I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby is an American lawyer and former adviser to Vice President Dick Cheney. From 2001 to 2005, Libby held the offices of Assistant to the Vice President for National Security Affairs, Chief of Staff to the Vice President of the United States, Assistant to the President during the administration of President George W. Bush. In October 2005, Libby resigned from all three government positions after he was indicted on five counts by a federal grand jury concerning the investigation of the leak of the covert identity of Central Intelligence Agency officer Valerie Plame Wilson, he was subsequently convicted of four counts, making him the highest-ranking White House official convicted in a government scandal since John Poindexter, the national security adviser to President Ronald Reagan in the Iran–Contra affair. After a failed appeal, President Bush commuted Libby's sentence of 30 months in federal prison, leaving the other parts of his sentence intact; as a consequence of his conviction in United States v. Libby, Libby's license to practice law was suspended until being reinstated in 2016.
President Donald Trump pardoned Libby on April 13, 2018. Libby was born to an affluent Jewish family in Connecticut. Libby graduated from the Eaglebrook School, in Deerfield, Massachusetts, a junior boarding school, in 1965; the family lived in the Washington region and Connecticut prior to Libby's graduation from Phillips Academy, in Andover, Massachusetts, in 1968. He and his elder brother, Hank, a retired tax lawyer, were the first in the family to graduate from college. Libby matriculated at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, in Fall 1968, graduating magna cum laude in 1972; as Yale Daily News reporter Jack Mirkinson observes, "Even though he would become a prominent Republican, Libby's political beginnings would not have pointed in that direction. He served as vice president of the Yale College Democrats and campaigned for Michael Dukakis when he was running for governor of Massachusetts." According to Mirkinson: "Two particular Yale courses helped guide Libby's future endeavors. One of these was a creative writing course, which started Libby on a 20-year mission to complete a novel...
The Apprentice... a political science class with professor and future Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz. In an interview with author James Mann, Libby said Wolfowitz was one of his favorite professors, their professional relationship did not end with the class." Wolfowitz became a significant mentor in his professional life. In 1975, as a Harlan Fiske Stone Scholar, Libby received his Juris Doctor degree from Columbia Law School. Libby is married to Harriet Grant, whom he met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the late 1980s, while he was a partner and she an associate in the law firm known as Dickstein, Shapiro & Morin: "'When he and Harriet became serious,' Dickstein partner Kenneth Simon wrote,'she chose to leave the firm rather than maintain the awkward situation of an associate dating a partner.'" Libby and Grant married in the early 1990s, have a son and a daughter, live in McLean, Virginia. Libby has been secretive about his full name, he was prosecuted as I. Lewis Libby known as "Scooter Libby".
National Public Radio's Day to Day reported that the 1972 Yale Banner gave his name as Irve Lewis Libby Jr.. CBS, the BBC, the New York Times's John Tierney have all used this spelling of his first name; the Times's Eric Schmitt spelled it Irv, though he cited a phone interview with Libby's brother, did not clarify if he had asked for a spelling. At times, including in the Yale Banner, as documented in a federal directory cited by Ron Kampeas and others, Libby has used the suffix Jr. after his name. At other times, however, as listed in his federal indictment and United States v. Libby, which give his alias as Scooter Libby, there is no Jr. after Libby's name. The Columbia Alumni Association online directory lists him as I. Lewis Libby, with a first name of "I." and birth first name of "Irve". Libby has been secretive about the origin of his nickname Scooter; the New York Times's Eric Schmitt, citing the aforementioned interview with Libby's brother, wrote that "His nickname'Scooter' derives from the day father watched him crawling in his crib and joked,'He's a Scooter!'"In their February 2002 interview on Larry King Live, King asked Libby "Where did'Scooter' come from?".
