A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means, that produced using electronics only. Electromechanical instruments include mechanical elements, such as strings, so on, electric elements, such as magnetic pickups, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, the electric guitar, which are made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Devices such as the theremin and computer can produce electronic sounds; the first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century, shortly afterward Italian futurists explored sounds that had not been considered musical.
During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were made. By the 1940s, magnetic audio tape allowed musicians to tape sounds and modify them by changing the tape speed or direction, leading to the development of electroacoustic tape music in the 1940s, in Egypt and France. Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds. Music produced from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in 1953. Electronic music was created in Japan and the United States beginning in the 1950s. An important new development was the advent of computers to compose music. Algorithmic composition with computers was first demonstrated in the 1950s. In the 1960s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industry, Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music. In the early 1970s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music.
In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM. In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303. In the early 1980s, digital technologies for synthesizers including digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 were popularized, a group of musicians and music merchants developed the Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Electronically produced music became prevalent in the popular domain by the 1990s, because of the advent of affordable music technology. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. Today, pop electronic music is most recognizable in its 4/4 form and more connected with the mainstream culture as opposed to its preceding forms which were specialized to niche markets.
At the turn of the 20th century, experimentation with emerging electronics led to the first electronic musical instruments. These initial inventions were not sold, but were instead used in demonstrations and public performances; the audiences were presented with reproductions of existing music instead of new compositions for the instruments. While some were considered novelties and produced simple tones, the Telharmonium synthesized the sound of orchestral instruments, it achieved viable public interest and made commercial progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Critics of musical conventions at the time saw promise in these developments. Ferruccio Busoni encouraged the composition of microtonal music allowed for by electronic instruments, he predicted the use of machines in future music, writing the influential Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music. Futurists such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo began composing music with acoustic noise to evoke the sound of machinery.
They predicted expansions in timbre allowed for by electronics in the influential manifesto The Art of Noises. Developments of the vacuum tube led to electronic instruments that were smaller and more practical for performance. In particular, the theremin, ondes Martenot and trautonium were commercially produced by the early 1930s. From the late 1920s, the increased practicality of electronic instruments influenced composers such as Joseph Schillinger to adopt them, they were used within orchestras, most composers wrote parts for the theremin that could otherwise be performed with string instruments. Avant-garde composers criticized the predominant use of electronic instruments for conventional purposes; the instruments offered expansions in pitch resources that were exploited by advocates of microtonal music such as Charles Ives, Dimitrios Levidis, Olivier Messiaen and Edgard Varèse. Further, Percy Grainger used the theremin to abandon fixed tonation while Russian composers such as Gavriil Popov treated it as a source of noise in otherwise-acoustic noise music.
Developments in early recording technology paralleled that of electronic instruments. The first means of recording and reproducing audio was invented in the late 19th century with the mechanical phonograph. Record players became a common household item, by the 1920s comp
A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument that creates percussion. Drum machines produce unique sounds. Most modern drum machines allow users to program their own rhythms. Drum machines may play prerecorded samples. Drum machines have had a lasting impact on popular music; the Roland TR-808, introduced in 1980 influenced the development of dance and hip hop music. The first drum machine to use samples of real drum kits, the Linn LM-1, was introduced in 1980 and adopted by rock and pop artists including Peter Gabriel, Fleetwood Mac, Yellow Magic Orchestra and Stevie Wonder. In the late 1990s, software emulations began to overtake the popularity of physical drum machines. Rhythmicon In 1930–32, the spectacularly innovative and hard-to-use Rhythmicon was developed by Léon Theremin at the request of Henry Cowell, who wanted an instrument which could play compositions with multiple rhythmic patterns, based on the overtone series, that were far too hard to perform on existing keyboard instruments.
The invention could produce sixteen different rhythms, each associated with a particular pitch, either individually or in any combination, including en masse, if desired. Received with considerable interest when it was publicly introduced in 1932, the Rhythmicon was soon set aside by Cowell and was forgotten for decades; the next generation of rhythm machines played only pre-programmed rhythms such as mambo, tango, or bossa nova Chamberlin Rhythmate In 1957, Harry Chamberlin, an engineer from Iowa, created the Chamberlin Rhythmate, which allowed users to select between 14 tape loops of drum kits and percussion instruments performing various beats. Like the Chamberlin keyboard, the Rhythmate was intended for family singalongs. Around 100 units were sold. First commercial product – Wurlitzer Sideman In 1959, Wurlitzer released the Sideman, which generates sounds mechanically by a rotating disc to a music box. A slider controls the tempo. Sounds can be triggered individually through buttons on a control panel.
The Sideman was a success and drew criticism from musicians' unions, which ruled that it could only be used in cocktail lounges if the keyboardist was paid the wages of three musicians. Wurlitzer ceased production of the Sideman in 1969. Raymond Scott In 1960, Raymond Scott constructed the Rhythm Synthesizer and, in 1963, a drum machine called Bandito the Bongo Artist. Scott's machines were used for recording his album Soothing Sounds for Baby series. First transistorized drum machines – Seeburg/Gulbransen During the 1960s, implementation of rhythm machines were evolved into solid-state from early electro-mechanical with vacuum tubes, size were reduced to desktop size from earlier floor type. In the early 1960s, a home organ manufacturer, Gulbransen cooperated with an automatic musical equipment manufacturer Seeburg Corporation, released early compact rhythm machines Rhythm Prince, although, at that time, these size were still as large as small guitar amp head, due to the use of bulky electro-mechanical pattern generators.
In 1964, Seeburg invented a compact electronic rhythm pattern generator using "diode matrix", transistorized electronic rhythm machine with pre-programmed patterns, Select-A-Rhythm, was released. As the result of its robustness and enough compact size, these rhythm machines were installed on the electronic organ as accompaniment of organists, spread widely. Keio-Giken, Nippon Columbia, Ace Tone In the early 1960s, a nightclub owner in Tokyo, Tsutomu Katoh was consulted from a notable accordion player, Tadashi Osanai, about the rhythm machine he used for accompaniment in club, Wurlitzer Side Man. Osanai, a graduate of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at University of Tokyo, convinced Katoh to finance his efforts to build better one. In 1963, their new company Keio-Giken released their first rhythm machine, Donca-Matic DA-20 using the vacuum tube circuits for sounds and mechanical-wheel for rhythm patterns, it was a floor-type machine with built-in speaker, featuring a keyboard for the manual play, in addition to the multiple automatic rhythm patterns.
Its price was comparable with the average annual income of Japanese at that time. Their effort was focused on the improvement of reliability and performance, along with the size reduction and the cost down. Unstable vacuum tube circuit was replaced with reliable transistor circuit on Donca-Matic DC-11 in mid-1960s, in 1966, bulky mechanical-wheel was replaced with compact transistor circuit on Donca-Matic DE-20 and DE-11. In 1967, Mini Pops MP-2 was developed as an option of Yamaha Electone, Mini Pops was established as a series of the compact desktop rhythm machine. In the United States, Mini Pops MP-3, MP-7, etc. were sold under Univox brand by the distributor at that time, Unicord Corporation. In 1965, Nippon Columbia filed a patent for an automatic rhythm instrument, it described it as an "automatic rhythm player, simple but capable of electronically producing various rhythms in the characteristic tones of a drum, a piccolo and so on." It has some similarities to Seeburg's earlier 1964 patent.
In 1967, Ace Tone founder Ikutaro Kakehashi developed the preset rhythm-pattern generator using diode matrix circuit, which has some similarities to the earlier Seeburg and Nippon Columbia patents. Kakehashi's pate
Nakano is a special ward in Tokyo, Japan. The English translation of its Japanese self-designation is Nakano City; as of May 1, 2015, the ward has an estimated population of 322,731, a population density of 20,701 persons per km2. The total area is 15.59 km2. The ward was founded on October 1, 1932 when the towns of Nogata and Nakano were absorbed into the former Tokyo City as Nakano Ward; the present administration dates from March 15, 1947 when the Allied occupation reformed the administration of Tokyo-to. 1447: Ōta Dōkan defeated Toshima Yasutsune in a battle here. 1606: The Naruki Kaidō, predecessor of today's Ōme Kaidō was established. 1695: In connection with the Shorui Awaremi no Rei, a facility for keeping wild dogs opened. 1871: The twelve villages that comprise present-day Nakano became part of Tokyo Prefecture. 1889: The Kofu Railway opens. The forerunner of today's Chūō Main Line included a station at Nakano en route from Shinjuku to Hachioji. 1897: Nakano becomes a village. 1932: Tokyo City expands to encompass the district that included Nakano.
1943: With the abolition of Tokyo City, Nakano becomes part of Tokyo-to. 1947: Nakano becomes one of the special wards under the new system. 1961: The Tokyo subway system extends to Nakano. 1973: Construction of Nakano Sun Plaza near Nakano Station reaches completion. Five special wards surround Nakano: Shinjuku, Nerima and Toshima, it lies just west of the bustling Shinjuku area. Rivers include the Kanda, Myosho-ji and Zenpuku-ji Rivers, the Aratama Waterway. Nakano Sun Plaza: concert hall, hotel facilities Arai Yakushi Shingon Buddhist temple Nakano Broadway: otaku building GRIPS International House, apartment for foreign students studying at the National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies Public elementary and middle schools are operated by the Nakano City Board of Education. Public high schools are operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education. Fuji High School Minorigaoka High School Musashigaoka High School Nakano Technical High School Saginomiya High School Yotsuya Commercial High School Horikoshi Gakuen High School Shumei University Teikyo Heisei University Nakano Campus Tokyo Polytechnic University Meiji University Nakano Campus University of Tokyo Nakano campus Kokusai Junior College Nakano Ward is served by the JR East Chūō and Sobu lines, the Seibu Shinjuku Line, the Tokyo Metro Tozai Line and Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line, the Toei Oedo Line.
JR East Chūō Line, Chūō-Sōbu Line: Higashi-Nakano and Nakano Stations Seibu Railway Seibu Shinjuku Line: Arai Yakushi-mae, Nogata, Toritsu-Kasei, Saginomiya Stations Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line: Shin-Nakano, Nakano-Sakaue Stations Honancho Branch Line: Nakano-Fujimicho, Nakano-Shimbashi, Nakano-Sakaue Stations Tozai Line: Nakano, Ochiai Stations Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation: Toei Oedo Line: Nakano-Sakaue, Higashi-Nakano, Shin-egota Stations A complicated bus network is constructed throughout Nakano Ward because most train lines only run east and west. Kanto bus Toei bus Kokusai Kogyo bus Keio bus Shuto Expressway: C2 Central Circular Route Prefectural road: Tokyo Metropolitan Route 8 Tokyo Metropolitan Route 439 Tokyo Metropolitan Route 440 Tokyo Metropolitan Route 25 Tokyo Metropolitan Route 433 Tokyo Metropolitan Route 4 Tokyo Metropolitan Route 14 Tokyo Metropolitan Route 317 Tokyo Metropolitan Route 420 Tokyo Metropolitan Route 318 Tokyo Metropolitan Route 427 Nakano-minamiguchi ekimae shōtengai - an outdoor arcade Kanako Yanagihara, comedian Mayumi Kojima and songwriter Marika Matsumoto, voice actress, actress Shoko Sawada and songwriter Yuji Tanaka, comedian Ryuichi Sakamoto and musician Nakano City Official Website
Electro is a genre of electronic music and early hip hop directly influenced by the use of the Roland TR-808 drum machines, funk. Records in the genre feature drum machines and heavy electronic sounds without vocals, although if vocals are present they are delivered in a deadpan manner through electronic distortion such as vocoding and talkboxing; this is the main distinction between electro and prominent genres such as disco, in which the electronic sound was only part of the instrumentation. It palpably deviates from its predecessor boogie for being less vocal-oriented and more focused on electronic beats produced by drum machines. Following the decline of disco music in the United States, electro emerged as a fusion of funk and New York boogie. Early hip hop and rap combined with German and Japanese electropop influences such as Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra inspired the birth of electro. In 1982, producer Arthur Baker with Afrika Bambaataa released the seminal "Planet Rock", built using samples from Kraftwerk's Trans-Europe Express and drum beats supplied by the TR-808.
