In the 1860s, the Copperheads known as Peace Democrats, were a faction of Democrats in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War and wanted an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. Republicans started likening them to the venomous snake; those Democrats accepted the label, reinterpreting the copper "head" as the likeness of Liberty, which they cut from Liberty Head large cent coins and proudly wore as badges. By contrast, Democratic supporters of the war were called War Democrats; the Copperheads represented the more extreme wing of the Northern Democrats. Notable Copperheads included two Democratic Congressmen from Ohio: Clement L. Vallandigham and Alexander Long. Republican prosecutors accused some prominent Copperheads of treason in a series of trials in 1864. Copperheadism was a contentious grass-roots movement, it had its strongest base in the area just north of the Ohio River as well as in some urban ethnic wards. Some historians have argued that it represented a traditionalistic element alarmed at the rapid modernization of society sponsored by the Republican Party and that it looked back to Jacksonian democracy for inspiration.
Weber argues that the Copperheads damaged the Union war effort by opposing conscription, encouraging desertion and forming conspiracies, but other historians say that the draft was in disrepute and that the Republicans exaggerated the conspiracies for partisan reasons. Historians such as Wood Gray and Jennifer Weber argue that the Copperheads were inflexibly rooted in the past and were naive about the refusal of the Confederates to return to the Union. Convinced that the Republicans were ruining the traditional world they loved, they were obstructionist partisans. In turn, the Copperheads became a major target of the National Union Party in the 1864 presidential election, where they were used to discredit the main Democratic candidates. Copperhead support increased when Union armies did poorly and decreased when they won great victories. After the fall of Atlanta in September 1864, Union military success seemed assured and Copperheadism collapsed. During the American Civil War, the Copperheads nominally favored the Union and opposed the war, for which they blamed abolitionists and they demanded immediate peace and resisted draft laws.
They wanted President Abraham Lincoln and the Republicans ousted from power, seeing the President as a tyrant destroying American republican values with despotic and arbitrary actions. Some Copperheads tried to persuade Union soldiers to desert, they talked of helping Confederate prisoners of war escape. They sometimes took money; the Confederacy encouraged their activities. The Copperheads had numerous important newspapers. In Chicago, Wilbur F. Storey made the Chicago Times into Lincoln's most vituperative enemy; the New York Journal of Commerce abolitionist, was sold to owners who became Copperheads, giving them an important voice in the largest city. A typical editor was owner of the Uniontown, Pennsylvania Genius of Liberty, he was an intensely partisan Democrat who saw African Americans as an inferior race and Lincoln as a despot and dunce. Although he supported the war effort in 1861, he blamed abolitionists for prolonging the war and denounced the government as despotic. By 1864, he was calling for peace at any price.
John Mullaly's Metropolitan Record was the official Catholic newspaper in New York City. Reflecting Irish American opinion, it supported the war until 1863 before becoming a Copperhead organ. In the spring and summer of 1863, the paper urged its Irish working-class readers to pursue armed resistance to the draft passed by Congress earlier in the year; when the draft began in the city, working class European Americans Irish, responded with violent riots from July 13 to 16, lynching and hacking to death more than 100 black New Yorkers and burning down black-owned businesses and institutions, including an orphanage for 233 black children. On August 19, 1864, John Mullaly was arrested for inciting resistance to the draft. In an era of partisan journalism, Copperhead newspapers were remarkable for their angry rhetoric. Wisconsin newspaper editor Marcus M. Pomeroy of the La Crosse Democrat referred to Lincoln as "Fungus from the corrupt womb of bigotry and fanaticism" and a "worse tyrant and more inhuman butcher than has existed since the days of Nero The man who votes for Lincoln now is a traitor and murderer And if he is elected to misgovern for another four years, we trust some bold hand will pierce his heart with dagger point for the public good".
The Copperheads sometimes talked in some cases started to organize. However, they never made an organized attack; as war opponents, Copperheads were suspected of disloyalty and their leaders were sometimes arrested and held for months in military prisons without trial. One famous example was General Ambrose Burnside's 1863 General Order Number 38, issued in Ohio, which made it an offence to criticize the war in any way; the order was used to arrest Ohio congressman Clement L. Vallandigham when he criticized the order itself. However, Lincoln commuted his sentence while requiring his exile to the Confederacy; the largest Copperhead group was the Knights of the Golden Circle. Formed in Ohio in the 1850s, it became politicized in 1861, it reorganized as the Order of American Knights in 1863 and again in early 1864 as the Order of the Sons of Liberty, with Vallandigham as its commander. One leader, Harrison H. Dodd, advocated violent overthro
Ladies' Home Journal
Ladies' Home Journal is an American magazine published by the Meredith Corporation. It was first published on February 16, 1883, became one of the leading women's magazines of the 20th century in the United States. From 1891 it was published in Philadelphia by the Curtis Publishing Company. In 1903, it was the first American magazine to reach one million subscribers. In the late 20th century, changing tastes and competition from television caused it to lose circulation. Sales of the magazine ensued. On April 24, 2014, Meredith announced it would stop publishing the magazine as a monthly with the July issue, stating it was "transitioning Ladies' Home Journal to a special interest publication", it is now available quarterly on newsstands only. Ladies' Home Journal was one of the Seven Sisters, as a group of women's service magazines were known; the name referred to seven prestigious women's colleges in the Northeast. The Ladies' Home Journal was developed from a popular double-page supplement in the American magazine Tribune and Farmer titled Women at Home.
