Republic Day (Armenia)
Republic Day is a national holiday in Armenia marking the anniversary of the First Armenian Republic in 1918. It is celebrated with fireworks, torchlight marches and parties, it is considered to be the national day of Armenia. Shortly after the start of WW1 the Ottoman Empire began forcible expulsion of Armenians from the empire. Women and elderly people were forced to leave Armenia and go to Syria and Russia. 1 to 1.5 million people were killed in. Following the genocide, the Armenian National Council Declared its sovereignty on 28 May 1918. Armenia was proclaimed an independent republic on May 28, 1918; the republic experienced massive hunger, a massive influx of refugees. The republic was short lived, as of December 2, 1920, the Red Army entered Armenia and it was proclaimed it a Soviet Republic. Armenia regained its independence as the current Republic of Armenia in 1991; the Republic of Armenia celebrated its first Republic Day with a parade on Republic Square, led by Lieutenant General Norat Ter-Grigoryants.
The Republic Day celebrations conicide with the anniversary of the Battle of Sardarabad, which pushed the invading Ottoman Army out of Armenia. Every year, the President of Armenia, the Prime Minister of Armenia, the President of Artsakh visits the Sardarapat Memorial to lay a wreath at the monument. Many cultural and military events take place on Republic Day. 2018 marked the centennial of the founding of the First Armenian Republic. Armenia will spend 618 million Dram on events marking the anniversary; the ceremonies were attended by the President Armen Sarkissian, Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan, President of Artsakh Bako Sahakyan, Catholicos of All Armenians Karekin II. A ceremonial military parade was held at the memorial, which featured hundreds of soldiers dressed in military uniforms from the First Armenian, Soviet Army uniforms from World War II, as well as veterans of the Nagorno-Karabakh War. Armenia Marks Republic Day With Military ParadeՀեծելազորից մինչեւ «Սմերչ». Զինվորական շարանցում՝ Հայաստանի եւ Արցախի ԶՈՒ-ի մասնակցությամբ The First Republic Day Parade in 1992, Part 1 and Part 2
Independence Day (Armenia)
The Independence Day of Armenia is the main state holiday in Armenia. This date is celebrated on September 21. On August 23, 1990, Supreme Council of adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Armenia proclaiming the Armenian SSR abolished and the establishment of the Republic of Armenia. On September 21, 1991, the people of Armenia voted in a referendum to proclaim independence from the Soviet Union. Levon Ter-Petrosyan was elected the first president of Armenia in November 1991. On December 21, 1991, Armenia joined the Commonwealth of Independent States. Armenia gained independence formally on December 26 in connection with the dissolution of the USSR; this is the second independence of Armenia. The first led to the formation of the First Republic of Armenia; this republic was taken over by the USSR in 1920. A national awards ceremony of the President of Armenia for honouring military veterans and honoured citizens Historical events held at primary and secondary schools in Armenia Special programs in honour of the History of Armenia An armed forces exhibition is opened to the public Concerts at public squares in Yerevan Military parades celebrating the independence of Armenia have been held on Republic Square in Yerevan in 1992, 1996, 1999, 2006, 2011, 2016.
The celebrations begin as the parade commander arrives on Republic Square to receive the report from the Commandant of the Vazgen Sargsyan Military University on the readiness of the troops participating in the parade. At 10am, the President and the Prime Minister arrives as the parade commander orders the parade to present arms for the Defence minister of Armenia; the parade commander is driven on a Nissan Patrol SUV to the center of the square to inform the defense minister that the parade is now ready for inspection. The minister inspects the parade contingents and congratulates them on the holiday. At the conclusion of the inspection, the minister approaches the president on the tribune and says "Mr/Madam President, the troops of the Armed Forces of Armenia participating in the parade in honor of the anniversary of the independence of the Republic of Armenia, are ready for the parade. After the minister finishes their report to the president, the parade commander orders the parade to stand at ease, to where the Presidential Fanfare is sounded, the president delivers a holiday address to the troops.
