Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano y González referred to as Manuel Belgrano, was an Argentine economist, lawyer and military leader. He created the Flag of Argentina, he is regarded as one of the main Libertadores of the country. Belgrano was born in Buenos Aires, the fourth child of Italian businessman Domingo Belgrano y Peri and Josefa Casero, he came into contact with the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment while at university in Spain around the time of the French Revolution. Upon his return to the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, where he became a notable member of the criollo population of Buenos Aires, he tried to promote some of the new political and economic ideals, but found severe resistance from local peninsulars; this rejection led him to work towards a greater autonomy for his country from the Spanish colonial regime. At first, he unsuccessfully promoted the aspirations of Carlota Joaquina to become a regent ruler for the Viceroyalty during the period the Spanish King Ferdinand VII was imprisoned during the Peninsular War.
He favoured the May Revolution, which removed the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros from power on 25 May 1810. He was elected as a voting member of the Primera Junta; as a delegate for the Junta, he led the ill-fated Paraguay campaign. His troops were defeated by Bernardo de Velasco at the battles of Campichuelo and Paraguarí. Though he was defeated, the campaign initiated the chain of events that led to the Independence of Paraguay in May 1811, he retreated to the vicinity of Rosario, to fortify it against a possible royalist attack from the Eastern Band of the Uruguay River. While there, he created the flag of Argentina; the First Triumvirate did not approve the flag, but because of slow communications, Belgrano would only learn of that many weeks while reinforcing the Army of the North at Jujuy. There, knowing he was at a strategic disadvantage against the royalist armies coming from Upper Peru, Belgrano ordered the Jujuy Exodus, which evacuated the entire population of Jujuy Province to San Miguel de Tucumán.
His counter-offensive at the Battle of Tucumán resulted in a key strategic victory, it was soon followed by a complete victory over the royalist army of Pío Tristán at the Battle of Salta. However, his deeper incursions into Upper Perú led to defeats at Vilcapugio and Ayohuma, leading the Second Triumvirate to order his replacement as Commander of the Army of the North by the newly arrived José de San Martín. By the Asamblea del Año XIII had approved the use of Belgrano's flag as the national war flag. Belgrano went on a diplomatic mission to Europe along with Bernardino Rivadavia to seek support for the revolutionary government, he returned in time to take part in the Congress of Tucumán. He promoted the Inca plan to create a constitutional monarchy with an Inca descendant as Head of State; this proposal had the support of San Martín, Martín Miguel de Güemes, many provincial delegates, but was rejected by the delegates from Buenos Aires. The Congress of Tucumán approved the use of his flag as the national flag.
After this, Belgrano again took command of the Army of the North, but his mission was limited to protecting San Miguel de Tucumán from royalist advances while San Martín prepared the Army of the Andes for an alternative offensive across the Andes. When Buenos Aires was about to be invaded by José Gervasio Artigas and Estanislao López, he moved the Army southwards, but his troops mutinied in January 1820. Belgrano died of dropsy on 20 June 1820, his last words were: "¡Ay, Patria mía!". Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano was born in Buenos Aires on 3 June 1770, at his father's house, it was located near the Santo Domingo convent, at Santo Domingo street, between the streets Martín de Tours and Santísima Trinidad. Though the city was still rather small, the Belgranos lived at one of the wealthiest neighbourhoods. Manuel Belgrano was baptised at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral the following day; as he was born in the Americas he was considered a social class below the Peninsulars.
His father Domenico was Ligurian, from the town of Italy. His maternal last name was Peri, he changed his name "Domenico" to the Spanish "Domingo" as well. He was an Italian merchant authorised by the King of Spain to move to the Americas, had contacts in Spain, Rio de Janeiro, Britain, he promoted the establishment of the Commerce Consulate of Buenos Aires, which his son Manuel would lead years later. Belgrano's mother was María Josefa González Islas y Casero, born in the city of Santiago del Estero, Argentina; the family was the second richest in Buenos Aires, after the Escaladas. They had 16 sons. Domingo Belgrano Pérez managed a family business, arranged for his four daughters to marry merchants who would become his trusted agents in the Banda Oriental, Misiones Province, Spain; the eight living male sons followed different paths: Domingo José Estanislao became canon at the local cathedral, while Carlos José and José Gregorio joined the army. Manuel Belgrano was meant to follow his father's work, but when he developed other interests, it was his brother Francisco José María de Indias who continued the family business.
