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Public Schools Act 1868

The Public Schools Act 1868 was enacted by the British Parliament to reform and regulate seven leading English boys' boarding schools, most of which had grown out of ancient charity schools for the education of a certain number of poor scholars, but were by as they are today educating many sons of the English upper and upper-middle classes on a fee-paying basis. This created the first British public schools, though the schools themselves are older; the act followed the report of the Clarendon Commission, a Royal Commission on Public Schools which sat from 1861 to 1864 and investigated conditions and abuses which had grown up over the centuries at nine charity schools. The bill was presented for its first reading in the Lords by Lord Clarendon on 13 March 1865 and for its second reading on 3 April 1865; the bill was in two parts, the first containing the general provisions of the bill and the second containing specific proposals for each school. St Paul's School and Merchant Taylors' School were omitted, as they argued that their constitutions made them "private" schools and that their constitutions could not be altered by public legislation, thus the act concerned itself with the other seven schools investigated by the Clarendon Commission: Charterhouse School Eton College Harrow School Rugby School Shrewsbury School Westminster School Winchester CollegeThe act removed these schools from any direct jurisdiction or responsibility of the Crown, established church, or government, establishing a board of governors for each school and granting them independence over their administration.

The act led to development of the schools away from the traditional classics-based curriculum taught by clergymen, to a somewhat broader scope of studies. In 1887 the Divisional Court and the Court of Appeal determined that the City of London School was a public school. Colin Shrosbree. Public Schools and Private Education: the Clarendon Commission, 1861–64, the Public Schools Acts. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-2580-8. Text of the Public Schools Act 1868, Education in England

1993–94 Segunda Divisão de Honra

The 1993–94 Segunda Divisão de Honra season was the 4th season of the competition and the 60th season of recognised second-tier football in Portugal. The league was contested by 18 teams with FC Tirsense winning the championship and gaining promotion to the Primeira Divisão along with UD Leiria and GD Chaves. At the other end of the table Académico Viseu, Louletano DC and Leixões SC were relegated to the Segunda Divisão. Portugal 1993/94 - RSSSF Portuguese II Liga 1993/1994 -


Kavieng is the capital of the Papua New Guinean province of New Ireland and the largest town on the island of the same name. The town is located on the northern tip of the island; as of 2009, it had a population of 17,248. Kavieng is the main port for New Ireland, is both a trading and tourist destination. Several dive companies operate from the town, as the area is known for its diving, both for natural sites and wrecks dating from the Second World War. There are plane and shipwrecks in Kavieng Harbour itself, as well as several more nearby; the town is serviced with daily connections to Port Moresby. It lies at one end of the Boluminski Highway. Kavieng has all the services one would expect from a local administrative centre: local government offices, hotels, a hospital providing general medical and surgical services, a weekly market. There is a large wharf for copra export on the town's edge, allowing deep-water ships to load copra and oil directly from the land. Visible from Kavieng are the many islands of the archipelago lying between New Ireland and New Hanover, including Nusa Lik, Nusa Lawa, Nango Island, the site of a fish cannery in the 1960s and 1970s.

Nango is the site of a new marine research centre for the PNG National Fisheries Authority. Its opening was overseen by the Governor-General of PNG Mr. Paulius Matane in July 2009; the area was first charted by Dutch explorers in 1616, but it was not until the early 1900s that Kavieng town was founded by the German colonial administration. Though some on the island became quite wealthy with the development of copra plantations, Kavieng itself remained a tiny settlement, with as few as eighty residents. After the First World War, Kavieng, as part of Papua New Guinea, was ceded to Australian control; this resulted in the deportation of German missionaries and the seizure of all German property in the town. On 21 January 1942, during World War II, Kavieng came under a massive aerial bombardment by Japanese forces; that night, the vast majority of Australians were evacuated from New Ireland. The Japanese occupied the island on 24 January. Over the next two years all of the Europeans who had remained on the island were killed by the Japanese.

Rear Admiral Ryukichi Tamura gave the order to kill all the European prisoners in Kavieng if an imminent invasion by Allied forces was expected. At least twenty-three of these were executed in the Kavieng Wharf Massacre in March 1944, which led to the perpetrators being sentenced for war crimes. By the time the Allies retook the island in 1945, Kavieng had been completely destroyed; as a result of the Japanese occupation and subsequent Allied invasion there are a number of wartime relics in the town, most notably a large gun sitting above a bunker adjacent to the Harbour Road. Although not open to the public, the bunker has several openings allowing entry, the gun position provides an extensive view of the harbour. Today Kavieng is home to a thriving tourism industry. Dive and surf tourism predominate with all of the tourism depending on the rich biological diversity of New Ireland; the surf tourism industry has entered into partnerships with local land and reef owners to develop what they refer to as a "surf management plan."