At the conclusion of the address, the parade formations shout a threefold Oorah, followed by the playing of Mer Hayrenik by the massed bands of the general staff. The parade is ordered to prepare for the march past, with armed linemen and markers from the Honour Guard Battalion of the Ministry of Defense of Armenia marching to their post in front of the central tribune to provide the security for the march past; the parade commander orders the parade to march past the saluting base with the Corps of Drums from the Monte Melkonian Military College setting the pace of the parade led by its drum major, followed by the national colour guard and the parade contingents. The parade in 1996 celebrated the 5th anniversary of independence; the 1999 parade that celebrated the 8th anniversary of independence was commanded by Major General Manvel Grigoryan and inspected by Lieutenant General Vagharshak Harutiunyan. 2006 celebrated the 15th anniversary of Armenia's independence. The parade began with Defense Minister Serzh Sargsyan, Chief of Staff Mikael Harutyunyan inspecting the troops congratulating them on the holiday Armenia celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2011.
Inspecting the parade was Minister of Defence of Armenia Seyran Ohanyan, the Chief of the General Staff Colonel General Yuri Khatchaturov. A group representing the Russian Army's Base in Armenia took part in the parade alongside Armenian troops for the first time; the Military Police, a Peacekeeping Brigade, Frontier Troops of the National Security Service, Veterans of the Nagorno Karabakh Defense Army took part in the Parade. Armenia's 25th anniversary parade in 2016 was the biggest celebration in Armenia's history. Commanding the parade was Major General Andranik Magariyan, the commander of the 4th Army corps of the ground forces. More than 350,000 people were participants of the events. An international peace brigade from the United States, Italy and Greece took part in the parade. Independence day celebrations are held in diaspora countries such as Russia and the United States. In the United States Armenian-American youth organizations hold rallies and cultural programs on this day. List of national independence days Public holidays in Armenia Military parade Armenian Independence Day Celebrations, 2011 Armenian Independence Day Celebrations, 2016 Վարչապետ Նիկոլ Փաշինյանի ուղերձը ՀՀ անկախության 27-ամյակի առթիվ
World Teachers' Day
World Teachers' Day known as International Teachers Day, is held annually on October 5. Established in 1994, it commemorates the signing of the 1966 UNESCO/ILO Recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers, a standard-setting instrument that addresses the status and situations of teachers around the world; this recommendation outlines standards relating to education personnel policy and initial training as well as the continuing education of teachers, their employment, working conditions. World Teachers' Day aims to focus on "appreciating and improving the educators of the world" and to provide an opportunity to consider issues related to teachers and teaching. To celebrate World Teachers' Day, the UNESCO and Education International mounts a campaign each year to help give the world better understanding of teachers and the role they play in the development of students and society, they partner with the private sector such as media organizations to achieve this purpose. The campaign focus on different themes for every year.
For instance, "Empowering Teachers” is the theme for 2017. This was the year World Teachers' Day commemorated the 20th anniversary of the 1997 UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel, bringing the sometimes-neglected area of teaching personnel at Higher Education institutions into the conversation about the status of teachers. For 2018, the UNESCO adopted the theme: "The right to education means the right to a qualified teacher.” It commemorates the 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and serves as a reminder that the right to education cannot be realized without trained and qualified teachers. The UNESCO cites that everyone can help by celebrating the profession, by generating awareness about teacher issues and by ensuring that teacher respect is part of the natural order of things. Schools and students, for instance, prepare an occasion for teachers during this day. More than 100 countries commemorate World Teachers' Day and each holds its own celebrations such as the case of India, commemorating Teachers' Day every 5th of September.
List of Teachers' Days Teacher's Oath https://smartenglishnotes.com/2019/01/05/teachers-day-2019/ Queensland World Teachers' Day web site
The Armenian Genocide known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians citizens within the Ottoman Empire. The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, deported from Constantinople to the region of Ankara, 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of whom were murdered; the genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases—the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, the elderly, the infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian Desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery and massacre. Other ethnic groups were targeted for extermination in the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide, their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy.
Most Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide. Raphael Lemkin was moved by the annihilation of the Armenians to define systematic and premeditated exterminations within legal parameters and coin the word genocide in 1943; the Armenian Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides, because scholars point to the organized manner in which the killings were carried out. It is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust. Turkey denies. In recent years, Turkey has been faced with repeated calls to recognize them as genocide; as of 2018, 29 countries have recognized the mass killings as genocide, as have most genocide scholars and historians. The Armenian Genocide took place before the coining of the term genocide. English-language words and phrases used by contemporary accounts to characterise the event include "massacres", "atrocities", "annihilation", "holocaust", "the murder of a nation", "race extermination" and "a crime against humanity".