Belgrano completed his first studies at the San Carlos school, where he learned Latin, logic, physics
Argentine comics are one of the most important comic traditions internationally, the most important within Latin America, living its "Golden Age" between the 1940s and the 1960s. Soon after, in 1970, the theorist Oscar Masotta synthesized its contributions in the development of their own models of action comics, humor comics and folkloric comics and the presence of other artists; the first cartoons to appear in Argentina were editorial cartoons in political satire magazines at the end of the 19th century. These cartoons single panels evolved to multiple panel constructions with sequential action. Many used methods such as text indicating dialogue emanating from the speaker's mouth, or text below the drawings for dialogue and explanation. In the 1900s, comics continued to be political satire and commentary, but strips about normal life, called cuentos vivos began to appear. Text still appeared below each drawing with dialogue or explanation. Comics continued to be published in magazines. During this time, translations of comics from the United States, such as Cocoliche by Frederick Burr Opper, showed up in Argentina.
During the 1910s, the amount of comics made in Argentina grew by bounds. In 1912, the first Argentine comic strip proper, with speech balloons and recurring characters, Las aventuras de Viruta y Chicharrón, by Manuel Redondo, began being published in Caras y Caretas. Comics, such as Aventuras de un matrimonio aun sin bautizar, by 1917, Las diabluras de Tijereta was one of the lone strips that still put text at the bottom of each picture. Billiken, a children's magazine started in 1919 included some cartoons; the popularity of comics grew in the 1920s, children's comics gained popularity. The newspaper La Nación started publishing comics daily in 1920, comics, both foreign and domestic, were a big reason for the popularity of the newspaper Crítica. In 1928, the first publication containing comics, the magazine El Tony, began its run of more than 70 years. The'20s saw the first characters created and drawn by Dante Quinterno. In 1928 Quinterno's most important character, Patoruzú, first appeared.
The 1930s saw most important newspapers featuring comic strips. Patoruzú had its own magazine, which began publication in November 1936, it became one of the most important humor magazines of the 1940s, with a record of over 300,000 copies printed for one edition. During the late 1930s superheroes from the United States, such as Superman and Batman, began appearing in local magazines such as Pif Paf, giving a place to action comics; the Argentine comic had its golden age between the mid-1940s and the 1960s, the so-called Golden Age of Argentine Comics, when a number of foreign artists, including many Italians, arrived in Argentina following World War II. José Antonio Guillermo Divito's magazine Rico Tipo, launched on 16 November 1944, contained many comic strips and was published until 1972, it included Oscar Conti's Amarroto and many others. Intervalo magazine appeared in 1945, containing longer dialogs and text in comparison with comics edited in other houses. Patoruzito magazine appeared in 1945, containing a number of children's comics in addition to the adventures of young Paturuzú.
In 1948, local superhero Misterix got his own magazine, which included other action comics, which would become one of the most important the time period. It contained several Italian comics translated into Spanish, but that gave way to local creations; the late 1940s saw the arrival to Argentina of a circle of Italian writers and artists, which further improved the quantity and quality of the comics in Argentina. These included Mario Faustinelli, Hugo Pratt, Ivo Pavone, Dino Battaglia, who were known as the Venice Group; some Argentines, notably Alberto Breccia and Solano López, were considered honorary members of the Venice Group. A number of new publications appeared, such as Fantasía. During this decade, Héctor Oesterheld, one of the most prolific writers, Solano López created the Hora Cero magazine. Between the mid-1950s and mid-1960s, some of the most important Argentine comics were created, such as Héctor Oesterheld's El Eternauta. Another illustrator, Landrú, launched Tía Vicenta in 1957.
