A decree is a rule of law issued by a head of state, according to certain procedures. It has the force of law; the particular term used for this concept may vary from country to country. The executive orders made by the President of the United States, for example, are decrees. In non-legal English usage, the term refers to any authoritarian decision. Documents or archives in the format of royal decrees or farming were issued by rulers. In Belgium, a decree is a law of regional parliament, e.g. the Flemish Parliament. The word décret "decree", is an old legal usage in France and is used to refer to executive orders issued by the French President or Prime Minister. Any such order must not violate the French Constitution or Civil Code, a party has the right to request an order be annulled in the French Council of State. Orders must be ratified by Parliament. Special orders known as décret-loi "decree-act" or "decree-law" considered an illegal practice under the 3rd and 4th Republic, were abolished and replaced by the ordinances under the 1958 Constitution.
Except for the reserve powers of the President, the executive can issue decrees in areas that the Constitution grants as the responsibility of Parliament only if a law authorizes it to do so. In other cases, orders are illegal and, should anyone sue for the order's annulment, it would be voided by the Council of State. There exists a procedure for the Prime Minister to issue ordinances in such areas, but this procedure requires Parliament's express consent. Orders issued by the Prime Minister take two forms: Orders. Sometimes, people refer to décrets en Conseil d'État improperly as décrets du Conseil d'État; this would imply that it is the Council of State that takes the decree, whereas the power of decreeing is restricted to the president or prime minister. Decrees may be classified into: Regulations, which may be: Application decrees, each of which must be authorized by one or more statutes to determine some implementation conditions of this or these statutes. Only the prime minister may issue regulatory or application decrees.
Presidential decrees are nominations or exceptional measures where law mandates a presidential decree, such as the dissolution of the French National Assembly and the calling of new legislative elections. Decrees are published in the Journal Officiel de la République Française or "French Gazette". A decree in the usage of the canon law of the Catholic Church has various meanings. Any papal bull, brief, or motu proprio is a decree inasmuch as these documents are legislative acts of the pope. In this sense the term is quite ancient; the Roman Congregations were empowered to issue decrees in matters which come under their particular jurisdiction, but were forbidden from continuing to do so under Pope Benedict XV in 1917. Each ecclesiastical province and each diocese may issue decrees in their periodical synods within their sphere of authority. While in a general sense all documents promulgated by an ecumenical council can be called decrees. in a specific sense some of these documents, as at the Second Vatican Council, were called more constitutions or declarations.
Canon 29 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law offers a definition of general decrees: General decrees, by which a competent legislator makes common provisions for a community capable of receiving a law, are true laws and are regulated by the provisions of the canons on laws. The Holy See uses decrees from the pope such as papal bull, papal brief or motu proprio as legislative acts. According clause 77 of the Italian Constitution, "The Government may not, without an enabling act from the Houses, issue decrees having the force of ordinary law; when in extraordinary cases of necessity and urgency the Government adopts provisional measures having the force of law, it must on the same day present said measures for confirmation to the Houses which if dissolved, shall be summoned for this purpose and shall convene within five days. The decrees lose effect from their inception if they are not confirmed within sixty days from their publication; the Houses may however regulate by law legal relationships arising out of not confirmed decrees."
The effectiveness for sixty days produces the effects giving rights or expectations whose legal basis was in fact precarious when the conversion law never intervened. In Portugal, there are several types of decrees issued by the various bodies of sovereignty or by the bodies of self-government of autonomous regions. There are the following types of decrees: Decree-law: is a legislative act issued by the Government of Portugal under its legislative powers defined by Article 198 of the Portuguese Constitution.
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different countries, constituent states, trade unions, political parties or other groups. The term denoting a parley during battle in the Late Middle Ages, is derived from the Latin congressus. In the mid-1770s, the term was chosen by the 13 British colonies for the Continental Congress to emphasize the status of each colony represented there as a self-governing entity. Subsequent to the use of congress as the name for the legislature of the U. S. federal government, the term has been adopted by many nations to refer to their national legislatures. The following congresses were formal meetings of representatives of different nations: The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of Devolution The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of the Austrian Succession The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle The Congress of Berlin, which settled the Eastern Question after the Russo-Turkish War The Congress of Gniezno The Congress of Laibach The Congress of Panama, an 1826 meeting organized by Simon Bolivar.
The Congress of Paris, which ended the Crimean War The Congress of Troppau The Congress of Tucumán The Congress of Utrecht The Congress of Verona The Congress of Vienna, which settled the shape of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars The Congress of the Council of Europe. Countries with Congresses and presidential systems: The Congress of Guatemala is the unicameral legislature of Guatemala; the National Congress of Honduras is the legislative branch of the government of Honduras. The Congress of Mexico is the legislative branch of Mexican government; the Congress of Paraguay is the bicameral legislature of Paraguay. The Congress of the Argentine Nation is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina; the Congress of the Dominican Republic is the bicameral legislature of the Dominican Republic. The Palau National Congress is the bicameral legislative branch of the Republic of Palau; the Congress of the Federated States of Micronesia is the unicameral legislature of the Federated States of Micronesia.
The Congress of the Philippines is the legislative branch of the Philippine government. The Congress of the Republic of Peru is the unicameral legislature of Peru; the Congress of Colombia is the bicameral legislature of Colombia. The United States Congress is the bicameral legislative branch of the United States federal government; the National Congress of Bolivia was the national legislature of Bolivia before being replaced by the Plurinational Legislative Assembly. The National Congress of Brazil is Brazil's bicameral legislature; the National Congress of Chile is the legislative branch of the government of Chile. The National Congress of Ecuador was the unicameral legislature of Ecuador before being replaced by the National Assembly; the Congress of Mauritania France: Although France has a Parliament, the term Congress is used on two circumstances: the Congress of the French Parliament, name used when both houses sit together as a single body at the Palace of Versailles, to vote on revisions to the Constitution, to listen to an address by the President of the French Republic, and, in the past, to elect the President of the Republic the Congress of New Caledonia, a territorial assembly ICCA Congress & Exhibition The Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution.