Some people ask me if...... as you did earlier, if it's related to Phil Rizzuto. I had the range but not the arm." Libby's only novel, The Apprentice, about a group of travelers stranded in northern Japan in the winter of 1903, during a smallpox epidemic in the run-up to the Russo-Japanese War, was first published in a hardback edition by Graywolf Press in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1996, reprinted as a trade paperback by St. Martin's Thomas Dunne Books in 2002. After Libby's indictment in the CIA leak grand jury investigation in 2005, St. Martin's Press reissued The Apprentice as a mass market paperback. An allegorical meditation on the legitimacy of concealed knowledge, The Apprentice has been described as "a thriller... that includes references to bestiality and rape". After earning his J. D. from Columbia in 1975, Libby joined the firm of Schnader, Segal & Lewis
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response
The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response within the United States Department of Health and Human Services was created under the Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act in the wake of Hurricane Katrina to lead the nation in preventing, preparing for, responding to the adverse health effects of public health emergencies and disasters. ASPR focuses on preparedness response; the office provides federal support, including medical professionals through ASPR’s National Disaster Medical System, to augment state and local capabilities during an emergency or disaster. Under the Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act of 2006,Public Law No. 109-417, HHS is the lead agency for the National Response Framework for Emergency Support Function 8. The Secretary of HHS delegates to ASPR the leadership role for all health and medical services support function in a health emergency or public health event. To meet the public information requirements of PAHPA the Public Health Emergency.gov web portal was created to serve as a single point of access to public health risk, situational awareness information when the President or the Secretary of Health and Human Services exercise their public health emergency legal authority.
The Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013 Pub. L. 113–5 improved and reauthorized the provisions of the PAHPA. The primary portion of the bill dealing with this office is Section 102. Among other things, the bill requires the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, with respect to overseeing advanced research and procurement of qualified countermeasures, security countermeasures, qualified pandemic or epidemic products, to: identify and minimize gaps and other inefficiencies in medical and public health preparedness and response activities and the actions necessary to overcome these obstacles. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority Office of Acquisition Management and Grants:provides ASPR with acquisition support to prepare and respond to the adverse health emergencies and disasters and provides contractual support to ASPR. Office of Policy and Planning:advises HHS and ASPR leadership through policy options and strategic planning initiatives to support domestic and international public health emergency preparedness and response activities.
Office of Financial Planning and Analysis:responsible for providing expertise and analysis in the formulation and implementation of policies and operational strategies that ensure efficient and effective allocation and utilization of program resources in support of ASPR’s mission. Office of the Chief Operating Officer:responsible for ensuring effective stakeholder communication and administrative management; as the focal point for external communications, the Office of the Chief Operating Officer is responsible for ensuring the effective management of public affairs, online governance, strategic partnerships. Office of Emergency Management:responsible for developing operational plans, analytical products, training exercises to ensure the preparedness of the Office, the Department, the Federal Government and the public to respond to and recover from domestic and international public health and medical threats and emergencies. United States Department of Health and Human Services Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act of 2006 Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013 Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority Public Health Service Act Emergency Care Coordination Center Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response Webpage This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Government
United States Department of Health and Human Services
The United States Department of Health & Human Services known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U. S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health and well-being of America". Before the separate federal Department of Education was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health and Welfare. HHS is administered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate; the United States Public Health Service is the main division of the HHS and is led by the Assistant Secretary for Health. The current Secretary, Alex Azar, assumed office on January 29, 2018, upon his appointment by President Trump and confirmation by the Senate; the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the uniformed service of the PHS, is led by the Surgeon General, responsible for addressing matters concerning public health as authorized by the Secretary or by the Assistant Secretary of Health in addition to his or her primary mission of administering the Commissioned Corps.
The Federal Security Agency was established on July 1, 1939, under the Reorganization Act of 1939, P. L. 76-19. The objective was to bring together in one agency all federal programs in the fields of health and social security; the first Federal Security Administrator was Paul V. McNutt; the new agency consisted of the following major components: Office of the Administrator, Public Health Service, Office of Education, Civilian Conservation Corps, Social Security Board. By 1953, the Federal Security Agency's programs in health and social security had grown to such importance that its annual budget exceeded the combined budgets of the Departments of Commerce, Justice and Interior and affected the lives of millions of people. In accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1949, President Eisenhower submitted to the Congress on March 12, 1953, Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953, which called for the dissolution of the Federal Security Agency and elevation of the agency to Cabinet status as the Department of Health and Welfare.
The plan was approved April 1, 1953, became effective on April 11, 1953. Unlike statutes authorizing the creation of other executive departments, the contents of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 were never properly codified within the United States Code, although Congress did codify a statute ratifying the Plan. Today, the Plan is included as an appendix to Title 5 of the United States Code; the result is that HHS is the only executive department whose statutory foundation today rests on a confusing combination of several codified and uncodified statutes. The Department of Health and Welfare was created on April 11, 1953, when Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 became effective. HEW thus became the first new Cabinet-level department since the Department of Labor was created in 1913; the Reorganization Plan abolished the FSA and transferred all of its functions to the Secretary of HEW and all components of the Agency to the Department. The first Secretary of HEW was Oveta Culp Hobby, a native of Texas, who had served as Commander of the Women's Army Corps in World War II and was editor and publisher of the Houston Post.