Prominently featuring his own political cartoons and those of colleagues such as Oski and Hermenegildo Sábat, its circulation grew to nearly half a million and became the most read magazine in Argentina before its banning order by the military government installed in 1966. Around 1960, of the 6 best selling publications, only one was foreign; the arrival of foreign publications from Mexico, with better paper and ink quality and lower prices, started a financial crisis in the Argentine comic industry, several publishers, including Oesterheld's Ediciones Frontera, had to close or be sold, which forced several artists and writers to go abroad. After the 1966 coup d'état, the comics industry suffered from both some censorship and from recurring economic downturns; the 1968 biographic graphic novel of Che Guevara by Oesterheld and Breccia was removed from circulation by the government and the originals destroyed. Never
Libertadores refers to the principal leaders of the Latin American wars of independence from Spain and Portugal. They are named that way in contrast with the Conquistadors, they were bourgeois criollos influenced by liberalism and in most cases with military training in the metropole. The flags of Venezuela and Ecuador follow Francisco de Miranda's design of 1806. Bolivia was named after Bolivar, who in turn was president of Colombia, Peru and twice of Venezuela. San Martín served as "President Protector" of Peru. In what today is part of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Costa Rica, Iturbide, a military leader revolted against the Viceroyalty of New Spain, founded an independent nation where he ascended as Emperor Aguistin I; the names of libertadores are used all over South America to name anything from towns and places to institutions and sports clubs. The most prestigious international club football competition in South America is named the Copa Libertadores in their honour. List of national founders Father of the Nation Founding Fathers of the United States Statues of the Liberators Robert Harvey.
Liberators: Latin America's Struggle for Independence. Woodstock, The Overlook Press, 2000. ISBN 1-58567-072-3 James Higgins; the Emancipation of Peru: British Eyewitness Accounts, 2014. Online at https://sites.google.com/site/jhemanperu Marion Lansing. Liberators and Heroes of South America. Boston, L. C. Page & Co. 1940. Irene Nicholson; the Liberators: A Study of Independence Movements in Spanish America. New York, Frederick A. Praeger, 1968. Pigna, Felipe. Libertadores de América. Buenos Aires: Planeta. ISBN 978-950-49-2420-3. "Sucre, Bolívar y San Martín" Argentine Ministry of Economy Copa Libertadores
Coat of arms of Argentina
The coat of arms of the Argentine Republic or Argentine shield was established in its current form in 1944, but has its origins in the seal of the General Constituent Assembly of 1813. It is supposed that it was chosen because of the existence of a decree signed on February 22 sealed with the symbol; the first mention of it in a public document dates to March 12 of that same year, in which it is stated that the seal had to be used by the executive power, that is, the second triumvirate. On April 13 the National Assembly coined the new silver and gold coins, each with the seal of the assembly on the reverse, on April 27 the coat of arms became a national emblem. Although the coat of arms is not shown on flags, the Buenos Aires-born military leader Manuel Belgrano ordered to paint it over the flag he gave to the city of San Salvador de Jujuy, during the Argentine War of Independence most flags had the coat of arms, it is unknown. It is mentioned that there were three men involved: Alvear and Vieytes, but it is known that a few years before, President Bernardino Rivadavia asked the Peruvian Antonio Isidoro Castro to create an Argentine coat of arms.
The coat of arms is a figure, in which at the top we find the gold-yellowed Sun of May found on the flag of Argentina. The rising sun symbolizes the rising of Argentina, as described in the first version of the Argentine National Anthem, se levanta a la faz de la tierra una nueva y gloriosa nación, meaning "a new and glorious nation rises to the surface of the Earth", it must be noticed how the verb "rise", in English and Spanish can be used to describe the motion of the Sun. In the center ellipse there are two shaking hands, connoting the unity of the provinces of Argentina; the hands come together to hold a pike, which represents power and willingness to defend freedom, epitomized by the Phrygian cap on the top of the spear. The blue and white colors are symbols of the Argentine people and the same colors of the Argentine flag; those derive from those utilised in the cockade promoting liberation from Spain, in the May Revolution in 1810, which in turn came about from the colours of the Borbonic dynasty.
