Culture of East Timor
The Culture of East Timor reflects numerous cultural influences, including Portuguese, Roman Catholic, Malay, on the indigenous Austronesian cultures in East Timor. Timor-Leste become a state party to the UNESCO World Heritage Convention on 31 January 2017, it has yet to nominate possible inscriptions in any UNESCO networks such as UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, World Heritage List, World Network of Biosphere Reserves, Creative Cities Network, Global Geoparks Network. Major contenders for the country includes Atauro Island, which Conservation International has cited as having the most biodiverse waters in the world, Cultural Landscape of the Fataluku, Historic Monuments of Dili. East Timorese architecture and landscaping is a combination of both Portuguese and indigenous Timorese. Many heritage districts, heritage towns, heritage structures have been retained in Timor-Leste, unlike its Southest Asian neighbors whose architectural styles have been dreadfully replaced by modern and shanty structures that have destroyed cultural domains.
Timor-Leste does not yet have a policy to conserve its architecture and landscapes, but is still one of the few nations in Asia to possess well-preserved indigenous architecture and colonial architecture. A proposal is being made by some locals for the establishment of a law which mandates all villages to have a single architectural and landscaping style to preserve their village/town aesthetics and culture; the most famous East Timorese author is Xanana Gusmão, the leader of the Timorese resistance organization Fretilin, former Prime Minister of independent East Timor. He wrote two books during the struggle for independence. A poet and painter, he produced works describing the culture and skills of the Timorese people. Other important writers of Timor include: Luís Cardoso, Fernando Sylvan, Ponte Pedrinha, Jorge Barros Duarte, Crisódio Araujo, Jorge Lauten, Francisco Borja da Costa, Afonso Busa Metan and Fitun Fuik. East Timor has been nominally Catholic since early in the Portuguese colonial period.
The Catholic faith became a central part of East Timorese culture during the Indonesian occupation between 1975 and 1999. While under Portuguese rule, the East Timorese had been animist, sometimes integrated with minimal Catholic ritual, the number of Catholics increased under Indonesian rule; this was for several reasons: Indonesia was predominantly Muslim. The'Apostolic Administrator' of the Diocese of Dili, Monsignor Martinho da Costa Lopes, began speaking out against human rights abuses by the Indonesian security forces, including rape, torture and disappearances. Following pressure from Jakarta, he stepped down in 1983 and was replaced by the younger priest, Monsignor Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, who Indonesia thought would be more loyal. However, he too began speaking out, not only against human rights abuses, but the issue of self-determination, writing an open letter to the Secretary General of the United Nations, calling for a referendum. In 1996 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, along with exiled leader José Ramos-Horta, now the country's President.
In spite of accusations by the Suharto regime that East Timor's independence movement, was communist, many of its leaders had trained to be priests, their philosophy owed more to the Catholic liberation theology of Latin America than to Marxism. However, in spite of the majority of the country's people now being Catholics, there is freedom of religion in the new secular republic, the former Prime Minister Marí Alkatiri, is a Muslim of Yemeni descent. East Timor has joined many international sport associations, including the International Olympic Committee; the IOC board has granted full recognition to the East Timorese Olympic Committee. The IOC had allowed a symbolic four-member team to take part in the 2000 Sydney Games under the Olympic flag as "Independent Olympic Athletes." The Federação de Timor-Leste de Atletismo has joined the International Association of Athletics Federations. The Federação de Badminton de Timor-Leste joined the International Badminton Federation in April 2003; the East Timor Cycling Federation has joined the Union Cycliste Internationale.
The Confederação do. East Timor is a full member of the International Table Tennis Federation. East Timor has taken part in several sporting events. Although the athletes came back with no medals, East Timorese athletes had the opportunity to compete with other Southeast Asian athletes in the 2003 Southeast Asian Games held in Vietnam in 2003. In the 2003 ASEAN Paralympics Games held in Vietnam, East Timor won a bronze medal. In the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, six athletes participated in three sports: athletics and boxing. East Timor won three medals in Arnis at the 2005 Southeast Asian Games. East Timor was one of the competing nations in the first Lusophony Games, winning a bronze medal in the women's volleyball competition, despite the fact the team had lost all its three games. On October 30, 2008, East Timor earned their first international points in a FIFA match with a 2–2 draw against Cambodia. Horse Racing is a popular sport in Timor Leste. Although less than 14 hands high, the Timor pony is used.