Sworn in on April 11, 1953, as Secretary, she had been FSA Administrator since January 21, 1953. The six major program-operating components of the new Department were the Public Health Service, the Office of Education, the Food and Drug Administration, the Social Security Administration, the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, St. Elizabeth's Hospital; the Department was responsible for three federally aided corporations: Howard University, the American Printing House for the Blind, the Columbia Institution for the Deaf. The Department of Health and Welfare was renamed the Department of Health & Human Services in 1979, when its education functions were transferred to the newly created United States Department of Education under the Department of Education Organization Act. HHS was left in charge of the Social Security Administration, agencies constituting the Public Health Service, Family Support Administration. In 1995, the Social Security Administration was removed from the Department of Health & Human Services, established as an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States Government.
The 2010 United States federal budget established a reserve fund of more than $630 billion over 10 years to finance fundamental reform of the health care system. The Department of Health & Human Services is led by the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services, a member of the United States Cabinet appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate; the Secretary is assisted in managing the Department by the Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services, appointed by the President. The Secretary and Deputy Secretary are further assisted by seven Assistant Secretaries, who serve as top Departmental administrators; as of Jan. 20, 2018, this is the top level of the organizational chart. HHS provides further organizational detail on its website. Several agencies within HHS are components of the USPHS or Public Health Service. Secretary, Deputy Secretary, Chief of Staff The Executive Secretariat Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs Headquarters Staff Regional Offices Office of Human Resources Office of Health Reform Office of the Secretary Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration Office of the Assistant Secretary for F
Donald Ainslie Henderson was an American medical doctor and epidemiologist who directed a 10-year international effort that eradicated smallpox throughout the world and launched international childhood vaccination programs. From 1977 to 1990, he was Dean of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, he played a leading role in instigating national programs for public health preparedness and response following biological attacks and national disasters. At the time of his death, he was Professor and Dean Emeritus of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Professor of Medicine and Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh, as well as Distinguished Scholar at the UPMC Center for Health Security. Henderson was born in Ohio on September 7, 1928, of Scots-Canadian immigrant parents, his father, David Henderson, was an engineer. His interest in medicine was inspired by a Canadian uncle, William McMillan, a general practitioner and senior member of the Canadian House of Commons. Henderson graduated from Oberlin College in 1950 and received his MD from the University of Rochester School of Medicine in 1954.
He was a resident physician in medicine at the Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital in Cooperstown, New York, a Public Health Service Officer in the Epidemic Intelligence Service of the Communicable Disease Center. He earned an MPH degree in 1960 from the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Henderson served as Chief of the CDC virus disease surveillance programs from 1960 to 1965, working with the inspirational epidemiologist Dr. Alexander Langmuir. During this period, he and his unit developed a proposal for a United States Agency for International Development program to eliminate smallpox and control measles during a 5-year period in 18 contiguous countries in western and central Africa; this project was funded by USAID, with field operations beginning in 1967. The USAID initiative provided an important impetus to a World Health Organization program to eradicate smallpox throughout the world within a 10-year period. In 1966, Henderson moved to Geneva to become director of the campaign. At that time, smallpox was occurring throughout Brazil and in 30 countries in Africa and South Asia.
More than 10 million cases and 2 million deaths were occurring annually. Vaccination brought some control, but the key strategy was "surveillance-containment"; this technique entailed rapid reporting of cases from all health units and prompt vaccination of household members and close contacts of confirmed cases. WHO staff and advisors from some 73 countries worked with national staff; the last case occurred in Somalia on October 1977, only 10 years after the program began. Three years the World Health Assembly recommended that smallpox vaccination could cease. Smallpox is the first human disease to be eradicated; this success gave impetus to WHO's global Expanded Program on Immunization, which targeted other vaccine-preventable diseases, including poliomyelitis, tetanus and whooping cough. Now targeted for eradication are poliomyelitis and Guinea Worm disease. From 1977 through August 1990, Henderson was Dean of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. In 1991, he was appointed associate director for life sciences, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President and deputy assistant secretary and senior science advisor in the Department of Health and Human Services.