Women at Home was written by Louisa Knapp Curtis, wife of the magazine's publisher Cyrus H. K. Curtis. After a year it became an independent publication, with Knapp as editor for the first six years, its original name was The Ladies Home Journal and Practical Housekeeper, but Knapp dropped the last three words in 1886. It became the leading American magazine of its type, reaching a subscribed circulation of more than one million copies by 1903, the first American magazine to do so. Edward W. Bok took over the editorship in late 1889, serving until 1919. Among features he introduced. At the turn of the 20th century, the magazine published the work of muckrakers and social reformers such as Jane Addams. In 1901 it published two articles highlighting the early architectural designs of Frank Lloyd Wright. Bok introduced business practices at the Ladies' Home Journal that contributed to its success: low subscription rates, inclusion of advertising to off-set costs, reliance on popular content; this operating structure was adopted by men's magazines like McClure's and Munsey's a decade after it had become the standard practice of American women's magazines.
Scholars argue that women's magazines, like the Ladies' Home Journal, pioneered these strategies "magazine revolution". During World War II, the Ladies Home Journal was a favored venue of the government to place articles intended for homemakers, in an effort to keep up morale and support.the annual subscription price paid for the production of the magazine and its mailing. The profits came from advertising pitch to families with above-average incomes of $1000 to $3000 dollars in 1900. In the 1910s it carried about a third of the advertising in all women's magazines. By 1929 it had nearly twice as much advertising as any other publication except for the Saturday Evening Post, published by the Curtis family; the Ladies Home Journal was sold to 2 million subscribers in the mid-1920s, grew a little during the depression years, surged again during post-World War II prosperity. By the 1955, each issue sold 4.6 million copies and there were 11 million readers. In March 1970, feminists held an 11-hour sit-in at the Ladies' Home Journal's office.
As a result, they were allowed to produce a section of the magazine that August. They wanted the magazine to recognize a wider variety of choices for women's lives; the Journal, along with its major rivals, Better Homes and Gardens, Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, McCall's, Redbook and Woman's Day, were long known as the "seven sisters", after the prestigious women's colleges in the Northeast. For decades, the Journal had the greatest circulation of this group, but it fell behind McCall's in 1961. By 1968, its circulation was 6.8 million compared to McCall's 8.5 million. Society was changing and this was reflected in persons' magazine choices; that year, Curtis Publishing sold the Ladies' Home Journal, along with the magazine The American Home, to Downe Communications for $5.4 million in stock. Between 1969 and 1974 Downe was acquired by Charter Company. In 1982 it sold the magazine to Family Media Inc. publishers of Health magazine, when Charter decided to divest its publishing interests. In 1986, the Meredith Corporation acquired the magazine from Family Media for $96 million.
By 1998, the Journal's circulation had dropped to 4.5 million. The magazine debuted an extensive editorial redesign in its March 2012 issue. Photographer Brigitte Lacombe was hired to shoot cover photos, with Kate Winslet appearing on the first revamped issue; the Journal announced that portions of its editorial content would be crowdsourced from readers, who would be compensated for their work. The arrangement was one of the first of its kind among major consumer magazines. Although the magazine remained popular, it ran into increasing difficulty attracting advertising. Despite its high subscriber base, it was not a leader in the women's service category; these factors prompted the decision to end monthly publication. The magazine was relaunched as a quarterly. At the same time, the headquarters of the magazine moved from New York City to Iowa. Meredith offered its subscribers the chance to transfer their subscriptions to Meredith's sister publications. Knapp continued as the magazine's editor till Edward William Bok succeeded her as LHJ editor in 1889.
