Oxford is a city in Butler County, United States, in the southwestern portion of the state 28 mi NW of Cincinnati. It lies in Oxford Township called the College Township; the population was 21,371 at the 2010 census. This college town was founded as a home for Miami University. In 2014, Oxford was rated by Forbes as the "Best College Town" in the United States, based on a high percentage of students per capita and part-time jobs, a low occurrence of brain-drain. Miami University was chartered in 1809, Oxford was laid out by James Heaton on March 29, 1810, by the Ohio General Assembly's order of February 6, 1810, it was established in Range 1 East, Town 5 North of the Congress Lands in the southeast quarter of Section 22, the southwest corner of Section 23, the northwest corner of Section 26, the northeast corner of Section 27. The original village, consisting of 128 lots, was incorporated on February 23, 1830. Oxford was elevated to city status in 1971. Freedom Summer started with orientations at Western College for Women in June 1964.
This event is commemorated near the Kumler Chapel on the Western campus, now a part of Miami University. Oxford is home to an array of festivals and events throughout the year, including the Uptown Music Concerts and the award-winning Wine Festival. Additionally, Miami University provides access to a wide range of events, from lectures sponsored by the various departments, to live performances by the Theater and Music departments; every year a schedule of events is organized through the Miami Performing Arts Series who have brought well known entertainers to town such as Trevor Noah and Wayne Brady. In January 2018, the website Livability.com ranked Oxford #74 on its list of Top 100 Best Places to Live. According to the website, "Oxford features a fun, college-town atmosphere with multiple shops and entertainment venues." The description of Oxford includes praise for the "several miles of hiking trails" and "affordable housing options throughout the city." Known as the Summer Music Concert Series, the Uptown Music Concerts is a four-month long event thrown by the town's visitor center, Enjoy Oxford.
Every Thursday night from June through September, concert-goers are treated to a free outdoor performance in the uptown park. Musicians take the stage under the pavilion while the audience sets out chairs and blankets in the grassy knoll below; the lineup of musicians throughout the four months continues to be impressive, bringing in talent from all over the country. The Oxford Wine Festival is an award-winning annual summer festival that takes place in the historic uptown district of Oxford; the festival, thrown by the Oxford Chamber of Commerce, includes a variety of wine vendors, a beer garden, live musical performances, booths for merchants and artisans selling handmade goods. The Oxford Community Arts Center is Oxford's premier arts facility where several major events in town take place both annually and regularly; these events include the monthly Second Fridays event. The OCAC building was used for the Oxford Female Institute in 1849 as the Oxford College for Women in 1906 after the Oxford Female Institute merged with the Oxford Female College.
After the closing of the school in 1928, Miami University bought the building and renovated it to the Georgian style it is today. With its renovations, guests can see many of the building's historical details; the building now provides Oxford with a ballroom and classroom facilities, artist studios. It is used as a venue for large events such as weddings. Oxford has several museums throughout the town; the Robert A. Hefner Museum of Natural History, the Karl E. Limper Geology Museum, the William Holmes McGuffey Museum, the Miami University Art Museum; the MUAM is free and open to the public, houses a range of galleries and exhibits throughout the year. Additionally, the MUAM boasts an impressive permanent collection of over 17,000 works, "many of which are available to the public through exhibition display in one or more of the Museum's five gallery spaces." The Miami University Natural Areas has over 17 miles of hiking trails throughout Oxford. Hikers can hike through the Silvoor Biology Sanctuary and up to the bluffs, or through the 100 acre Western Woods to enjoy a "magnificent stand of oaks and maples" on the trail.
Additionally, the Hueston Woods State Park is just five miles outside of Oxford proper. The park features 12 miles of trails, as well as a 96-room lodge overlooking Acton Lake. In the summer of 1964, a two-week orientation took place in Oxford at the Western College for Women for Freedom Summer volunteers; the orientation, which took place from June 14 to June 27, included training in non-violent resistance for volunteers in preparation for their trip to Mississippi. Once in Mississippi, volunteers would be attempting to register as many black voters as possible amid the violent atmosphere of a racially segregated state; the orientation at Western was planned to take place at Kentucky's Berea College, but pressure from Berea alumni who didn't want the controversial volunteer campaign on their campus led organizers to find another space further up north so that "the ties to the South were not quite so strong." In 2000, a stone monument dedicated to Freedom Summer was built next to the Kumler Chapel on Western Campus.