It is renowned for its strength. Regional race meets are held throughout Timor-Leste. An extensive c
Public holidays in the Philippines
This is a list of public holidays in the Philippines. On July 25, 1987, President Corazon Aquino promulgated the Administrative Code of the Philippines. Chapter 7- of this code specified a list of ten nationwide regular holidays and two nationwide special days and provided that the President may proclaim any local special day for a particular date, group or place. Seven of the regular holidays were specified with fixed dates, two with movable dates, one was specified to fall on the Last Sunday of August; the code did not specify how the movable dates were to be determinedIn 2001, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo decided to include holiday manipulation known as Holiday Economics as part of the then-new government’s list of principal economic policies, moving the celebration dates for holidays occurring on midweek days to weekend days. This was codified by Republic Act. No. 9492, approved on July 25, 2007, which replaced the list of holidays and special days. This act had been specified by the Administrative Code with a new list of eleven national holidays and three nationwide special days.
The act provided that Eidul Adha shall be celebrated as a regional holiday in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. The act specified two of the holidays and one special day with fixed dates, five of the holidays and two special days as occurring on a Monday nearest to or preceding specified dates, two of the holidays as having movable dates; the act mandated that the President shall issue a proclamation for specifying the specific date movable holidays at least six months prior to the holiday concerned. The act specified that holidays falling on a Wednesday will be observed on the Monday of that week, that holidays falling on a Sunday will be observed on the Monday that follows, provided that regular holidays and special days may be modified by order or proclamation. Presidential Proclamations issued subsequent to the promulgation of Republic Act No. 9492 established celebration dates for national holidays and special days, established new holidays and special days, some nationwide and some local to specified localities.
The Labor Code of the Philippines specifies two types of holidays: the "regular holiday" and the "special non-working day". There is a difference in the pay that employers are required to pay between the two type of holidays. There is a difference in what is closed and in how the days are declared. On top of these pay rules, an employee shall be given an additional 30% if the holiday falls on his or her rest day, an additional 30% if he or she works overtime. Independence Day was celebrated on July 4–-the date of the Philippine independence from the United States in 1946, a date chosen because it was American Independence Day. On May 12, 1962, President Diosdado Macapagal issued Presidential Proclamation No. 28, which declared Tuesday, June 12 a special public holiday throughout the Philippines, "... in commemoration of our people's declaration of their inherent and inalienable right to freedom and independence." On August 4, 1964, Republic Act No. 4166 renamed July 4 holiday as "Philippine Republic Day", proclaimed June 12 as "Philippine Independence Day", enjoined all citizens of the Philippines to observe the latter with befitting rites.
In 1955, President Ramón Magsaysay issued Presidential Proclamation No. 212, s. 1955, which established the observance of Philippine–American Day every November 15, the anniversary of the 1935 inauguration of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. Sometime during the administration of President Ferdinand Marcos, Philippine–American Day was renamed "Philippine–American Friendship Day" and moved to July 4, overshadowing the observance of the date as Republic Day. After the Third Republic and the abolition of the 1935 Constitution under Martial Law, it was impolitic to remind the public of the old republic; this is why, when President Marcos issued Presidential Proclamation No. 2346 s. 1984, reference was made to Philippine–American Friendship Day, relegated to a working holiday without mention of Republic Day. During the administration of President Corazon C. Aquino, the practice of celebrating July 4 as both Philippine–American Friendship Day and Republic Day as a non-working holiday was formally abolished.
Section 26 of the Administrative Code of 1987 specified a list of regular holidays and nationwide special days that did not include July 4. Philippine cities, municipalities, or barangays observe one or more holidays. Being a predominantly Catholic country, these are the feasts of the locale's one or more patron saints. Secular observances mark a government's founding day or the birth or death of a prominent native; these are celebrated with parades, processions and feasting, as well as whatever local customs are traditional. Local holidays for the most part are applicable only to the immediate area concerned, barangay fiestas do not warrant a public holiday for the area unless otherwise ordered; such holidays are declared as special non-working day and is proclaimed by the President. Regular holiday and special non-working day have different pay rules. On a regular holiday, if the employee did not work, the employee is entitled 100% of his daily wage. However, special non-working day follows a'No Work, No Pay' principle.
Therefore, the employee is not entitled to any compensation. If the employee works on the special non-working day, the employee shall be entitled to an additional compensation of 30% of his regular daily wage
Public holidays in Azerbaijan
Holidays in Azerbaijan were regulated in the Constitution of Azerbaijan SSR for the first time on 19 May 1921 by the Azeri leader Nariman Narimanov. Through the history non-working days have changed. Non-working days in Azerbaijan include the following: National days in Azerbaijan that are working days follows: January 30 – Day of Azerbaijani customs February 2 – Day of Youth in Azerbaijan February 11 – Day of Revenue Service February 26 – Day of Remembrance for Victims of Khojaly massacre March 5 – Day of Physical Culture and Sport March 28 – Day of National Security March 31 – Day of Genocide of Azerbaijanis March 23 – Day of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources April 10 – Day of the builder May 10 – Flower Festival June 2 – Day of Civil Aviation June 5 – Day of Reclamation June 18 Human Rights Day June 20 – Day of the gas sector July 2 – Day of Azerbaijani police July 9 – Day of the employees of the diplomatic service July 22 – National Press Day in Azerbaijan August 1 – Day of Azerbaijani language and alphabet.
August 2 – National Day of Azerbaijani cinema September 15 – Day of Knowledge September 18 – Day of National Music September 20 – Day of Azerbaijani Oil / Oil Workers' Day October 1 – Day of prosecutors in Azerbaijan October 13 – Day of Azerbaijani Railway October 18 - Independence Day November 6 – Day of Baku Metro Employees November 12 – Constitution Day November 22 – Day of Justice of Azerbaijan December 6 – Day of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies of Azerbaijan December 16 – Day of Azerbaijani Ministry of Emergency Situations Only the holidays of Ramadan and Qurban remain as non-working religious days in Azerbaijan as the country is secular and irreligious. The religious population of the country in Nardaran and a number of other villages and regions celebrate the Day of Ashura, a Shia mourning day in the Islamic calendar. Religious minorities of the country – Orthodox Christians and Jews - celebrate notable religious days of their faith. Despite the fact that the holiday Novruz takes its roots from the religion of Zoroastranism all Azerbaijanis celebrates it as a holiday of spring.
Holidays of Azerbaijan
Abkhazia the Republic of Abkhazia, is a de facto and recognized republic on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of the Greater Caucasus mountains, in northwestern Georgia. It covers 8,660 square kilometres and has a population of around 240,000, its capital is Sukhumi and it is recognised as a state by Russia, Nicaragua and Syria. While Georgia lacks control over Abkhazia, the Georgian government and most United Nations member states consider Abkhazia part of Georgia, whose constitution designates the area as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia; the status of Abkhazia is a central issue of the Georgian–Abkhazian conflict and Georgia–Russia relations. The region had autonomy within Soviet Georgia at the time when the Soviet Union began to disintegrate in the late 1980s. Simmering ethnic tensions between the Abkhaz—the region's "titular ethnicity"—and Georgians—the largest single ethnic group at that time—culminated in the 1992–1993 War in Abkhazia which resulted in Georgia's loss of control of most of Abkhazia, the de facto independence of Abkhazia, the ethnic cleansing of Georgians from Abkhazia.
Despite the 1994 ceasefire agreement and years of negotiations, the dispute remains unresolved. The long-term presence of a United Nations Observer Mission and a Russian-led Commonwealth of Independent States peacekeeping force failed to prevent the flare-up of violence on several occasions. In August 2008, Abkhaz forces fought against Georgian forces during the Russo-Georgian War, which led to the formal recognition of Abkhazia by Russia, the annulment of the 1994 ceasefire agreement, the termination of the UN mission. On 28 August 2008, the Parliament of Georgia declared Abkhazia a Russian-occupied territory, a stance supported by the vast majority of the international community; the Abkhazians call their homeland Аҧсны, popularly etymologised as "a land/country of the soul", yet meaning "a country of mortals". It first appeared in the seventh century in an Armenian text as Psin referring to the historical Apsilians; the state is formally designated as the "Republic of Abkhazia" or "Apsny".
The Russian Абхазия is adapted from the Georgian აფხაზეთი. In Mingrelian, Abkhazia is known as აბჟუა or სააფხაზო. Abkhazia's names in Western languages derived directly from the Russian form: Abkhazie in French. Between the 9th and 6th centuries BC, the territory of modern Abkhazia was part of the ancient Georgian kingdom of Colchis; this kingdom was subsequently absorbed in 63 BC into the Kingdom of Lazica. Between 1000 and 550 BC, the Greeks established trade colonies along the Black Sea coast of present-day Abkhazia, in particular at Pitiunt and Dioscurias, to become the capital of modern-day Abkhazia. Classical authors described various peoples living in the region and the great multitude of languages they spoke. Arrian and Strabo have given accounts of the Abasgoi and Moschoi peoples somewhere in modern Abkhazia on the eastern shore of the Black Sea; the Roman Empire conquered Lazica in the 1st century AD and ruled it until the 4th century, following which it regained a measure of independence, but remained within the Byzantine Empire's sphere of influence.
Although the exact time when the population of the region of Abkhazia was converted to Christianity has not been determined, it is known that the Stratophilus, Metropolitan of Pityus participated in the First Ecumenical Council in 325 in Nicaea. Around the mid 6th century AD, the Byzantines and the neighbouring Sassanid Persia fought for supremacy over Abkhazia for 20 years, a conflict known as the Lazic War. In 550, during the Lazic War, the Abasgians revolted against the Eastern Roman Empire and called upon Sasanian assistance. General Bessas however suppressed the Abasgian revolt. Abkhazia, or Abasgia in classic sources part of Colchis and of Lazica until the late 690s, was a princedom under Byzantine authority. Anacopia was the princedom's capital; the country was Christian, with the archbishop's seat in Pityus. An Arab incursion into Abkhazia led by Marwan II, was repelled by Leon I jointly with his Lazic and Iberian allies in 736. Leon I married Mirian’s daughter, a successor, Leon II exploited this dynastic union to acquire Lazica in the 770s.
Considered as a successor state of Lazica, this new polity continued to be referred to as Egrisi in some contemporary Georgian and Armenian chronicles. The successful defense against the Arabs, new territorial gains, gave the Abkhazian princes enough power to claim more autonomy from the Byzantine Empire. Towards circa 778, Leon II won his full independence with the help of the Khazars. During this period the Georgian language replaced Greek as the language of culture; the western Georgian kingdom flourished between 850 and 950 when it annexed significant parts of central Georgia. A period of unrest ensued, which ended as Abkhazia and eastern Georgian states were unified under a single Georgian monarchy, ruled by King Bagrat III at the end of the 10th century and the beginning of the 11th century. In 12th
International Women's Day
International Women's Day is celebrated on March 8 every year. It is a focal point in the movement for women's rights. A New York textile factory caught on fire on 8 March 1908, with the owner trapping his female workers inside to prevent them from striking with other factory workers, he had been forcing them to work 10-hour days, making fabric of lilac color. 129 workers died in the fire. The colors of the fabric they were working on were chosen as the symbol of the international women's rights movement. After the Socialist Party of America organized a Women's Day on February 1909, in New York. At the 1910 International Socialist Woman's Conference suggested German revolutionary Clara Zetkin proposed that 8 March be honored as a day annually in memory of working women; the day has been celebrated as International Women's Day or International Working Women's Day since. For women at that meeting, the day was about demanding the right to work without discrimination. After women gained suffrage in Soviet Russia in 1917, March 8 became a national holiday there.
The day was predominantly celebrated by the socialist movement and communist countries until it was adopted by the feminist movement in about 1967. The United Nations began celebrating the day in 1975. Commemoration of International Women's Day today ranges from being a public holiday in some countries to being ignored elsewhere. In some places, it is a day of protest. International Men's Day is celebrated on November 19; the earliest Women's Day observance, called "National Woman's Day," was held on February 28, 1909, in New York, organized by the Socialist Party of America at the suggestion of activist Theresa Malkiel. Though there have been claims that the day was commemorating a protest by women garment workers in New York on March 8, 1857, researchers have described this as a myth. In August 1910, an International Socialist Women's Conference was organized to precede the general meeting of the Socialist Second International in Copenhagen, Denmark. Inspired in part by the American socialists, German Socialist Luise Zietz proposed the establishment of an annual Women's Day and was seconded by fellow socialist and communist leader Clara Zetkin, supported by socialist activist Käte Duncker, although no date was specified at that conference.
Delegates agreed with the idea as a strategy to promote equal rights including suffrage for women. The following year on March 19, 1911, IWD was marked for the first time, by over a million people in Austria, Denmark and Switzerland. In the Austro-Hungarian Empire alone, there were 300 demonstrations. In Vienna, women paraded on the Ringstrasse and carried banners honouring the martyrs of the Paris Commune. Women demanded that they be given the right to hold public office, they protested against employment sex discrimination. The Americans continued to celebrate National Women's Day on the last Sunday in February. In 1913 Russian women observed their first International Women's Day on the last Saturday in February. In 1914 International Women's Day was held on March 8 in Germany because that day was a Sunday, now it is always held on March 8 in all countries; the 1914 observance of the Day in Germany was dedicated to women's right to vote, which German women did not win until 1918. In London there was a march from Bow to Trafalgar Square in support of women's suffrage on March 8, 1914.
Activist Sylvia Pankhurst was arrested in front of Charing Cross station on her way to speak in Trafalgar Square. On March 8, 1917, on the Gregorian calendar, in the capital of the Russian Empire, women textile workers began a demonstration, covering the whole city; this marked the beginning of the February Revolution, which alongside the October Revolution made up the Russian Revolution. Women in Saint Petersburg went on strike that day for "Bread and Peace" – demanding the end of World War I, an end to Russian food shortages, the end of czarism. Revolutionary leader Leon Trotsky wrote, "23 February was International Woman's Day and meetings and actions were foreseen, but we did not imagine. Revolutionary actions were foreseen but without date, but in the morning, despite the orders to the contrary, textile workers left their work in several factories and sent delegates to ask for support of the strike… which led to mass strike... all went out into the streets." Seven days Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, the provisional Government granted women the right to vote.
Following the October Revolution, the Bolshevik Alexandra Kollontai and Vladimir Lenin made it an official holiday in the Soviet Union, but it was a working day until 1965. On May 8, 1965, by the decree of the USSR Presidium of the Supreme Soviet International Women's Day was declared a non-working day in the USSR "in commemoration of the outstanding merits of Soviet women in communistic construction, in the defense of their Fatherland during the Great Patriotic War, in their heroism and selflessness at the front and in the rear, marking the great contribution of women to strengthening friendship between peoples, the struggle for peace, but still, women's day must be celebrated as are other holidays." From its official adoption in Soviet Russia following the Revolution in 1917, the holiday was predominantly celebrated in communist countries and by the communist movement worldwide. Communist leader Dolores Ibárruri led a women's march in Madrid in 1936 on the eve of the Spanish Civil War, it was commemorated by the communists in China from 1922.