The hands stand for friendship, peace and brotherhood. The pike is brown, the Phrygian cap is red, like the traditional French liberty cap; the proximity of the hands and the Phrygian cap, in addition to their individual meanings, represent the national motto of Argentina, en unión y libertad, illustrate the idea that in unity there is power, in power there is freedom. The Phrygian cap was worn by the inhabitants of Phrygia, in the Anatolian peninsula, is mistaken for being a Pileus; the Pileus was a hat that in ancient Rome became a symbol of freed slaves, who were touched by their owners with a wooden pike before setting them free. Laurel is another classical symbol. At the end of the ancient Olympic Games, the winner was given a laurel crown, since it has symbolized triumph and glory. Símbolos Nacionales de la República Argentina. Buenos Aires: Comisión Administradora de la Biblioteca del Congreso de la Nación. 1997. ISBN 950-691-036-7
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
Communications in Argentina
Communications in Argentina gives an overview of the postal, Internet, radio and newspaper services available in Argentina. The national postal service, Correo Argentino, was established in 1854, privatized in 1997, re-nationalized in 2003. There are no standard abbreviations for provinces' names; the format of the postal code was expanded in 1998 to include more specific information on location within cities. See Argentine postal code for details; the network was developed by ITT, grew following the system's nationalization in 1948 and the creation of the ENTel State enterprise. Its limitations notwithstanding, ENTel gave Argentines the widest access to phone service in Latin America. Following ENTel's privatization in 1990, a new numbering plan was enacted, the number of lines grew to cover the majority of households. A sizable minority of households, do not have land line telephone service, however; the growth of the mobile telephone market since the beginning of the economic recovery in 2003 has been impressive, with new customers now preferring a comparatively cheap cellular phone to land line household service.
As of January 2010, there are 9.2 million land lines, 50 million cellular phones and 143,000 public phones in the country. The domestic telephone trunk network is served by microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations, it carries a monthly traffic of about 1.3 billion local calls, 400 million inter-city calls and around 24 million outgoing international calls. International communications employ satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat; this system is replaced with a domestic fiber optic ring connecting the main cities. This link runs at 2.5 Gbit/s. From these head central offices, local calls are routed through 10 Gbit/s fiber optic links, or 3 × 155 Mbit/s microwave links; these links are spaced at about 30 km. Some of these links are spaced at 60 km and this makes communications unreliable in certain weather conditions. According to a report released in January 2006 by INDEC, mobile phone lines increased by 68.8% during 2005. Eleven million mobile phones were sold that year and, by these serviced three-quarters of the population over 14.
A growing minority of users are children under 14, something that has raised concern and debate in Argentine society. A private study conducted by Investigaciones Económicas Sectoriales, covering January–October 2006, found a 51.2% growth compared to the same period of 2005. Most of the phones are imported from Mexico; the monthly volume of calls made with these units more than doubles the number made on land lines. In the 1990s the Argentine telephone system was sold to two private corporations looking to invest in the local market: Telefónica, a telco from Spain, Telecom Argentina, owned by Telecom Italia and the Argentine Werthein family; the country was divided in two zones, within which one of the companies was the exclusive provider of the service. The service was deregulated in several steps, first allowing the participation of other companies to provide international phone call services mobile services and the domestic service. Telecom has Arnet. Other ISPs, such as Flash, hire the facilities of Telefónica.
Several newcomer companies in the telephone market offer high-speed broadband access, Voice over IP and other services to a restricted market group. The number of Internet users in the country as of 2011 has been estimated at 27 million, the number of registered domain names was approx. 1.7 million in August 2008 and the number of internet hosts in 2009, 6,025,000. Besides monthly-paid Internet connections, in Argentina there are a number of Internet service providers that have commercial agreements with the telephone companies for charging a higher communication rate to the user for that communication, though without any monthly fixed fee. There were around 12 million PCs registered in Argentina in 2011; the number of residential and business internet networks totaled around 5.7 million in 2011, of which around 5.5 million were broadband connections ADSL. The number of dial-up users has decreased drastically since 2005 in favor of broadband internet access; this latter service grew from under 800,000 networks in late 2005, to nearly 2.6 million by December 2007, to over 5 million by late 2010.
Wireless and satellite networks expanded markedly during 2008-09, totaled over 1.5 million in March 2011. Among residential users, 38.3% were located in Buenos Aires Province, 26.0% in the city of Buenos Aires, 8.2% in Córdoba and 7.4% in Santa Fe Province. Among companies and organizations, 788,000 connection contracts were valid as of March 2
Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize