Cinema of Bangladesh
The cinema of Bangladesh is the Bengali-language film industry based in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It has been a significant film industry since the early 1970s and is referred to as "Dhallywood", a portmanteau of the words Dhaka and Hollywood; the dominant style of Bangladeshi cinema is melodramatic cinema, which developed from 1947 to 1990 and characterizes most films to this day. Cinema was introduced in Bangladesh in 1898 by the Bradford Bioscope Company, credited to have arranged the first film release in Bangladesh. Between 1913 and 1914, the first production company, Picture House, was opened. A 1928 short silent film titled; the first full-length film, The Last Kiss, was released in 1931. Following the separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan, Dhaka became the center of the Bangladeshi film industry, has generated the majority share of revenue and audiences for Dhallywood films; the Face and the Mask, the first Bengali-language full-length feature film of Bangladesh was produced in 1956. During the 1970s, many Dhallywood films were inspired by Indian films, with some of the films being unofficial remakes of those films.
The industry continued to grow, many successful Bangladeshi films were produced throughout the 1970s, 1980s and the first half of the 1990s. Directors such as Fateh Lohani, Zahir Raihan, Alamgir Kabir, Khan Ataur Rahman, Subhash Dutta, Ritwik Ghatak, Chashi Nazrul Islam, Abdullah al Mamun, Sheikh Niamat Ali, Gazi Mazharul Anwar, Tanvir Mokammel, Tareque Masud, Morshedul Islam, Humayun Ahmed, Mostofa Sarwar Farooki, Nurul Alam Atique Zahidur Rahim Anjan, Ashique Mostafa, Khijir Hayat Khan, Kamar Ahmed Saimon, Rubaiyat Hossain, Amitabh Reza Chowdhury, Bijon Imtiaz, Fakhrul Arefeen Khan, Giasuddin Selim, Dipankar Sengupta Dipon and others have made significant contributions to Bangladeshi mainstream cinema, parallel cinema, art films; some have won global acclaim. On 28 December 1895, the Lumière brothers began commercial bioscope shows in Paris, with the first bioscope shows of the Indian subcontinent occurring the following year, including one in Calcutta and another at the Crown Theatre in Dhaka.
The Bradford Bioscope Company of Calcutta arranged the show, which featured short news items and other short features including footage of the jubilee of Queen Victoria, battles between Greek and Turkish forces, the French underground railway. The price of a ticket to the show was an expensive eight anas to three taka. Bioscope shows continued to be shown throughout the region, inclding in Bhola, Gazipur and Faridpur; these became the first films to be released in Bangladesh. The first seeds of Bengali cinema were sown by Hiralal Sen, a native of Bogjuri, considered a stalwart of Victorian era cinema. Sen founded a company named The Royal Bioscope Company in 1898, producing scenes from the stage productions of a number of popular shows at the Star Theater, Minerva Theater, Classic Theater in Kolkata, he pioneered film-making in the Calcutta in 1901, shot footage in his home region. This was the first filming of. At the time when Calcutta-based film production houses were forming, East Bengal cinema halls were showing films produced in Calcutta, Madras and Paris.
Sequential bioscope shows were started in Dhaka in 1913–14 in a jute store. It was named becoming the first theater to be built in present-day Bangladesh; the Madan Theatre started making films in Calcutta in 1916. The first Bengali feature film, was produced and released in 1919 under the banner of the Madan Theatre; the movie was directed by Rustomji Dhotiwala and produced by Priyonath Ganguli, the son of a nawab estate of Dhaka. A Bengali film organization named the Indo British Film Co was soon formed in Calcutta under the ownership of Dhirendra Nath Ganguly, a relative of Rabindranath Tagore. Ganguly directed and wrote Bilat Ferat in 1921; the film was the first production of the Indo British Film Co. The Madan Theatre production of Jamai Shashthi was the first Bengali talkie directed by Amar Choudhury. In 1927–28, the Dhaka nawab family produced a short film named Sukumari; the film's producers included Khaza Adil, Khaza Akmol, Khaza Nasirulla, Khaza Azmol, Khaza Zohir, Khaza Azad, Soyod Shahebe Alom, professor Andalib Shadini.