In 1998, he became the founding director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, now the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. Following the September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center, HHS Secretary Tommy G. Thompson asked Henderson to assume responsibility for the Office of Public Health Preparedness. For this purpose, $3 billion was appropriated by Congress. At the time of his death, he served as the Editor Emeritus of the academic journal Health Security. Seventeen universities conferred honorary degrees on Henderson. Henderson married Nana Irene Bragg in 1951; the couple had two sons. He died at Gilchrist Hospice, Maryland, at the age of 87, after fracturing his hip
Jerome M. Hauer is the chief executive officer of a consulting firm, The Hauer Group LLC. Dr. Hauer has held several governmental positions related to emergency management in the states of New York and Indiana, he has worked as a member of the Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals board of directors. Dr. Hauer served as Commissioner of Homeland Security and Emergency Services for the government of New York State from October, 2011 until December 2014. Hauer was the acting assistant secretary for the Office of Public Health Emergency Preparedness within the US Department of Health and Human Services, he was appointed by HHS Secretary Tommy G. Thompson on May 5, 2002 and served until replaced on April 28, 2004. In this role, Mr. Hauer was responsible for coordinating the country’s medical and public health preparedness and response to emergencies, including acts of biological and nuclear terrorism, he was the director of New York City's Office of Emergency Management under mayor Rudy Giuliani from 1996 to 2000.
Additionally, he was an employee of Kroll Inc. which studied biological terrorism attacks. Hauer was the director of the Indiana Department of Emergency Management from 1989 to 1993 during the gubernatorial administration of Evan Bayh. Hauer joined IBM in 1993 to manage programs for Hazardous Materials Response and Crisis Management and Fire Safety. For his production of related training videos he received the International Film and TV Critics of New York Bronze award in 1996. In the early 1990s he received a master's degree in emergency medical services from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health and became a member of the Johns Hopkins Working Group on Civilian Bio Defense, he wrote several articles on possible bio terrorist attacks. On April 10, 1998 Hauer attended a "roundtable on genetic engineering and biological weapons" under President Bill Clinton. Dr. Hauer holds a Ph. D. from the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Cranfield University. Hauer was known for his pioneering work on autotranfusion in cardiac trauma.
In 1978 Hauer developed the first unit to reinfuse blood lost following cardiac surgery, reducing the risk of hepatitis. That work reduced before motality in these patients, he was issued a patent for his device. Before he became a Giuliani commissioner he had run emergency management programs for the State of Indiana and IBM. On September 11, 2001, Jerome Hauer was a national security advisor with the Department of Health and Human Services, a managing director with Kroll Associates, a guest on national television, because of his background in counter-terror and his specialized knowledge of biological warfare. Jerome M. Hauer was the first director of Mayor Giuliani's Office of Emergency Management, he directed the agency since 1996, when Giuliani shifted responsibility for the city's emergency preparedness from the police department to the new agency – headed by Hauer. Mr. Giuliani and Mr. Hauer began their relationship in January 1996 when Mr. Hauer was hired to lead the new Office of Emergency Management, created to coordinate the city’s response to crises.
Jerome Hauer is best known for being the director of the New York City Office of Emergency Management when he made the decision to build a $13 million crisis center on the 23rd floor at 7 World Trade Center. This crisis center was unveiled in June 1999, became the subject of tension between the agency and the police department, whose own command center at 1 Police Plaza had until been the focus of emergency preparedness operations; as the first director of the new crisis center, "one of Hauer’s first tasks was to find a home for an emergency command center to replace the inadequate facilities at police headquarters," according to the Times. The site selected, was controversial because it was part of the World Trade Center complex, the location of a truck bomb attack in 1993. City officials, including Mr. Hauer, have long defended their decision after the command center had to be evacuated during the 2001 terror attack; the Emergency Operation Center was hailed as the finest such facility in the nation, receiving visitors from around the world and serving as a model for others.
A memo revealed by Chris Wallace on Fox news showed that Hauer wanted to put the command center in Brooklyn but was forced by Guilliani to put the facility within walking distance of City Hall. The center was destroyed when the 47-story tower collapsed at about 5:25 p.m. on 9-11
Tommy George Thompson is an American Republican politician, a state legislator in Wisconsin, 42nd Governor of Wisconsin from 1987 to 2001, making him the longest serving governor in the state's history. During his tenure as governor he was chair of Amtrak, the nation's passenger rail service, he served as the U. S. Secretary of Health and Human Services from 2001–05, appointed by George W. Bush. After his time in the Bush Administration, Thompson became a partner in the law-firm Akin Gump, Chairman of Deloitte's global healthcare practice, he has served on the board of 22 other organizations. Thompson was a candidate for the U. S. Presidential election in 2008, though he withdrew from the race before the primaries. In 2012, he was the Republican nominee for the United States Senate seat in Wisconsin, hoping to replace retiring Democrat Herb Kohl, but was defeated by Tammy Baldwin, making it his only statewide loss. Thompson was born in Wisconsin, his mother, was a teacher, his father, Allan Thompson and ran a gas station and country grocery store.
His brother, the late Ed Thompson, was a mayor of Tomah and was the Libertarian Party nominee for Governor of Wisconsin in 2002. Thompson earned his bachelor and law degrees from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1963 and 1966, respectively. While in law school, Thompson was elected chairman of the Madison Young Republicans. Thompson held a student deferment from military service during the Vietnam War until he completed law school in June 1966; the following year, 1966, Thompson enlisted in the National Guard. After completing six years in the National Guard, Thompson served in the Army Reserves for another four years, his final rank was captain. After completing law school in 1966, Thompson ran for the Wisconsin State Assembly. In the Republican primary, he defeated incumbent Assemblyman Louis Romell by 635 votes, after Romell had underestimated the challenge Thompson represented. In 1973, Thompson became the Assembly's assistant minority leader and, in its minority leader. Thompson aggressively used parliamentary procedure to block bills favored by the Democratic majority and stop legislative progress, earning him the nickname "Dr.
No" by the frustrated majority. As a state legislator, Thompson was involved in the early years of the American Legislative Exchange Council, a conservative legislative organization. Speaking at a 2002 ALEC meeting, Thompson stated: "I always loved going to meetings because I always found new ideas. I'd take them back to Wisconsin, disguise them a little bit, declare,'That's mine.'" ALEC awarded Thompson its "Thomas Jefferson Award" in 1991. While Thompson was Assistant Minority Leader in the Assembly, incumbent Republican U. S. Congressman William Steiger of Wisconsin's 6th congressional district died at the age of 40 from a heart attack. Thompson was one of seven Republican candidates who ran to replace Steiger in the special election in 1979. Tom Petri won the primary and general elections and represented the 6th district until his retirement in January 2015. Thompson served as the 42nd Governor of Wisconsin, having been elected to an unprecedented four terms; as of April 2013, Thompson has the tenth longest gubernatorial tenure in post-Constitutional U.
S. history at 5,141 days. 1986 Thompson decided to run for Governor of Wisconsin in 1986 against incumbent Democrat Anthony Earl. He won the Republican primary with 52 % of the vote in a five candidate field, he defeated Earl 53%–46%. 1990Thompson won election to a second term defeating Democrat Thomas Loftus, the Speaker of the Wisconsin State Assembly, 58%–42%. 1994Thompson won election to a third term defeating Democratic State Senator Chuck Chvala 67%–31%. He won every county in the state except Menominee County. 1998Thompson won election to a fourth term defeating Democrat Ed Garvey, a Wisconsin Deputy Attorney General, 60%–39%. Thompson is best known nationally for pushing his state to overhaul its welfare system; these reforms were implemented and pioneered before Congress and President Clinton undertook national reform of the program. Under his leadership, Wisconsin reduced its welfare rolls by 90%, cutting welfare spending but increasing investments in child care and health care for low-income working families.
Thompson was called a "pioneer" for two key initiatives of his governorship, the Wisconsin Works welfare reform and school vouchers. In 1990 Thompson pushed for the creation of the country's first parental school-choice program, which provided Milwaukee families with a voucher to send children to the private or public school of their choice, he created the BadgerCare program, designed to provide health coverage to those families whose employers don't provide health insurance but make too much money to qualify for Medicaid. Through the federal waiver program, Thompson helped replicate this program in several states when he became Secretary of Health and Human Services. Thompson was well known for his extensive use of the veto his sweeping line-item veto powers. Wisconsin governors have the power to strike out words and entire sentences from appropriations bills. In his first two terms alone, he used the line-item veto 1,500 times to cancel a total of $150 million in spending. Thompson's welfare reform policies were criticized.