According to Miami University's website
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
The Rotunda (University of Virginia)
The Rotunda is a building located on The Lawn on the original grounds of the University of Virginia. It was designed by Thomas Jefferson to represent the "authority of nature and power of reason" and was inspired by the Pantheon in Rome. Construction began in 1822 and was completed shortly after Jefferson's death in 1826; the grounds of the new university were unique in that they surrounded a library housed in the Rotunda rather than a church, as was common at other universities in the English-speaking world. The Rotunda is seen as a lasting symbol of Jefferson's belief in the separation of church and education, as well as his lifelong dedication to both education and architecture, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966, is part of the landmark University of Virginia Historic District, designated in 1971. The collegiate structure, the immediate area around it, Jefferson's nearby home at Monticello combine to form one of only four modern man-made sites in the United States to be internationally protected and preserved as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
The original construction cost of the Rotunda was $57,773. The building stands 77 feet in both diameter. Jefferson's design was influenced by the architectural drawings of Andrea Palladio and is an example of Palladian architecture; the direct source for Jefferson's inspiration is believed to be a drawing of the Pantheon in the 1721 Leoni translation of Palladio, which Jefferson owned and referred to during the building process. Jefferson used the detailed measurements of the Pantheon to guide the proportions of his Rotunda; the Pantheon's dome is 143 feet in diameter, while Jefferson's Rotunda is 77 feet, "being half that of the Pantheon and one fourth in area, one eighth in volume."Jefferson deferred to Palladio's model for significant details of the building. In a letter to Thomas Appleton the United States consul in Liguria, Jefferson requested pricing for "ten Corinthian capitals for columns of 32 I. diminished diam. and 8 do. Half capitals of the same diam. for pilasters of 30 minutes projection from the wall, to be copied from those of the Rotunda, or Pantheon, of Rome, as represented in Palladio."
During the Marquis de Lafayette's grand tour of the United States in 1824 and 1825, the Marquis and former President James Madison dined with Thomas Jefferson in the Dome Room of the unfinished Rotunda at the University's inaugural banquet, Lafayette toasted Jefferson as the "Father of the University of Virginia". This moved Jefferson, he had the phrase inscribed on his grave. A bust of Lafayette was given to the University in 1904 by the Government of France to honor the friendship between the two men. Today it stands in the North Oval Room; the building was constructed with slave labor. The University being the first at which students could specialize in the field of Astronomy, Jefferson toyed with the idea of painting the interior of the Dome Room with images of the night sky to aid the students in their learning, he went so far as to begin designing a new mechanism with which students would be able to "float" through the air and study heavenly bodies from closer different viewpoints. They would be equipped with a control to move the stars around the Dome.
The idea was abandoned but would have been the first planetarium in the United States. The Transit of Venus of 1882 was observed from the steps of the Rotunda, in a coordinated effort with McCormick Observatory. A structure called the Annex known as "New Hall," was added to the north side of the Rotunda in 1853 to provide additional classroom space needed due to overcrowding. In 1895, the Rotunda was gutted by a disastrous fire that started in the Annex. University students saved what was, for them, the most important item within the Rotunda — a life-size likeness of Mr. Jefferson carved from marble, given to the University by Alexander Galt in 1861. Shortly after the fire, the faculty drew up a recommendation to the Board of Visitors, recommending a program of rebuilding that called for the reconstruction of the Rotunda and the replacement of the lost classroom space of the Annex with a set of buildings at the south end of the Lawn. In the new design, the wooden dome was replaced with a fireproof tile dome by the Guastavino Company of New York in 1898-1899.
The Rotunda was rebuilt with a modified design by Stanford White, a nationally known architect and partner in the New York City firm McKim and White. Whereas Jefferson's Rotunda had three floors, White's had a larger Dome Room. In addition, the Annex was not rebuilt. In 1976 during America's Bicentennial, White's Rotunda interior was gutted and rebuilt, at a cost of $2.4 million, to Jefferson's original design. In the Bicentennial issue of the AIA Journal, the American Institute of Architects called Jefferson's Rotunda and nearby home at Monticello "the proudest achievement of American architecture in the past 200 years". There is a plaque, on the south side of the Rotunda, listing the names of students and graduates of The University who were killed during the Civil War. Other plaques on the south side list those killed during World War I while plaques on the north side list those killed in World War II and the Korean War. Today, doctoral students defend their dissertations in the North Oval Room, many events (including monthly dinners for residents of the Law
Pennsylvania State University
The Pennsylvania State University is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania. Founded in 1855 as the Farmers’ High School of Pennsylvania, known as the University of State College, Penn State conducts teaching and public service, its instructional mission includes undergraduate, graduate and continuing education offered through resident instruction and online delivery. Its University Park campus, the flagship campus, lies within the Borough of State College and College Township, it has two law schools: Penn State Law, on the school's University Park campus, Dickinson Law, located in Carlisle, 90 miles south of State College. The College of Medicine is located in Hershey. Penn State has another 19 commonwealth campuses and 5 special mission campuses located across the state. Penn State has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies," a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
Annual enrollment at the University Park campus totals more than 46,800 graduate and undergraduate students, making it one of the largest universities in the United States. It has the world's largest dues-paying alumni association; the university's total enrollment in 2015–16 was 97,500 across its 24 campuses and online through its World Campus. The university offers more than 160 majors among all its campuses and administers $3.62 billion in endowment and similar funds. The university's research expenditures totaled $836 million during the 2016 fiscal year. Annually, the university hosts the Penn State IFC/Panhellenic Dance Marathon, the world's largest student-run philanthropy; this event is held at the Bryce Jordan Center on the University Park campus. In 2014, THON raised a program record of $13.3 million. The university's athletics teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Penn State Nittany Lions, they compete in the Big Ten Conference for most sports. The school was founded as a degree-granting institution on February 22, 1855, by Pennsylvania's state legislature as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania.