The Congress of the Confederation was the legislature of the United States under the Articles of Confederation. The National Congress of Belgium was a temporary legislative assembly in 1830, which created a constitution for the new state. In France, the Congress of France denotes a formal and convened joint session of both houses of Parliament to ratify an amendment to the Constitution or to listen to a speech by the President of the French Republic. Spanish Congress of Deputies, the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch; the legislature of the People's Republic of China is known in English as the National People's Congress. The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union was the legislature and nominal supreme institution of state power in the Soviet Union from 1989 to 1991. Congress of People's Deputies of Russia, a Russian institution modeled after USSR one, existed in 1990—1993. Congress is included in the name of several political parties those in former British colonies: Guyana People's National Congress India Indian National Congress All India Trinamool Congress Kerala Congress Nationalist Congress Party Tamil Maanila Congress YSR Congress BSR Congress All India N.
R. Congress Lesotho Basotho Congress Party Lesotho Congress for Democracy Lesotho People's Congress Malawi Malawi Congress Party Malaysia Malaysian Indian Congress Namibia Congress of Democrats Pakistan Peoples Revolutionary Congress Pakistan Sudan National Congress Fiji National Congress of Fiji Canary Islands National Congress of the Canaries Nepal Nepali Congress Sierra Leone All People's Congress South Africa African National Congress Congress of the People Pan-Africanist Congress Sri Lanka All Ceylon Tamil Congress Sri Lanka Muslim Congress Swaziland Ngwane National Liberatory Congress Trinidad and
Conseil d'État (France)
In France, the Council of State is a body of the French national government that acts both as legal adviser of the executive branch and as the supreme court for administrative justice. Established in 1799 by Napoleon as a successor to the King's Council, it is located in the Palais-Royal in Paris and is made up of top-level legal officers; the Vice President of the Council of State ranks 9th as the most important civil servant in France. Members of the Conseil D'État are part of a Grand Corps of the French State; the Conseil D'État recruits among the top ranking students graduating from the École nationale d'administration. A General Session of the Council of State is presided over by the Prime Minister or, in his absence, the Minister of Justice. However, since the real presidency of the Council is held by the Vice-President, he presides all but the most ceremonial assemblies; this is done for obvious reasons pertaining to the separation of powers. Other members of the Council include, by decreasing order of importance: Department heads Councillors ordinary Councillors extraordinary Masters of requests Master of requests extraordinary Senior masters Masters The Vice-President is appointed by Order-in-Council on the recommendation of the Minister of Justice and is selected from among the Council's department heads or councillors ordinary.
Division heads are appointed and selected from among the councillors ordinary. Councillors ordinary, masters of requests, senior masters are appointed based on seniority from the preceding rank. Appointees from outside the Council may include administrative law judges or may come from outside the justice system. Masters are recruited from among the graduates of France's National Administration Academy; the Council sits in the Palais Royal located in Paris. The Council is divided into 7 divisions: Administrative Claims — see below. Report and Studies: writes the annual report, conducts studies and helps to oversee judgments and verdicts are carried out. Finances, the Interior and Social Security, Public Works and Administrative Issues review any and all Cabinet-issued orders and statutory instruments and examine and sign off on all Orders of Council; these reviews, though mandatory, are not binding. The Council of State studies legal issues and problems brought before the Cabinet. In addition, it is responsible for carrying out administrative court inspections.
The Council of State originates from the 13th century by which time the King's Court had split into three sections, one of, the King's Council, which too broke up into three distinct parts: the Conseil secret'Privy Council', the Conseil privé'Private Council', Conseil des finances'Council of Finances'. Reorganized under Louis XIV into two major groupings, it was the Conseil d'État privé, finances et direction, the direct ancestor of the Council of State, it brought together legal experts to advise the King on claims against the Crown. Established in 1557, this was the largest of the King's Councils made up of France's High Chancellor, lords of peerage and Secretaries of State, the Comptroller-General, 30 Councillors of State, 80 masters of requests, the Intendants of Finance; the judicial portion of the Council was known as the Conseil d'État Conseil des parties. The kings, who had the power to dispense justice and hand down judgments as the court of last resort, delegated this judicial power to royal courts and parlements.
But the French king still retained the power to override them at will. French kings maintained their privilege to decide major issues and hand down judgements when administrative acts were in dispute; the judgments of the King's Council of State were regarded as being issued under the King's residual proper jurisdiction, that is, the sovereign's reserved power to dispense justice in certain matters. Legal advisors assisted the King in developing new laws and, by delegated jurisdiction, directly exercised sovereign rights. For more on French government administration during the Old Regime, see Ancien Régime in France; the current Council of State was established by the French Consulate government in 1799 as a judicial body mandated to adjudicate claims against the State and assist in the drafting of important laws. The First Consul presided over Council sessions, the Council performed many of the functions of a Cabinet. After the Bourbon Restoration, the Council was retained as an administrative court but without its former prominence.
Its role was more defined by an 1872 Act of Parliament. Certain types of statutory instruments must be examined by the Council and receive its advisory approval, including: All draft legislation proposed by non-parliamentary members and prior to being introduced before Parliament. Orders-in-council, signed by the Prime Minister and cabinet ministers. A statutory law will authorize, prescribe, or prohibit an action defined in broad terms and require a government order to define its scope and a
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script