They wanted to make a film without the help of a studio. The male lead was played by Khaza Nosrulla, the female lead was played by a male actor named Syed Abdus Sobhan owing to laws against the depiction of women in film. Nosrulla went on to become a politician and Sobhan became the first Bengali secretary of the Pakistan Central Civil Service. One still picture of Sukumary is kept in Bangladesh Film Archive. After the success of Sukumari, the royal family went for a bigger venture. To make a full-length silent film, a temporary studio was made in the gardens of the family, they produced a full-length silent film titled The Last Kiss, released in 1931; the main actor was Khaza Azmol. The physical teacher of Jagannath College, directed the film and made the Bengali and English subtitles for it. Professor Andalib Shadani of the Dhaka University made the Urdu subtitles; the Last Kiss was released in the Mukul Hall of Dhaka. Historian Dr. Romesh Chondro Mojumder started the premier show of the film.
The print of the film was taken to the Aurora Company of Calcutta for bigger presentation. The developers of the film wanted to make Dhaka unique in art and cinema and named their production house “Dhaka East Bengal Cinematograph Society”, it was the first film-producing organization of Bangladesh. By 1947, there were around 80 cinemas
The Bangladeshi diaspora consists of people of Bangladeshi descent who have immigrated to or were born in another country. First generation migrants may have moved abroad from Bangladesh for better living conditions, to escape poverty, to support their financial condition or to send money back to families in Bangladesh. Annual remittances received in Bangladesh were 15.4 billion dollars as of 2015. There is a large Bangladeshi diaspora population in Saudi Arabia, where there are 1.2 million. There are significant migrant communities in various Arab states of the Persian Gulf the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait, where Bangladeshis are classified as foreign workers; the United Kingdom's 2001 census found 300,000 British Bangladeshi concentrated in east London boroughs. Besides the UK and Middle East, Bangladeshis have a significant presence in the United States in New York City and Paterson in New Jersey, in East and Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, South Korea and Japan, in other Western countries such as Italy and Australia.
Bangladeshis in the Middle East form the largest part of the worldwide Bangladeshi diaspora. 2,820,000 live within the Middle East, with half of them in Saudi Arabia, a quarter of them in the United Arab Emirates. Bangladeshis who come to the Middle East are guest workers or day labourers. Saudi Arabia has over two million Bangladeshis, making it the largest Bangladeshi diaspora community. Bangladesh is one of the largest labour suppliers to Saudi Arabia, in 2007 Bangladeshi workers obtained the biggest share, with 23.50 per cent of the 1.5 million Saudi Arabia visas issued. There are over a million Bangladeshis residing in the United Arab Emirates as of 2013. Qatar has about 280,000 Bangladeshis as of the end of 2015. According to the Maldivian foreign ministry. Bangladeshis in Malaysia form a large proportion of Malaysia's foreign labour force, their population was estimated to total 221,000 persons one-eighth of all the foreign workers in Malaysia as of 2017. In South Korea, there are more than 13,000 Bangladeshi foreign workers in the country.
A few of them include illegal immigrants. This has led to some prejudice towards Bangladeshi immigrants, an issue tackled by the 2009 Korean film Bandhobi, directed by Sin Dong-il. Bangladeshis in Japan form one of the smaller populations of foreigners in Japan; as of 2005, Japan's Ministry of Justice recorded 11,055 Bangladeshi nationals among the total population of registered foreigners in Japan. The British Bangladeshi community is one of the largest immigrant communities in the United Kingdom, is well established in many parts of the UK, most notably London in the East London boroughs, of which the Tower Hamlets has the highest percentage of Bangladeshis with about 33% of the borough's total population. Other boroughs include Newham, where 12% of the boroughs population is Bangladeshi, with 7%, Barking and Dagenham, with 5%, in North London is Camden, where 7% of the borough is Bangladeshi; the national census of ethnicity and identity found over 400,000 people had Bangladeshi heritage in Britain.
There is a significant community in and around Westminster. Sylhetis residing in London are referred to as Londonis. Sylheti is the third most spoken language after English and Polish. Outside London, the Bangladeshi diaspora lies in areas such as Birmingham, with a population over 35,000 Bangladeshis, Sandwell with over 7,000 residents wards such as St Pauls. Tipton, West Bromwich, with over 15,000, with over 13,000, Bradford with over 10,000, Manchester, with over 10,000 British Bangladeshis. Other smaller populations include Portsmouth with over 6,000, Sunderland and Newcastle upon Tyne with over 3,000 people each, St Albans with 2,200, Leeds with 4,500, Leicester with 3,500; the British Bangladeshi has grown drastically, has grown from 283,000 residents, to 451,000 residents of Bangladeshi descent. Mass migration started since the days of the British Raj, where lascars from Sylhet were sent to the United Kingdom; some of these lascars lived in the United Kingdom in port cities, married British women.
Since mass migration has occurred from Sylhet. The British Bangladeshi community come from all Districts of Sylhet, such as Sylhet, Sunamganj and Moulvibazar. Specific wards, or Upazilas that many of the Bangladeshis come from are Bishwanath, Sylhet Sadar, Beanibazar, Juri, Habiganj Sadar, Chhatak Upazila, many others; the street of Brick Lane in East London, has a large history of Bangladeshis and has been dubbed as "Banglatown", has hundreds of "Indian" restaurants nearly all owned by Sylheti Bangladeshis. Many British Bangladeshis have made their presence in the UK becoming doctors and lawyers, but many have become politicians for the Labour and Conservative Parties, such as Rushanara Ali, Tulip Siddiq, as well as London Borough Mayors, such as Lutfur Rahman and Nasim Ali; the census in 2000, found up to 95,300 were born in Bangladesh, therefore it is estimated there are at least 150,000 Bangladeshis in t
Music of Bangladesh
Bangladesh claims some of the most renowned singers and producers in South Asia. Bangladeshi music spans a wide variety of styles. Music has served the purpose of documenting the lives of the people and was patronized by the rulers, it comprises a long tradition of religious and regular song-writing over a period of a millennium. Bangladeshi classical music is based on modes called ragas. In composing these songs, the melodies of north indian ragas are used; as far as the Charyagiti, ragas have been used in Bengali music. Jaydev’s Gitagovindam, Padavali Kirtan, Mangal Giti, Tappa, Brahma Sangeet and Tagore songs have been inspired by Ragas; the use of north indian ragas in Bangla songs began in 18th Century. This trend gathered momentum during the 20th century; the pioneers of these trend were Ramnidhi Gupta, Kali Mirza, Raghunath Roy and the founder of the Bishnupur Gharana, Ramshanker Bhattacharya. Nawab of Lakhnau, Wajid Ali Shah played an important role in this trend, he was banished to Metiaburuz, Kolkata.
During his 30 year exile, he patronized music, specially dhrupad, tappa and kheyal. And, thus made a lasting impact on Bangladeshi music. All traditional Bengali music tend to be based on various variations of Hindustani Classical Music. Rabindranath Tagore had a deep appreciation for North Indian ragas introduced ragas in his songs, he was followed by Dwijendralal Roy, Rajanikanta Sen and Atulprasad Sen. Folk has come to occupy the lives of Bangladeshis more than any other genre of Bengali music. Among the luminaries of the different folk traditions are Lalon Fokir, Radharaman Dutta, Hason Raja, Khursheed Nurali, Ramesh Shil, Kari Amir Uddin Ahmed and Abbas Uddin. Folk songs are characterised by words. Before the advent of radio, entertainment in the rural areas relied on a large extent on stage performances by folk singers. With the arrival of new communication technologies and digital media, many folk songs were modernised and incorporated into modern songs. Folk music can be classified into several subgenres: Baul: inspired by Lalon and exclusively performed by Baul mystics.
Bhandari: Devotional music from the South. Bhatiali: Music of fishermen and boatman always tied by a common ragas sung solo. Bhawaiya: Song of bullock-cart drivers of the North. Dhamail: A form of folk music and dance originated in Sylhet, it is practiced in the Sylhet Division in Bangladesh and in areas influenced by the Sylheti culture such as the Barak Valley of Assam and parts of Tripura and Manipur in India. Gazir Gaan: Devotional songs dedicated to Gazi Pir, part of Pach Pir tradition of folk practice and belief. Ghazal: Popular folk music of Sufi genres, introduced from philosophy and religion in music practiced by Bengali Muslims. Gombhira: Song performed with a particular distinctive rhythm and dance with two performers, always personifying a man and his grand father, discussing a topic to raise social awareness. Hason Raja: Devotional songs written by a music composer by the name of Hason Raja, repopularised as dance music. Jari: songs involving musical battle between two groups Jatra Pala: songs associated with plays.