Raphael Lemkin coined "genocide" in 1943, with the fate of the Armenians in mind. It happened to the Armenians after the Armenians Hitler took action."The survivors of the genocide used a number of Armenian terms to name the event. Mouradian writes that Yeghern, or variants like Medz Yeghern and Abrilian Yeghern were the terms most used; the name Aghed translated as "Catastrophe", according to Beledian, the term most used in Armenian literature to name the event. After the coining of the term genocide, the portmanteau word Armenocide was used as a name for the Armenian Genocide. Works that seek to deny the Armenian Genocide attach qualifying words against the term genocide, such as "so-called", "alleged" or "disputed," or characterise it as a "controversy", or dismiss it as "Armenian allegations", "Armenian claims" or "Armenian lies", or employ euphemisms to avoid the word genocide, such as calling it a "tragedy for both sides", or "the events of 1915". American President Barack Obama's use of the term Medz Yeghern when referring to the Armenian Genocide has been described "as a means of avoiding the word genocide".
Several international organizations have conducted studies of the atrocities, each in turn determining that the term "genocide" aptly describes "the Ottoman massacre of Armenians in 1915–16". Among the organizations affirming this conclusion are the International Center for Transitional Justice, the International Association of Genocide Scholars, the United Nations' Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. In 2005, the International Association of Genocide Scholars affirmed that scholarly evidence revealed the "Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire began a systematic genocide of its Armenian citizens – an unarmed Christian minority population. More than a million Armenians were exterminated through direct killing, starvation and forced death marches"; the IAGS condemned Turkish attempts to deny the factual and moral reality of the Armenian Genocide. In 2007, the Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity produced a letter signed by 53 Nobel Laureates re-affirming the Genocide Scholars' conclusion that the 1915 killings of Armenians constituted genocide.
Bat Ye'or has suggested that "the genocide of the Armenians was a jihad". Ye'or holds jihad and what she calls "dhimmitude" to be among the "principles and values" that led to the Armenian Genocide; this perspective is challenged by Fà'iz el-Ghusein, a Bedouin Arab witness of the Armenian persecution, whose 1918 treatise aimed "to refute beforehand inventions and slanders against the Faith of Islam and against Moslems generally... hat the Armenians have suffered is to be attributed to the Committee of Union and Progress... T has been due to their nationalist fanaticism and their jealousy of the Armenians, to these alone. Arnold Toynbee writes that "the Young Turks made Pan-Islamism and Turkish Nationalism work together for their ends, but the development of their policy shows the Islamic element receding and the Nationalist gaining ground". Toynbee and various other sources report that many Armenians were spared death by marrying into Turkish families or converting to Islam. Concerned that Westerners would come to regard the "extermination of the Armenians" as "a black stain on the history of Islam, which the ages will not efface", El-Ghusein observes that many
Public holidays in China
There are seven official public holidays in mainland China. Each year's holidays are announced about three weeks before the start of the year by the General Office of the State Council. A notable feature of mainland Chinese holidays is that weekends are swapped with the weekdays next to the actual holiday to create a longer holiday period. Festivals in China have been around since the Qin Dynasty around 221-206 BC. During the more prosperous Tang Dynasty from AD 618-907, festivals involved less sacrifice and mystery to more entertainment. Culminating to the modern era Between the 1920s until around the 1970s, the Chinese began observing two sets of holidays, which were the traditional and what became "official", celebrating the accomplishments of the communist regime. There was a major reform in 2008, abolishing the Labour Day Golden Week and adding three traditional Chinese holidays. From at least 2000 until this reform, the Spring Festival public holiday began on New Year's Day itself. From 2008 to 2013 it was shifted back by one day to begin on Chinese New Year's Eve.
