has founded, among other companies, PSINet Japan, Digital Garage. Ito is the chairman of the board of PureTech Health, Ito was born in Kyoto, Japan. Company founder Stanford R. Ovshinsky was impressed with Ito, whom he thought of almost as his son. Ovshinsky helped Ito develop his interests in technology and social movements and his sister Mizuko Ito, who is called Mimi, spent summers in Japan with their grandmother who taught them traditional Japanese culture. At 14, he returned to Japan when his mother was promoted to president of Energy Conversion Devices Japan and he studied at the Nishimachi International School and for high school, the American School in Japan in Tokyo. Ito learned street language, street smarts, and computers, One of few Japanese using modems before deregulation of networking reached Japan in 1985, Ito had found The Source and the original MUD by his teens.
Ito returned to the United States to attend Tufts University near Boston as a science major. Finding his course work too rigid and believing that learning computer science in school was stupid, Ovshinsky encouraged him to return to school. Ito is one of Timothy Learys godsons—a close non-traditional family-like relationship, Itos sister is Mizuko Ito, a cultural anthropologist studying media technology use, and the musician Cornelius is his second cousin. Ito currently lives in Cambridge, with his wife Mizuka Ito, Ito became a disk jockey working in nightclubs in Chicago such as The Limelight and The Smart Bar and to work with Metasystems Design Group to start a virtual community in Tokyo. Later, Ito ran a nightclub in Roppongi, Japan called XY Relax with help from Joe Shanahan of Metro Chicago/Smart Bar and he helped bring industrial music from Chicago and the rave scene, including importing Anarchic Adjustment to Japan. Ito was the Chairman of Creative Commons from December 2006 until 2012 and he is on the board of Digital Garage, Culture Convenience Club, and EPIC, and is on the advisory boards of Creative Commons and WITNESS.
He is the founder and CEO of the capital firm Neoteny Co. Ltd. In October 2004, he was named to the board of ICANN for a term starting December 2004. In August 2005, he joined the board of the Mozilla Foundation and he served on the board of the Open Source Initiative from March 2005 until April 2007. He currently serves as a Board Emeritus for OSI and he was a founding board member of Expression College for Digital Arts as well as the Zero One Art and Technology Network. In 1999, he served as the Associate to Mr. Mount on the film The Indian Runner, Ito served as a Board Member of Energy Conversion Devices from 1995 to 2000
Lester Lawrence Larry Lessig III is an American academic and political activist. He is the Roy L. Furman Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, Lessig was a candidate for the Democratic Partys nomination for President of the United States in the 2016 U. S. presidential election, but withdrew before the primaries. Lessig is a proponent of reduced legal restrictions on copyright, trademark, in 2001, he founded Creative Commons, a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon and to share legally. Prior to his most recent appointment at Harvard, he was a professor of law at Stanford Law School, where he founded the Center for Internet and Society, and at the University of Chicago. As a political activist, Lessig has called for state-based activism to promote reform of government with a Second Constitutional Convention. In May 2014, he launched a political action committee which he termed Mayday PAC with the purpose of electing candidates to Congress who would pass campaign finance reform.
Lessig is the co-founder of Rootstrikers, and is on the boards of MapLight and he serves on the advisory boards of the Democracy Café and the Sunlight Foundation. In August 2015, Lessig announced that he was exploring a candidacy for President of the United States. After accomplishing this, on September 6,2015, Lessig announced that he was entering the race to become a candidate for the 2016 Democratic Partys presidential nomination, Lessig has described his candidacy as a referendum on campaign finance reform and electoral reform legislation. He stated that, if elected, he would serve a term as president with his proposed reforms as his legislative priorities. In November 2015, he ended his campaign, Lessig started his academic career at the University of Chicago Law School, where he was Professor from 1991 to 1997. As co-director of the Center for the Study of Constitutionalism in Eastern Europe there, from 1997 to 2000, he was at Harvard Law School, holding for a year the chair of Berkman Professor of Law, affiliated with the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society.
He subsequently joined Stanford Law School, where he established the schools Center for Internet, Lessig returned to Harvard in July 2009 as Professor and Director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics. In 2013, Lessig was appointed as the Roy L. Furman Professor of Law and Leadership, his lecture was titled Aarons Laws, Law. Lessig was portrayed by Christopher Lloyd in The Wake Up Call, Lessig has been politically liberal since studying philosophy at Cambridge in the mid-1980s. Posner would call him the most distinguished law professor of his generation, Lessig has emphasized in interviews that his philosophy experience at Cambridge radically changed his values and career path. What was intended to be a year abroad at Cambridge convinced him instead to another two years to complete an undergraduate degree in philosophy and develop his changed political values. During this time, he traveled in the Eastern Bloc
Newgrounds is an American entertainment and social media website and company. Founded on July 6,1995, by Tom Fulp, the site presently hosts games, movies and artwork in four respective hubs, Tom Fulp remains the sites owner and still regularly produces in-house content. Its offices are headquartered in the Glenside neighborhood of Cheltenham Township on the border of Philadelphia. In 1994, Tom Fulp launched a Neo Geo fanzine by the name New Ground from his parents basement in Perkasie, PA, in 1997, Fulp created the games Club a Seal II and Assassin II, and decided that he wanted a new place to host these games. He created a website, New Ground Atomix, for this purpose. In early 1998, Fulp began experimenting with Macromedia Flash, a Flash front page was introduced to New Ground Atomix and the flash game Telebubby Fun Land was released. Later that year, Fulp was contacted by Inside Edition about doing a segment on Assassin and he redirected traffic from both of the older New Ground sites to Newgrounds, paying $33 per month out of pocket to host the site.
Fulp had to change hosts to accommodate increasing traffic, and started producing T-shirts in an attempt to pay off hosting fees, by 1999, traffic to Newgrounds was considerable and Fulp had to change hosts every few months. Banner ads were introduced to pay growing hosting bills, but Fulp was still unable to make ends meet. The current host of the Newgrounds site wanted over $1000 per month at the time, running out of options, Fulp partnered with Troma, who hosted the site in exchange for a share of ad revenue. Newgrounds notoriety increased through a copyright infringement dispute with the BBC over Teletubby Fun Land, the site received global attention, having been featured in Yahoo Internet Life Magazine, Stuff magazine, Internet Tonight, Wired. com, and many other media outlets. Among other changes made to the site as the years went on, Fulp added a room and message board. Many users had begun submitting their own Flash creations to Fulp, a friend of Fulps by the name of Ross built the Grounds Gold system, which allowed users to gain points for visiting the site.
Ad revenue had increased, so Fulp hired Ross and together they started development of the automated Portal. At the time, Fulps creations still had the predominant placement on Newgrounds front page, the automated Portal opened the floor to other artists, the Newgrounds tank logo was introduced in 2000, and has been a mainstay for Newgrounds brand identity ever since. Options were being considered for establishing an office in the same city. The Audio Portal showcase on the front page was debuted, in 2005, Fulp made two guest appearances on Attack of the Show, and a head office for Newgrounds was procured in Glenside. Plans for an overhaul of the site using CSS were underway through 2006, the Newgrounds tank logo was redesigned
Mininova was a website offering BitTorrent downloads. Mininova has announced that it will be shutting down on 4 April 2017, the site is based in the Netherlands and was launched in January 2005 as a successor to Suprnova. org, which went offline at the end of 2004 following legal difficulties. In April 2007, Mininova B. V. won a dispute about the domain mininova. com. The word ‘mininova’ ranked 9 on Google’s list of most queried terms in 2006, in May 2008, Mininova indicated that there had been over 5 billion downloads via the site. Mininova runs a video sharing site, called Snotr, in May 2009, the Dutch copyright enforcement organization BREIN started a civil procedure against Mininova demanding that Mininova filter torrent files pointing to copyrighted works. During the proceedings, Mininova stated that it was not feasible for the site to identify such files, on May 6,2009, Mininova began a trial of a content recognition system, which was intended to remove any torrents that were flagged as infringing copyright.
On August 26,2009, the court in Utrecht ruled that Mininova should remove all torrent files pointing to copyrighted material within three months or face damages of up to €5 million and this resulted in more than 99. 3% of the torrents on the site being removed. As a consequence, the traffic dropped by 66% in a few days. According to Alexa Internet, the daily traffic rank in the USA dropped from within the top 100 ranked sites in Early November 2009 to below 1000 on January 30,2010. Mininova appealed against the ruling, and in December 2010 reported that a settlement had been reached under which Mininova paid BREIN an undisclosed amount of money. Comparison of BitTorrent sites Copyright infringement LimeWire Official website Mininova Trials Video Torrent Ads
In United States copyright law, a copyright notice is a notice of statutorily prescribed form that informs users of the underlying claim to copyright ownership in a published work. Copyright is a form of protection provided by U. S. law to authors of works of authorship. ”When a work is published under the authority of the copyright owner. The use of the notice is the responsibility of the owner and does not require permission from, or registration with. Use of the notice informs the public that a work is protected by copyright, identifies the copyright owner, an innocent infringement defense can result in a reduction in damages that the copyright owner would otherwise receive. U. S. law no longer requires the use of a copyright notice, prior law did, require a notice, and the use of a notice is still relevant to the copyright status of older works. For works first published on or after March 1,1989, before March 1,1989, the use of the notice was mandatory on all published works. Works published before January 1,1978, are governed by the 1909 Copyright Act, under that law, if a work was published under the copyright owner’s authority without a proper notice of copyright, all copyright protection for that work was permanently lost in the United States.
Section 401 of the Copyright Act specifies the form and location of the copyright notice, the notice for visually perceptible copies should contain all three elements described below. They should appear together or in proximity on the copies. The symbol ©, the word “Copyright”, or the abbreviation “Copr. ”If the work is a work or a compilation incorporating previously published material. Examples of derivative works are translations or dramatizations, an example of a compilation is an anthology, certain kinds of works, such as musical and literary works, may be fixed not in “copies” but by means of sound in an audiorecording. The copyright notice for phonorecords embodying a sound recording is different from that for other works. ”Copyright in a sound recording protects the particular series of sounds fixed in the recording against unauthorized reproduction and distribution. This copyright is distinct from the copyright of the musical, phonorecords can be phonograph records, cassettes, or discs.
The notice should contain the three elements appearing together on the phonorecord. The year of first publication of the sound recording, the name of the copyright owner of the sound recording, an abbreviation by which the name can be recognized, or a generally known alternative designation of the owner. The Copyright Office has issued regulations concerning the position of the notice, the copyright notice should be placed on copies or phono records in such a way that it gives reasonable notice of the claim of copyright. The notice should be permanently legible to a user of the work under normal conditions of use. A copyright notice may still be used as a deterrent against infringement and it is a copyright violation, if not a federal crime, to remove or modify copyright notice with intent to induce, facilitate, or conceal an infringement
Copyright is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution. This is usually only for a limited time, the exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright is that copyright protects only the expression of ideas. Copyright is a form of property, applicable to certain forms of creative work. Some, but not all jurisdictions require fixing copyrighted works in a tangible form and it is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rights holders. These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works, public performance, copyrights are considered territorial rights, which means that they do not extend beyond the territory of a specific jurisdiction. While many aspects of copyright laws have been standardized through international copyright agreements.
Typically, the duration of a copyright spans the authors life plus 50 to 100 years, some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, but most recognize copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Generally, copyright is enforced as a matter, though some jurisdictions do apply criminal sanctions. Most jurisdictions recognize copyright limitations, allowing fair exceptions to the exclusivity of copyright. Copyright came about with the invention of the press and with wider literacy. As a legal concept, its origins in Britain were from a reaction to printers monopolies at the beginning of the 18th century, Copyright laws allow products of creative human activities, such as literary and artistic production, to be preferentially exploited and thus incentivized. Different cultural attitudes, social organizations, economic models and legal frameworks are seen to account for why copyright emerged in Europe and not, for example, with copyright laws, intellectual production comes to be seen as a product of an individual, with attendant rights.
The most significant point is that patent and copyright laws support the expansion of the range of human activities that can be commodified. This parallels the ways in which led to the commodification of many aspects of social life that earlier had no monetary or economic value per se. Often seen as the first real copyright law, the 1709 British Statute of Anne gave the rights for a fixed period. The act alluded to individual rights of the artist and it began, Whereas Printers and other Persons, have of late frequently taken the Liberty of Printing. Books, and other Writings, without the Consent of the Authors. to their very great Detriment, and too often to the Ruin of them and their Families
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. Law as a system helps regulate and ensure that a community show respect, private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. Islamic Sharia law is the worlds most widely used religious law, the adjudication of the law is generally divided into two main areas referred to as Criminal law and Civil law. Criminal law deals with conduct that is considered harmful to social order, Civil law deals with the resolution of lawsuits between individuals or organizations. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality, there is an old saying that all are equal before the law, although Jonathan Swift argued that Laws are like cobwebs, which may catch small flies, but let wasps and hornets break through.
In 1894, the author Anatole France said sarcastically, In its majestic equality, the law forbids rich and poor alike to sleep under bridges, beg in the streets, and steal loaves of bread. Writing in 350 BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle declared, The rule of law is better than the rule of any individual, mikhail Bakunin said, All law has for its object to confirm and exalt into a system the exploitation of the workers by a ruling class. Cicero said more law, less justice, marxist doctrine asserts that law will not be required once the state has withered away. Regardless of ones view of the law, it today a completely central institution. Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries, at the same time, it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are of great importance. There have been attempts to produce a universally acceptable definition of law. In 1972, one indicated that no such definition could be produced.
McCoubrey and White said that the question what is law, glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word law depends on the context in which that word is used. He said that, for example, early customary law and municipal law were contexts where the law had two different and irreconcilable meanings. Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word law and it is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word law. The history of law links closely to the development of civilization, Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code that was probably broken into twelve books
A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences, all communication is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to other ideas. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for STOP, on a map, a blue line might represent a river. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds, personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion, the variable x, in a mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in space. In cartography, a collection of symbols forms a legend for a map The word derives from the Greek symbolon meaning token or watchword. It is an amalgam of syn- together + bole a throwing, a casting, the sense evolution in Greek is from throwing things together to contrasting to comparing to token used in comparisons to determine if something is genuine.
The meaning something which stands for something else was first recorded in 1590, expanding on what he means by this definition Campbell says, a symbol, like everything else, shows a double aspect. We must distinguish, therefore between the sense and the meaning of the symbol. The term meaning can only to the first two but these, are in the charge of science – which is the province as we have said, not of symbols. The ineffable, the unknowable, can be only sensed. Heinrich Zimmer gives an overview of the nature, and perennial relevance. Concepts and words are symbols, just as visions, through all of these a transcendent reality is mirrored. They are so many metaphors reflecting and implying something which, though thus variously expressed, is ineffable, though thus rendered multiform, Symbols hold the mind to truth but are not themselves the truth, hence it is delusory to borrow them. Each civilisation, every age, must bring forth its own, in the book Signs and Symbols, it is stated that A symbol.
Is a visual image or sign representing an idea -- a deeper indicator of a universal truth, Symbols are a means of complex communication that often can have multiple levels of meaning. This separates symbols from signs, as signs have only one meaning, human cultures use symbols to express specific ideologies and social structures and to represent aspects of their specific culture
Scripped was an online screenplay services company offering three services, script writing, script registration, and script coverage. Scripped did not facilitate collaboration among screenwriters and it combined with Zhura in 2010. According to Techcrunch, Scripped had more than 60,000 writers as of March 2010, Scripped was administered by Sunil Rajaraman, Ryan Buckley and Zak Freer. Actor and director Edward Burns and screenwriter Steven E. de Souza joined Scrippeds Board of Advisers in May 2008, in 2008, the company formed a partnership with Write Brothers, makers of Movie Magic Screenwriter software. On March 29,2010, Scripped announced that it closed $250,000 in private investment, Scrippeds CEO, Sunil Rajaraman, remains the merged companys Chief Executive Officer. On April 1,2015, citing a technical failure. As part of the announcement, it was disclosed that their backup servers had failed as well, the Scripped Writer provided a built-in screenplay template which formatted the document to a standard for scripts as recommended by the AMPAS.
The screenplay document was composed of seven elements, action, dialog, transition, each element had a specific style to which the Scripped Writer conformed as text was entered. Like other client-side screenplay software, Scripped offered Tab-Enter toggling between screenplay elements, making the process much faster. Text files could be imported into the Scripped Writer and automatically conformed to the screenplay template, completed scripts could be exported as PDF files. In May 2011 the administrators of Scripped launched Scripted. com - a sister site focused on freelance writing jobs, web 2.0 Screenwriting Screenwriting software List of screenwriting software Scripped - official website