Involves colourful presentations of historical themes. Jhumur: traditional dance song form Bangladesh and eastern part of India. Kavigan: poems sung with simple music presented on stage as a musical battle between poets. Kirtan: devotional song depicting love to Hindu God Krishna and his wife, Radha. Lalon: best known of all folk songs and the most important subgenre of Baul songs entirely attributed to spiritual writer and composer, Lalon Fokir of Kushtia, he is known to all in West Bengal of India too.. Pala Gaan: folk ballad known as Pat. Sari: sung by boatmen, it is known as workmen's song as well. Shyama Sangeet: a genre of Bengali devotional songs dedicated to the Hindu goddess Shyama or Kali, a form of supreme universal mother-goddess Durga or parvati, it is known as Shaktagiti or Durgastuti. Baul is the most known category of Bangladeshi folk songs, it is performed by hermits who are followers of Sufism in Bangladesh. Present day Sufis earn from performing their music. Baul songs incorporate simple words expressing songs with deeper meanings involving creation, society and human emotions.
The songs are performed with little musical support to the main carrier, the vocal. Instruments used include the Ektara, Dotara and cymbals. In recent times, Baul geeti has lost popularity, due to westernisation. Rabindra Sangeet known as Tagore Songs, are songs written and composed by Rabindranath Tagore, they have distinctive characteristics in the music of Bengal, popular in Bangladesh. "Sangeet" means music, "Rabindra Sangeet" means Songs of Rabindra. Rabindra Sangeet used traditional folk music as sources. Nazrul Geeti or Nazrul Sangeet "music of Nazrul," are songs written and composed by Kazi Nazrul Islam, a Bengali poet and national poet of Bangladesh and active revolutionary during the Indian Independence Movement. Nazrul Sangeet incorporate revolutionary notions as well as more spiritual and romantic themes. Adhunik sangeet means "modern songs". Although, to outsid
Bangladesh the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It shares land borders with Myanmar; the country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country as well as its most densely-populated, to the exclusion of small island nations and city-states. Dhaka is largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population; the politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's third largest Muslim-majority country. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh. Most of Bangladesh is covered by the largest delta on Earth; the country has 8,046 km of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country.
Bangladesh has a coral reef. The longest unbroken natural sea beach of the world, Cox's Bazar Beach, is located in the southeast, it is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including endangered Bengal tigers, the national animal; the Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical Indian subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which enjoyed international trade links for millennia; the Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries. The region was home to many principalities; as the Mughal Empire's wealthiest province, Bangladesh as part of the Bengal Subah was worth 12% of the world's GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe. It was a notable center of the global muslin and silk trade.
As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance and played an important role in anti-colonial movements. The Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan; the region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. After independence was achieved, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy; the country continues to face challenges in the areas of poverty, education and corruption. Bangladesh is a developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, its economy ranks 43rd in terms of nominal gross domestic product and 29th in terms of purchasing power parity, it is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, India, Japan and Singapore. With its strategically vital location between South and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation.
It is a founding member of SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation and the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Initiative. It is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Commonwealth of Nations, the Developing 8 Countries, the OIC, the Indian-Ocean Rim Association, the Non Aligned Movement, the Group of 77 and the World Trade Organization. Bangladesh is one of the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping forces; the etymology of Bangladesh can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term. The term Bangladesh was written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan; the term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengali language. The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD; the term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.
The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342; the word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century; the origins of the term Bangla are unclear, with theories pointing to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe, the Austric word "Bonga", the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom. The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal". Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years, remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4,000 years. Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration. Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region.
By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery. The Ganges and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permit
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
Bangla Academy is an autonomous institution funded by Bangladesh government to promote and foster the Bengali language and culture, to develop and implement national language policy and to do original research in the Bengali language. Established in 1955, it is located in Burdwan House in Ramna, within the grounds of the University of Dhaka and Suhrawardy Udyan. Bangla Academy hosts the annual Ekushey Book Fair; the importance of establishing an organisation for Bengali language was first emphasised by the linguist Muhammad Shahidullah. Following the Language movement, on 27 April 1952, the All Party National Language Committee decided to demand establishment of an organisation for the promotion of Bengali language. During the 1954 parliamentary elections, the United Front's 21-point manifesto stated that, "The prime minister from the United Front will dedicate the Bardhaman House for establishing a research center for the Bengali language". Following the election success of the Front, the education minister Syed Azizul Haque placed the order to fulfill this promise.
In 1955, the government formed a committee to expedite the process. The committee was composed of leading intellectuals like Muhammad Shahidullah, Qazi Motahar Hossain, S. M. Bhattacharya, W. H. Shadani, Muhammad Barkatullah. On 3 December 1955, the Chief Minister of East Bengal, Abu Hussain Sarkar, inaugurated the institute. Barkatullah acted as the Special Officer in charge. In 1956, Muhammad Enamul Haque took over as the first director. In 1957, an act of the parliament formally established the funding source and the Government support for the institute; the first book published by the academy was Laili Maznu, an epic by the medieval poet Dawlat Ujir Bahram Khan, edited by Ahmed Sharif. The first fellow of the academy was the poet Farrukh Ahmed; the publication division was established in early 1957. After the independence of Bangladesh, the director's position was renamed Director General. Mazharul Islam, head of Bangla Department of Rajshahi University, was the first Director General of the institute.