Wendell Primus of the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities wrote that "Many families have lost ground though they are no longer on welfare." Many of Wisconsin's poor remained well below the federal poverty line. In addition more of the state's poorest children lacked health insurance than before Thompson's welfare overhaul; the gro
Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents. These agents are bacteria, fungi, or toxins, may be in a occurring or a human-modified form, in much the same way in biological warfare. According to the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, bioterrorism is the deliberate release of viruses, toxins or other harmful agents to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants; these agents are found in nature, but could be mutated or altered to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. Biological agents can be spread in food. Terrorists tend to use biological agents because they are difficult to detect and do not cause illness for several hours to several days; some bioterrorism agents, like the smallpox virus, can be spread from person to person and some, like anthrax, cannot. Bioterrorism is an attractive weapon because biological agents are easy and inexpensive to obtain, can be disseminated, can cause widespread fear and panic beyond the actual physical damage.
Military leaders, have learned that, as a military asset, bioterrorism has some important limitations. A biological weapon is useful to terrorists as a method of creating mass panic and disruption to a state or a country. However, technologists such as Bill Joy have warned of the potential power which genetic engineering might place in the hands of future bio-terrorists; the use of agents that do not cause harm to humans but disrupt the economy have been discussed. A relevant pathogen in this context is the foot-and-mouth disease virus, capable of causing widespread economic damage and public concern, whilst having no capacity to infect humans. By the time World War I began, attempts to use anthrax were directed at animal populations; this proved to be ineffective. Shortly after the start of World War I, Germany launched a biological sabotage campaign in the United States, Russia and France. At that time, Anton Dilger lived in Germany, but in 1915 he was sent to the United States carrying cultures of glanders, a virulent disease of horses and mules.
Dilger set up a laboratory in his home in Maryland. He used stevedores working the docks in Baltimore to infect horses with glanders while they were waiting to be shipped to Britain. Dilger was never arrested. Dilger fled to Madrid, where he died during the Influenza Pandemic of 1918. In 1916, the Russians arrested a German agent with similar intentions. Germany and its allies infected French cavalry horses and many of Russia’s mules and horses on the Eastern Front; these actions hindered troop movements, as well as supply convoys. In 1972 police in Chicago arrested two college students, Allen Schwander and Stephen Pera, who had planned to poison the city's water supply with typhoid and other bacteria. Schwander had founded a terrorist group, "R. I. S. E.", while Pera collected and grew cultures from the hospital where he worked. The two men fled to Cuba after being released on bail. Schwander died of natural causes in 1974, while Pera returned to the U. S. in 1975 and was put on probation. In 1980 the World Health Organization announced the eradication of smallpox, a contagious and incurable disease.
Although the disease has been eliminated in the wild, frozen stocks of smallpox virus are still maintained by the governments of the United States and Russia. Disastrous consequences are feared if rogue politicians or terrorists were to get hold of the smallpox strains. Since vaccination programs are now terminated, the world population is more susceptible to smallpox than before. In Oregon in 1984, followers of the Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh attempted to control a local election by incapacitating the local population; this was done by infecting salad bars in 11 restaurants, produce in grocery stores and other public domains with Salmonella typhimurium bacteria in the city of The Dalles, Oregon. The attack infected 751 people with severe food poisoning. There were no fatalities; this incident was the first known bioterrorist attack in the United States in the 20th century. It was the single largest bioterrorism attack on U. S. soil. In June 1993, the religious group Aum Shinrikyo released anthrax in Tokyo.
Eyewitnesses reported a foul odor. The attack was a total failure; the reason for this is. The spores recovered from the attack showed that they were identical to an anthrax vaccine strain given to animals at the time; these vaccine strains are missing the genes. In September and October 2001, several cases of anthrax broke out in the United States caused deliberately. Letters laced with infectious anthrax were concurrently delivered to news media offices and the U. S Congress, alongside an ambiguously related case in Chile; the letters killed 5. Under current United States law, bio-agents which have been declared by the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services or the U. S. Department of Agriculture to have the "potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety" are defined as "select agents." The CDC categorizes these agents and administers the Select Agent Program, which regulates the laboratories which may possess, use, or transfer select agents within the United States. As with US attempts to categorize harmful recreati