In 2014, New Year's Eve became a working day again, which provoked hostile discussion by netizens and academics. However, since 2015, Chinese New Year's Eve is swapped with nearby weekends so that people need not work on Chinese New Year's Eve. New Year: 1 day Spring Festival: 3 days Labour Day: 1 day National Day: 2 days total: 7 days New Year: 1 day Spring Festival: 3 days Labour Day: 3 days National Day: 3 days total: 10 days New Year: 1 day Spring Festival: 3 days Tomb-Sweeping Day: 1 day Labour Day: 1 day Dragon Boat Festival: 1 day Mid-Autumn Festival: 1 day National Day: 3 days total: 11 days New Year: 1 day Spring Festival: 3 days Tomb-Sweeping Day: 1 day Labour Day: 1 day Dragon Boat Festival: 1 day Mid-Autumn Festival: 1 day National Day: 3 days total: 11 days Holidays in China are complicated and are one of the least predictable among developed nations. In all these holidays, if the holiday lands on a weekend, the days will be reimbursed after the weekend; the Chinese New Year and National Day holidays are three days long.
The week-long holidays on May Day and National Day began in 2000, as a measure to increase and encourage holiday spending. The resulting seven-day or eight-day holidays are called "Golden Weeks", have become peak seasons for travel and tourism. In 2008, the Labor Day holiday was shortened to three days to reduce travel rushes to just twice a year, instead, three traditional Chinese holidays were added. If there is a three-day or four-day holiday, the government will declare it to be a seven-day or eight-day holiday. However, citizens are required to work during a nearby weekend. Businesses and schools would treat the affected Saturdays and Sundays as the weekdays that the weekend has been swapped with. Schedules might change during the year; the following is a graphical schematic of. Shift the Saturdays and Sundays nearby to make a 7-day holiday. People may need to work for 6 or 7 continuous days after the holiday. Shift the Saturdays and Sundays nearby to make a 7-day holiday; the holiday is from 1 October to 7.
People may need to work for 6 or 7 continuous days after the holiday. Wednesday: No weekend shifting; the holiday is only 1 day long. This is to prevent people from working for 7 continuous days since 2014. Sometimes shift the Sundays nearby to make a 4-day holiday. People may need to work for 6 continuous days after the holiday. Tuesday or Thursday: Shift the Saturdays and Sundays nearby to make a 3-day holiday. People may need to work for 6 continuous days after the holiday. Saturday or Sunday: The public holiday is transferred to Monday. In addition to these holidays, applicable to the whole population, there are four official public holidays applicable to specific sections of the population: The closeness of Labor Day and Youth Day resulted in an unexpectedly long break for schools in 2008 - the Youth Day half-holiday entitlement had been forgotten because it has been subsumed into the Golden Week. There are public holidays celebrate by certain ethnic minorities in certain regions, which are decided by local governments.
The following are holidays at province-level divisions. The following are traditional holidays at prefecture-level divisions, there are more at lower level divisions, i.e. county-level. Besides, the following Autonomous Prefectures celebrates their founding date. Government takes 1 day off to all people working in such prefectures; some Chinese young adults have begun to celebrate 11 November as Singles Day because of the many ones and many singles in the date. Serfs Emancipation Day was established in Tibet in 2009. List of annual events in China Traditional Chinese holidays Public holidays in Hong Kong Public holidays in Taiwan "Chinese Holidays". Xinhua. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09
Armenian Apostolic Church
The Armenian Apostolic Church is the national church of the Armenian people. Part of Oriental Orthodoxy, it is one of the most ancient Christian communities; the Kingdom of Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as its official religion under the rule of King Tiridates in the early 4th century. The church originated in the missions of Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus in the 1st century, according to tradition, it is sometimes referred to as the Armenian Orthodox Gregorian Church. The latter is not preferred by the church itself, as it views the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus as its founders, St. Gregory the Illuminator as the first official governor of the church, it is simply known as the Armenian Church. The Armenian Church believes in apostolic succession through the apostles Thaddeus. According to legend, the latter of the two apostles is said to have cured Abgar V of Edessa of leprosy with the Image of Edessa, leading to his conversion in 30 AD. Thaddaeus was commissioned by Abgar to proselytize throughout Armenia, where he converted the king Sanatruk's daughter, martyred alongside Thaddeus when Sanatruk fell into apostasy.
After this, Bartholomew came to Armenia, bringing a portrait of the Virgin Mary, which he placed in a nunnery he founded over a former temple of Anahit. Bartholomew converted the sister of Sanatruk, who once again martyred a female relative and the apostle who converted her. Both apostles ordained native bishops before their execution, some other Armenians had been ordained outside of Armenia by James the Just. Scholars including Bart Ehrman, Han Drijvers, W. Bauer dismiss the conversion of Abgar V as fiction. According to Eusebius and Tertullian, Armenian Christians were persecuted by kings Axidares, Khosrov I, Tiridates III, the last of whom was converted to Christianity by Gregory the Illuminator. Ancient Armenia's adoption of Christianity as a state religion has been referred to by Nina Garsoïan as "probably the most crucial step in its history." This conversion distinguished it from its Iranian and Mazdean roots and protected it from further Parthian influence. According to Mary Boyce, the acceptance of Christianity by the Arsacid-Armenian rulers was in defiance of the Sassanids.
When King Tiridates III made Christianity the state religion of Armenia between 301 and 314, it was not an new religion there. It had penetrated the country from at least the third century, may have been present earlier. Tiridates declared Gregory to be the first Catholicos of the Armenian Church and sent him to Caesarea to be consecrated. Upon his return, Gregory tore down shrines to idols, built churches and monasteries, ordained many priests and bishops. While meditating in the old capital city of Vagharshapat, Gregory had a vision of Christ descending to the earth and striking it with a hammer. From that spot arose a great Christian temple with a huge cross, he was convinced. With the king's help he did so in accordance with his vision, renaming the city Etchmiadzin, which means "the place of the descent of the Only-Begotten"; the Armenian Church participated in the larger Christian world and its Catholicos was represented at the First Council of Nicea. In 353, King Papas appointed Catholicos Husik without first sending him to Caesarea for commissioning before Rome had any plans for a universal Roman church.
Its Catholicos was still represented at the First Council of Constantinople. Christianity was strengthened in Armenia in the 5th century by the translation of the Bible into the Armenian language by the native theologian and scholar, Saint Mesrop Mashtots. Before the 5th century, Armenians had a spoken language. Thus, the Bible and Liturgy were written in Syriac rather than Armenian; the Catholicos Sahak commissioned Mesrop to create the Armenian alphabet, which he completed in 406. Subsequently, the Bible and Liturgy were written in the new script; the translation of the Bible, along with works of history and philosophy, caused a flowering of Armenian literature and a broader cultural renaissance. Although unable to attend the Council of Ephesus, Catholicos Isaac Parthiev sent a message agreeing with its decisions. However, non doctrinal elements in the Council of Chalcedon caused certain problems to arise. At the First Council of Dvin in 506 the synod of the Armenian and Caucasian Albanian bishops were assembled during the reign of Catholicos Babken I.
The participation of the Catholicoi of Georgia and Albania were set to make clear the position of the churches concerning the Council of Chalcedon. The "Book of Epistles" mentions that 20 bishops, 14 laymen, many nakharars participated in the council; the involvement in the council discussion of different level of lay persons seemed to be a general rule in Armenia. A century the 3rd Council of Dvin was convened during the reign of Catholicos Abraham I of Aghbatank and Prince Smbat Bagratuni, with clergymen and laymen participating; the Georgian Church disagreed with the Armenian Church, having approved the christology of Chalcedon. This council was convened to clarify the relationship between the Georgian churches. After the Council, Catholicos Abraham wrote an encyclical letter addressed to the people, blaming Kurion and his adherents for the schism; the Council never set up canons. Despite this, the Albanian Church remained under the jurisdiction of the Armenian Church while in co
Knowledge Day simply called 1 September, is the day when the school year traditionally starts in Russia and many other former Soviet republics as well as other countries in the former Eastern Bloc Knowledge Day originated in the USSR, where it had been established by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of June 15, 1984. This day marks the end of summer and the beginning of autumn, it has special significance for the incoming class of first graders who come to school for the first time and participate in a celebratory assembly on this date. The day involves the First Bell. Students in other grades may begin studies on September 1 or a few days usually without any special festivities. September 1 has an iconic cultural status in the Russian-speaking world and is recognized there in connection with beginning of the school year. There is "Last School-Bell Day"; the best of Ukraine