Planet Rock was followed that year by another breakthrough electro record, Nunk by Warp 9. In 1983, Hashim created an electro funk sound which influenced Herbie Hancock, resulting in his hit single "Rockit"; the early 1980s were electro's mainstream peak. By the mid 1980s, the genre moved away from its electronic and funk influences, using harder edged beats and rock samples, exemplified by Run DMC. Electro became popular again in the late 1990s with artists such as Anthony Rother and DJs such as Dave Clarke. A third wave of popularity occurred in 2007. Electro has branched out into subgenres, including Electrocore and Skweee, which developed in Sweden and Finland. From its inception, one of the defining characteristics of the electro sound was the use of drum machines the Roland TR-808, as the rhythmic basis of the track; as the genre evolved and sampling replaced drum machines in electronic music, are now used by the majority of electro producers. It is important to note, that although the electro of the 1980s and contemporary electro both grew out of the dissolution of disco, they are now different genres.
Classic electro drum patterns tend to be electronic emulations of breakbeats, with a syncopated kick drum, a snare or clap accenting the backbeat. The difference between electro drumbeats and breakbeats is that electro tends to be more mechanical, while breakbeats tend to have more of a human-like feel, like that of a live drummer; the definition however is somewhat ambiguous in nature due to the various uses of the term. The Roland TR-808 drum machine hit the market in 1980, defining early electro with its recognizable sound. Staccato, percussive drumbeats tended to dominate electro exclusively provided by the TR-808; as an inexpensive way of producing a drum sound, the TR-808 caught on with the producers of early electro because of the ability of its bass drum to generate extreme low-frequencies. This aspect of the Roland TR-808 was appealing to producers who would test drive their tracks in nightclubs, where the bass drum sound was essential for a record's success, its unique percussion sounds like handclaps and closed high-hat and cowbell became integral to the electro sound.
A number of popular songs in the early 1980s employed the TR-808, including Marvin Gaye's “Sexual Healing,” Cybotron's “Clear,” and Afrika Bambaataa's “Planet Rock.” The Roland TR-808 has attained iconic status being used on more hits than any other drum machine. Through the use of samples, the Roland TR-808 remains popular in electro and other genres to the present day. Other electro instrumentation was electronic, favoring analog synthesis, programmed bass lines, sequenced or arpeggiated synthetic riffs, atonal sound effects all created with synthesizers. Heavy use of effects such as reverbs, chorus or phasers along with eerie synthetic ensemble strings or pad sounds emphasized the science fiction or futuristic themes of classic electro, represented in the lyrics and/or music. Electro hip hop group Warp 9's 1983 single, Light Years Away and written by Lotti Golden and Richard Scher, exemplifies the Sci-Fi, afrofuturist aspect of electro, reflected in both the lyrics and instrumentation; the imagery of its lyrical refrain space is the place for the human race pays homage to Sun Ra's 1974 film, while its synth lines and sound effects are informed by sci-fi, computer games, cartoons,"born of a science-fiction revival.".