Centre County, became the home of the new school when James Irvin of Bellefonte, donated 200 acres of land – the first of 10,101 acres the school would acquire. In 1862, the school's name was changed to the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, with the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, Pennsylvania selected the school in 1863 to be the state's sole land-grant college; the school's name changed to the Pennsylvania State College in 1874. George W. Atherton became president of the school in 1882, broadened the curriculum. Shortly after he introduced engineering studies, Penn State became one of the ten largest engineering schools in the nation. Atherton expanded the liberal arts and agriculture programs, for which the school began receiving regular appropriations from the state in 1887. A major road in State College has been named in Atherton's honor. Additionally, Penn State's Atherton Hall, a well-furnished and centrally located residence hall, is named not after George Atherton himself, but after his wife, Frances Washburn Atherton.
His grave is in front of Schwab Auditorium near Old Main, marked by an engraved marble block in front of his statue. In the years that followed, Penn State grew becoming the state's largest grantor of baccalaureate degrees and reaching an enrollment of 5,000 in 1936. Around that time, a system of commonwealth campuses was started by President Ralph Dorn Hetzel to provide an alternative for Depression-era students who were economically unable to leave home to attend college. In 1953, President Milton S. Eisenhower, brother of then-U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and won permission to elevate the school to university status as The Pennsylvania State University. Under his successor Eric A. Walker, the university acquired hundreds of acres of surrounding land, enrollment nearly tripled. In addition, in 1967, the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, a college of medicine and hospital, was established in Hershey with a $50 million gift from the Hershey Trust Company. In the 1970s, the university became a state-related institution.
As such, it now belongs to the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. In 1975, the lyrics in Penn State's alma mater song were revised to be gender-neutral in honor of International Women's Year. In 1989, the Pennsylvania College of Technology in Williamsport joined ranks with the university, in 2000, so did the Dickinson School of Law; the university is now the largest in Pennsylvania, in 2003, it was credited with having the second-largest impact on the state economy of any organization, generating an economic effect of over $17 billion on a budget of $2.5 billion. To offset the lack of funding due to the limited growth in state appropriations to Penn State, the university has concentrated its efforts on philanthropy. In 2011, the university and its football team garnered major international media attention and criticism due to a sex abuse scandal in which university officials were alleged to have covered up incidents of child sexual abuse by former football team
Old Mill (University of Vermont)
The Old Mill Building is the oldest campus building of the University of Vermont and is located along the central eastern side of the "University Green" in Burlington, Vermont. The building was constructed in 1825 on the same site as its predecessor, which had burned down in 1824; the original Main College building was constructed in 1801–02 by the architect and master builder, John Johnson, who had designed its replacement. On April 26, 1825, the cornerstone for North College was laid by Vermont Governor Cornelius P. Van Ness. Two months on June 29, General Lafayette laid the cornerstone for South College during his visit to Burlington while on his national tour. In 1825, the Main College consisted of two three-story 75 feet x 36 feet buildings known as the "North and South Colleges". A third three-story building, known as the "Middle College" was erected between the two in 1829; each of the buildings was constructed about 7–8 feet apart to prevent fire from destroying the entire facility, as had occurred in 1824.
In 1846, the buildings were connected, however they were not accessible to one another within. The building has undergone substantial renovations during. Old Mill was added to National Register of Historic Places as part of "University Green Historic District" on April 14, 1975. John Broza, an alum of UVM, proposed a stamp with Old Mill depicted on it; the stamp entered circulation in 1991, where John signed the ceremony. Today Old Mill is home to the Departments of English, Economics and Political Science, it is host to the Programs for Women's Studies, Critical Race and Ethnic Studies, Global and Regional Studies.