However, she remained involved with the magazine's management, she wrote a column for each issue. In 1892, the LHJ became the first magazine to refuse patent medicine advertisements. In 1896, Bok became Louisa Knapp's son-in-law when he married
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Joseph A. Bailly
Joseph Alexis Bailly was a French-born American sculptor who spent most of his career in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He taught at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, which has a collection of his sculpture, his most famous work is the statue of George Washington in front of Independence Hall. The son of a Parisian cabinetmaker, Bailly attended the École des Beaux-Arts before being drafted into the Army during the Revolution of 1848, he assaulted an officer and fled to England where he studied under the sculptor Edward Hodges Baily. After traveling to the United States and Argentina, he settled in Philadelphia in 1850. Bailly worked as a furniture carver before establishing a sculpture studio with Charles Bushor in 1854, their first major commission was for the interior ornament and furniture of the New Masonic Hall at 713-21 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia. This included 5 life-sized wood statues illustrating the female Masonic virtues; that was followed by the commission for the interior ornament of Philadelphia's opera house, the Academy of Music.
At the U. S. Capitol, Bailly designed the Monumental Clock for the United States House of Representatives Chamber and carved its wooden case. Sculptor William Henry Rinehart designed the flanking bronze figures of the Backwoodsman and the Indian. Furniture makers Bembe & Kimbel manufactured the clock, gilded the whole piece, it was removed from the House Chamber in 1950, is now on display in the Capitol's Crypt. One of his most accomplished works is the marble sculpture group Paradise Lost, depicting Adam and Eve ruminating on their expulsion from the Garden of Eden, its companion piece, First Prayer, shows Eve teaching their small children and Abel. Both works were commissioned by Henry C. Gibson, are at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, his giant bronze of Benjamin Franklin was installed on the corner of the Public Ledger Building's facade and, 250 feet away, his marble statue of George Washington stood before Independence Hall. Bailly carved a number of funerary memorials, including that of the artist William Emlen Cresson, at Laurel Hill Cemetery, which showed the young painter holding his brush and palette.
In the 1870s, the United States Mint in Philadelphia commissioned him to carve coin dies for U. S. Trade Dollars — coins with a higher silver content than regular U. S. silver dollars for use in international trade with China and Korea. The surviving coin dies are unsigned, but design and/or carving of at least three of them are attributed to Bailly, he exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts beginning in 1851, was elected an Academician by PAFA in 1860, taught there during the American Civil War. Hired to teach at PAFA in 1876, he resigned two years in a salary dispute, Thomas Eakins took over his modeling class. Among his students were Howard Roberts, John J. Boyle, Alexander Milne Calder, he exhibited several works at the 1876 Centennial Exposition, including the plaster model for an equestrian statue of Venezuela's president, Antonio Guzmán Blanco. Bailly died in Philadelphia in 1883, he was buried at Mount Peace Cemetery. Sideboard, with carving attributed to Bailly, Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio.
New Masonic Hall, interior ornament and furniture, Pennsylvania. The Gothic Room furniture survives at the current Philadelphia Masonic Temple. Beauty, Faith, Charity, Philadelphia Masonic Temple. Academy of Music, interior ornament, Pennsylvania. U. S. Capitol, Monumental Clock, House of Representatives Chamber, Washington, D. C.. Paradise Lost, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Pennsylvania. First Prayer, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Pennsylvania. Bust of Abraham Lincoln, metal alloy, mass-produced after his assassination. Benjamin Franklin, Public Ledger Building facade, Pennsylvania. Now on display in the current Public Ledger Building's lobby. General Francis E. Patterson Memorial, Laurel Hill Cemetery, Pennsylvania. George Washington, Independence Hall, Pennsylvania; this was replaced by a bronze replica in 1910. William Emlen Cresson Memorial, Laurel Hill Cemetery, Pennsylvania. William F. Hughes Memorial, Laurel Hill Cemetery, Pennsylvania. General John A. Rawlins, Rawlins Park, 18th & E Streets NW, Washington, D.
C. Equestrian statue of President Antonio Guzmán Blanco, installed in Caracas, Venezuela in 1880. Reverend John Witherspoon, West Fairmount Park, Pennsylvania. Bust of Benjamin Hallowell, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D. C. June 18, 1883, New York Times obituary "Joseph A. Bailly". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-12-06. U. S. Trade Dollar coins attributed to Bailly Joseph Alexis Bailly from Philadelphia Public Art. Joseph A. Bailly in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
The Philadelphia Bulletin was a daily evening newspaper published from 1847 to 1982 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was the largest circulation newspaper in Philadelphia for 76 years and was once the largest evening newspaper in the United States, its known slogan was: "In Philadelphia, nearly everybody reads The Bulletin." Describing the Bulletin's style, publisher William L. McLean once said: "I think the Bulletin operates on a principle which in the long run is unbeatable; this is. Therefore, it should behave as a guest, telling the news rather than shouting it." As Time magazine noted: "In its news columns, the Bulletin was solid if unspectacular. Local affairs were covered extensively, but politely. Muckraking was frowned upon." The Bulletin was first published by Alexander Cummings on April 17, 1847 as Cummings’ Evening Telegraphic Bulletin. When Cummings sold in 1860, James S. Chambers succeeded him as publisher, it made history with its inaugural edition by publishing the first telegraph report in a U.