Most electro is instrumental. Additionally, speech synthesis may be used to create robotic or mechanical lyrical content, as in the iconic Planet Rock and the automatous chant in the chorus of Nunk by Warp 9. Although instrumental, early electro utilized rap. Male rap dominated the genre, however female rappers are an integral part of the electro tradition, whether featured in a group as in Warp 9 or as solo performers like Roxanne Shante; the lyrical style that emerged along with electro became less popular by the 1990s, as rapping continued to evolve, becoming the domain of hip hop music. About electro origins, Greg Wilson claims: Following the decline of disco music in the late 1970s, various funk artists such as Zapp & Roger began experimenting with talk boxes and the use of heavier, more distinctive beats. Boogie played a role during the formative years of electro, notably "Feels Good" by Electra, the post-disco production "You're the One for Me" by D. Trai
A music sequencer is a device or application software that can record, edit, or play back music, by handling note and performance information in several forms CV/Gate, MIDI, or Open Sound Control, audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins. The advent of Musical Instrument Digital Interface and the Atari ST home computer in the 1980s gave programmers the opportunity to design software that could more record and play back sequences of notes played or programmed by a musician; this software improved on the quality of the earlier sequencers which tended to be mechanical sounding and were only able to play back notes of equal duration. Software-based sequencers allowed musicians to program performances that were more expressive and more human; these new sequencers could be used to control external synthesizers rackmounted sound modules, it was no longer necessary for each synthesizer to have its own devoted keyboard. As the technology matured, sequencers gained more features, such as the ability to record multitrack audio.
Sequencers used for audio recording are called digital audio workstations. Many modern sequencers can be used to control virtual instruments implemented as software plug-ins; this allows musicians to replace expensive and cumbersome standalone synthesizers with their software equivalents. Today the term "sequencer" is used to describe software. However, hardware sequencers still exist. Workstation keyboards have their own proprietary built-in MIDI sequencers. Drum machines and some older synthesizers have their own step sequencer built in. There are still standalone hardware MIDI sequencers, although the market demand for those has diminished due to the greater feature set of their software counterparts. Music sequencers can be categorized by handling data types, such as: MIDI data on the MIDI sequencers CV/Gate data on the analog sequencers and others Automation data for mixing-automation on the DAWs, the software effect / instrument plug-ins on the DAWs with sequencing features Audio data on the audio sequencers including DAW, loop-based music software, etc..
Alternative subsets of audio sequencers include: Also, music sequencer can be categorized by its construction and supporting modes. Realtime sequencers record the musical notes in real-time as on audio recorders, play back musical notes with designated tempo and pitch. For editing "punch in/punch out" features originated in the tape recording are provided, although it requires sufficient skills to obtain the desired result. For detailed editing another visual editing mode under graphical user interface may be more suitable. Anyway, this mode provides usability similar to audio recorders familiar to musicians, it is supported on software sequencers, DAWs, built-in hardware sequencers. Analog sequencers are implemented with analog electronics, play the musical notes designated by a series of knobs or sliders corresponding to each musical note, it is designed for live performance. And possibly, the time-interval between each musical note can be independently adjustable. Analog sequencers are used to generate the repeated minimalistic phrases which may be reminiscent of Tangerine Dream, Giorgio Moroder or trance music.
On step sequencers, musical notes are rounded into steps of equal time-intervals, users can enter each musical note without exact timing. On the bass machines: select a step note from a chromatic keypads select a step duration from a group of length-buttons, sequentially. On the several home keyboards: in addition to the realtime sequencer, a pair of step trigger button is provided. In general, step mode, along with quantized semi-realtime mode, is supported on the drum machines, bass machines and several groove machines. Software sequencer is a class of application software providing a functionality of music sequencer, provided as one feature of the DAW or the integrated music authoring environments; the features provided as sequencers vary depending on the software. The user may control the software sequencer either by using the graphical user interfaces or a specialized input devices, such as a MIDI controller; the early music sequencers were sound producing devices such as automatic musical instruments, music boxes, mechanical organs, player pianos, Orchestrions.
Player pianos, for example, had much in common with contemporary sequencers. Composers or arrangers transmitted music to piano rolls which were subsequently edited by technicians who prepared the rolls for mass duplication. Consumers were able to purchase these rolls and play them back on their own player pianos; the origin of automatic musical instruments seems remarkably old. As early as the 9th century, Persian inventors Banū Mūsā brothers invented a hydropowered organ using exchangeable cylinders with pins, an automatic flute playing machine using steam power, as described in their Book of Ingenious Devices. In the 1