This plan provides resource owners with income from the surfers and limits the number of surfers on any break at one time. Kavieng Urban LLG Murray, Mary. Hunted, A Coastwatcher's Story Dunbar, Raden; the Kavieng Massacre—A War Crime Revealed Kavieng travel guide from Wikivoyage


TOGG, or Turkey's Automobile Joint Venture Group Inc. is a Turkish automotive company founded as a joint venture in 2018. Anadolu Group, BMC Turkey, Kök Group and Zorlu Holding are major stakeholders under the umbrella institution TOBB; each company has 19% shares and TOBB has 5% share. During the 2010s, Turkey's president Erdoğan called for an initiative to produce an automobile made in Turkey. In 2017, Erdoğan announced the creation of its participants. On 27 December 2019, the first introduction was made in Gebze, along with the creation of IT Valley. President Erdoğan unveiled one SUV and one sedan during the event; the first two prototypes were produced in Italy by Pininfarina. The car manufacturing plant will be in Bursa; the two models of the TOGG Turkish national car unveiled in December 2019 are both all-electric vehicles with 300 km or 500 km range options. Both cars will have 8-year battery level 2 autonomous driving assistant. For the production plant site is Haralar region in Gemlik district of Bursa Province chosen.

It will be situated as part of a real estate covering 400 ha owned by the Turkish Armed Forces. The site was preferred for its proximity to source of suppliers; the construction cost of the production plant is budgeted to 22 billion. Employment of 4,323 people is planned at the production plant. Official website

Dan Coenen

Dan T. Coenen is an American lawyer the University Professor & Harmon W. Caldwell Chair in Constitutional Law at University of Georgia and the J. Alton Hosch Professor of Law. Coenen was born in Dubuque, where he attended public schools, educated at the University of Wisconsin, receiving a B. S. in 1974. In 1978, he graduated from Cornell Law School. After law school, Coenen clerked for Clement Haynsworth of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, Justice Harry Blackmun of the United States Supreme Court in 1979-80 before entering private practice. In 1987, Coenen began teaching at University of Georgia Law School and was elevated to University Professor in 2005. In 2011, he was named associate dean for faculty development, his research concern is constitutional law. In 2015, his salary was $268,000. List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States Coenen, Dan; the story of The federalist: how Hamilton and Madison reconceived America. New York: Twelve Tables Press. ISBN 9780974728636.

Coenen, Dan. Constitutional Law: The Commerce Clause. New York: Foundation Press. ISBN 1587785072. Coenen, Dan T.. "Free Speech and the Law of Evidence". Duke Law Journal. 68: 639–708. Coenen, Dan T.. "Free Speech and Generally Applicable Laws: A New Doctrinal Synthesis". Iowa Law Review. 103: 435. "Profile of Dan Coenen".

Pyrenees (Victoria)

The Pyrenees is a wine-producing region centred on the Pyrenees ranges located in Victoria, Australia near the town of Avoca. The Pyrenees Ranges are at the southern end of The Great Dividing Range with altitudes ranging from 300 to over 750 m. Main peaks in the range include Mount Warrenmang; the explorer and surveyor Thomas Mitchell was the first European recorded to have travelled through the district on his 1836 journey of exploration. The ranges reminded him of the Pyrenees in Europe where he had served as an army officer, hence the name he gave them, he found the area more temperate in climate and better watered than inland New South Wales, he encouraged settlers to take up land in the region he described as "Australia Felix". Vines were first planted in the region in 1858. Several wine growers produced and sold wine in the region in the late 1800s and early part of the twentieth century; the pioneer of the region Edwin Horatio Mackereth had his vineyard sold to a dairy farmer in 1929 by his descendants.

Another early producer Kofoeds survived until 1947. The 1960s saw the re-establishment of vineyards in the area by Nathan & Wyeth in conjunction with the French Cognac producer Rémy Martin planting grapes in 1963; the official planting ceremony on 1 June 1963 included Victorian Government Minister for Lands, The Minister of State Development and Avoca Shire President. Since the 1970s the region has been a significant producer of full-bodied red wines based on Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties; the original eight wineries of the region in the 1970s and 1980s included: Chateau Rémy, Dalwhinnie Vineyard, Mount Avoca Vineyard, Mountain Creek, Summerfield Vineyards, Redbank Winery, Taltarni Vineyards and Warrenmang Vineyard. Warrenmang bought Mountain Creek in the 1990s and the wineries of the region now number thirty with a second wave of plantings and investment in the 1990s; the original vineyards and wineries planted in the 1970 centred around the towns of Moonambel and Avoca. While the 1990s saw large vineyards planted in the Landsborough valley between Landsborough and Elmhurst.

Plantings now extend from near Waubra in the south to St Arnaud in the north. The main white varieties planted include Sauvignon blanc and Viognier with smaller plantings of Semillon and Pinot Grigio, while the main varieties of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon are well supported by a range of other varieties from France such as Merlot, Cabernet Franc and Grenache, Italy for Sangiovese and Lagrein and Spain for Tempranillo. Tourism is a important part of the region's economy, with many wineries offering cellar-door tastings. Accommodation and dining are available at several of the wineries as the region continues to develop tourism infrastructure. Exports are significant for many wineries with sales into China, the US and Scandinavia. Australian wine Victorian wine "Pyrenees Wineries". Wine Regions. Wine Australia. Retrieved 9 August 2015. Thomas Mitchell Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia, Volume 2 Wineries of the Pyrenees official website Pyrenees Gold Field Victoria Geol. Survey, 1904, WM Bradford.