S. newspaper, a dispatch from the Mexican War. Cummings lost control of the Bulletin to stockholders in the 1850s. From 1859 until 1895, the paper was edited by Gibson Peacock; the Bulletin was last in circulation of Philadelphia's 13 daily newspapers for the remainder of the 19th century. Upon Peacock's death, the paper was bought by businessman William L. McLean; when McLean bought the last-place Bulletin in 1895, it sold for 2 cents, equal to $0.60 today. McLean cut increased coverage of local news. By 1905 the paper was the city's largest. In 1912, the Bulletin was one of a cooperative of four newspapers, including the Chicago Daily News, The Boston Globe, The New York Globe, to form the Associated Newspapers syndicate. McLean's son Robert took over in 1931. In the 1930s, the paper bought WPEN, one of Philadelphia's early radio stations. In 1946, it acquired. In 1947 the Bulletin bought out its evening competitor, The Philadelphia Record, incorporated features of the Record's Sunday edition into the new Sunday Bulletin.
By 1947 the Bulletin was the nation's biggest evening daily, with 761,000 readers. Along with the Record, it acquired the rights to buy Philadelphia's third-oldest radio station, WCAU. In a complex deal, the Bulletin sold off WPEN and WCAU's FM sister, changed WPEN-FM's call letters to WCAU-FM, the calls for its under-construction television station to WCAU-TV; the WCAU stations were sold to CBS in 1957. The Bulletin's understated brand of journalism won Pulitzer Prizes in 1964 and 1965. James V. Magee, Albert V. Gaudiosi and Frederick Meyer won the 1964 Pulitzer Prize for Local Investigative Specialized Reporting for their expose of numbers racket operations with police collusion in South Philadelphia, which resulted in arrests and a cleanup of the police department. J. A. Livingston won the 1965 Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting for his reports on the growth of economic independence among Russia's Eastern European satellites and his analysis of their desire for a resumption of trade with the West.
As readers and advertisers moved from the city to the suburbs, the Bulletin attempted to follow. It introduced regional editions for four suburban counties and leased a plant in southern New Jersey to print a state edition. Reporters attended school and county meetings, but their efforts could not match the combined resources of the smaller suburban dailies; the Bulletin faced difficulties that plagued all big-city evening newspapers: Late afternoon traffic made distribution more costly than for morning papers. The Bulletin faced greater competition from television evening newscasts; the Bulletin's biggest problem, may have been the morning Philadelphia Inquirer. The Inquirer was on the verge of extinction until Eugene L. Roberts Jr. became executive editor in 1972 and William Boyd Dickinson retired as executive editor of The Bulletin in 1973. Under Roberts, The Inquirer won six consecutive Pulitzer Prizes and gained national reputation for quality journalism; the Inquirer grabbed the circulation lead in 1980.
By 1982, The Inquirer was receiving 60 percent of the city’s newspaper advertising revenue, compared to The Bulletin's 24-percent share. The Bulletin launched a morning edition in 1978, but by the momentum had shifted decisively. In 1980, the Bulletin was acquired by the Charter Company of Jacksonville, Florida a conglomerate which would spend most of the 1980s in various financial troubles. In December 1981, Charter put it up for sale; the Bulletin continued publishing while speaking with prospective buyers. City residents organized a “Save Our Bulletin” campaign. On January 18, 1982, 300 loyal supporters sporting S. O. B. Buttons held a candlelight vigil in front of the paper's offices in subfreezing weather. Philadelphia Mayor William Green offered tax breaks and low-interest loans to help finance a purchase. With no prospective buyers, Charter attempted to give the newspaper away. No publisher, would assume the paper's $29.5 million in promissory notes and $12 million in severance costs to the paper's 1,943 employees.
Four groups of buyers did come forward. After losing $21.5 million in 1981, The Bulletin was dropping nearly $3 million per month when it published its final edition on January 29, 1982. Said Charter Communications President J. P. Smith Jr.: "In the final analysis, the paper was unable to generate the circulation and additional advertising revenues... it needed to survive."The headline of the final edition read "Goodbye: After 134 years, a Philadelphia voice is silent" and the paper’s slogan was changed to "Nearly Everybody Rea
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a