In 1927, in the Chinese city of Guangzhou, there was a march of 25,000 women and male supporters, including re
A flag day is a flag-related holiday, a day designated for flying a certain flag or a day set aside to celebrate a historical event such as a nation's adoption of its flag. Flag days are codified in national statutes passed by legislative bodies or parliaments; the statute or proclamation / decree may specify locations where flags are flown and how are they flown. National Day Republic Day Independence Day Public holiday Media related to Flag day at Wikimedia Commons
Ishmael, a figure in the Tanakh and the Quran, was Abraham's first son according to Jews and Muslims. Ishmael was born to Sarah's handmaiden Hagar. According to the Genesis account, he died at the age of 137; the Book of Genesis and Islamic traditions consider Ishmael to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites and patriarch of Qaydār. According to Muslim tradition, Ishmael the Patriarch and his mother Hagar are buried next to the Kaaba in Mecca; the name Yishma'el existed in "various ancient Semitic cultures", including early Babylonian and Minæan. It is a theophoric name translated as "God has hearkened", suggesting that "a child so named was regarded as the fulfillment of a divine promise"; this is the account of Ishmael from Genesis Chapters 16, 17, 21, 25 In Genesis 16, the birth of Ishmael was planned by the Patriarch Abraham's first wife, who at that time was known as Sarai. She and her husband Abram sought a way to have children in order to fulfill the Abrahamic covenant, established in Genesis 15.
Sarai had yet to bear Abraham a child. She had the idea to offer her Egyptian handmaiden Hagar to her husband so that they could have a child by her. Abraham conceived a child with her. Hagar began to show contempt for Sarah. Hagar fled into the desert region between Abraham's settlement and Shur. Genesis 16:7-16 describes the naming of Ishmael, God's promise to Hagar concerning Ishmael and his descendants; this occurred at the well of Beer-lahai-roi, where Hagar encountered an angel of God, who said to her "Behold, you are with child / And shall bear a son. Abraham was blessed. God would make of Ishmael a great nation. However, God told Hagar; when Ishmael was born, Abraham was 86 years old. When he was 13 years old, Ishmael was circumcised at the same time as all other males in Abraham's household, becoming a part of the covenant in a mass circumcision, his father Abram, given the new name "Abraham" 99, was circumcised along with the others. At the time of the covenant, God informed Abraham that his wife Sarah would give birth to a son, whom he was instructed to name Isaac.
God told Abraham that He would establish his covenant through Isaac, when Abraham inquired as to Ishmael's role, God answered that Ishmael has been blessed and that He "will make him fruitful, will multiply him exceedingly. God mentioned that "He will be a wild donkey of a man, His hand will be over everyone, And everyone's hand will be against him. A year Ishmael's half-brother Isaac was born to Abraham by his first wife Sarah when she was 90 years old, after she had ceased showing any signs of fertility. On the day of feasting during which Abraham celebrated the weaning of Isaac, Ishmael was "mocking" or "playing with" Isaac and Sarah asked Abraham to expel Ishmael and his mother, saying: "Get rid of that slave woman and her son, for that slave woman's son will never share in the inheritance with my son Isaac." Her demand was painful for Abraham. Abraham agreed only after God told him that "in Isaac your seed shall be called", that God would "make a nation of the son of the bondwoman" Ishmael, since he was a descendant of Abraham, God having told Abraham "I will establish My covenant with ", while making promises concerning the Ishmaelite nation.
At the age of 14, Ishmael was freed along with his mother. The Lord's covenant made clear Ishmael was not to inherit Abraham's house and that Isaac would be the seed of the covenant: "Take your son, your only son, whom you love and go to the region of Moriah." Abraham sent them away. Hagar entered in the wilderness of Beer-sheba where the two soon ran out of water and Hagar, not wanting to witness the death of her son, set the boy some distance away from herself, wept. "And God heard the voice of the lad" and sent his angel to tell Hagar, "Arise, lift up the lad, hold him in thine hand. And God "opened her eyes, she saw a well of water", from which she drew to save Ishmael's life and her own. "And God was with the lad. After roaming the wilderness for some time and his mother settled in the Desert of Paran, where he became an expert in archery, his mother found him a wife from the land of Egypt. They had twelve sons, his sons were: Nebaioth Kedar, father of the Qedarites, a northern Arab tribe that controlled the area between the Persian Gulf and the Sinai Peninsula.
According to tradition, he is the ancestor of the Quraysh tribe, thus of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Adbeel Mibsam Mishma Dumah Massa Hadad Tema Jetur Naphish Kedemah Ishmael had one known daughter, Mahalath or Basemath, the third wife of Esau. Ishmael appeared with Isaac at the burial of Abraham. Ishmael died at the age of 137. Historians and academics in the fields of linguistics and source criticism b