On 19 September 2008, a new 8-storied building, containing a 500-capacity auditorium and a 100-capacity seminar room, opened next to the main building. The functions and structure of the institute was devised on the model of the French Academy. Research and Folklore Language, Literature and Publication Textbook Planning, Training The main task of the Academy is to conduct research on Bengali language and history, to publish Bengali literary and research work. To commemorate the Language movement and the Language martyr's day, the Academy organizes the month-long Ekushey Book Fair, the largest book fair in the country. In recent years, Bangla Academy has been criticized for allowing different organizations to arrange events in English and denigrating Bengali in the premise of Bangla Academy, a violation of visions of the institution. "The Academy has misused a lot of funds in producing useless books, books that are unoriginal," opines Salimullah Khan. Khan is of the opinion, he believes that both in research and in the field of creative writing, originality must be given priority.
He adds that most of the problems lie in the process of selection. The selection process the crucial decision to ditch one manuscript to pick another that will be added to the long list of academy publications, is faulty and in dire need of revision; this award is conferred for significant contributions to Rabindranath Tagore works. 2010 – Kalim Sharafi and Sanjida Khatun 2011 – Ahmed Rafiq and Ajit Roy 2012 – Anisur Rahman, Fahmida Khatun and Iffat Ara Dewan 2013 – Karunamaya Goswami and Papia Sarwar 2014 – Monzur E Mowla and Rezwana Chowdhury Bannya 2015 – Sanat Kumar Saha and Sadi Mohammad 2016 – Syed Akram Hossain and Tapan Mahmud 2017 – Hayat Mahmud and Mita Haque This award is conferred to the Bangladeshi poets since 2010. 2010 – Abul Hussain 2011 – Syed Shamsul Haq 2012 – Shahid Qadri 2013 – Belal Chowdhury 2014 – Asad Chowdhury 2015 – Mohammad Rafiq 2016 – Abubakar Siddique As of 2016, there are 159 persons made Honorary Fellows by the academy
Bengali science fiction
Bengali science fiction is a part of Bengali literature containing science fiction elements. Science fiction in the Bengali language is known as "kalpabigyan". Bengali writers wrote various science fiction works in the 19th and early 20th centuries during the British Raj, before the partition of India. Isaac Asimov’s assertion that "true science fiction could not exist until people understood the rationalism of science and began to use it with respect in their stories" is true for the earliest science fiction written in the Bengali language; the earliest notable Bengali science fiction was Jagadananda Roy's Shukra Bhraman. This story is of particular interest to literary historians, as it described a journey to another planet, their bodies were covered with dense black fur. Their heads were larger in comparison with their bodies, limbs sported long nails and they were naked." This story was published a decade before H. G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds in which Wells describes the aliens from Mars.
Some specialists credit Hemlal Dutta as one of the earliest Bengali science fiction writers for his Rohosso. This story was published in two installments in 1882 in the pictorial magazine Bigyan Dorpon. In 1896, Jagadish Chandra Bose, considered to be the father of Bengali science fiction, wrote Niruddesher Kahini; this tale of weather control, one of the first Bengali science fiction works, features getting rid of a cyclone using a little bottle of hair oil. He included the story with changes in the collection of essays titled Abyakto as Palatak Tufan. Both versions of the story have been translated into English by Bodhisattva Chattopadhyay. Roquia Sakhawat Hussain, an early Islamic feminist, wrote Sultana's Dream, one of the earliest examples of feminist science fiction in any language, it depicts a feminist utopia of role reversal, in which men are locked away in seclusion, in a manner corresponding to the traditional Muslim practice of purdah for women. The short story, written in English, was first published in the Madras-based Indian Ladies Magazine in 1905, three years appeared as a book.
Premendra Mitra wrote Kuhoker Deshe. Hemendra Kumar Ray wrote Meghduter Morte Agomon. After Qazi Abdul Halim's Mohasunner Kanna was the first modern East Bengali science fiction novel. After independence Humayun Ahmed wrote Tomader Jonno Valobasa, it was published in 1973. This book is treated as the first full-fledged Bangladeshi science fiction novel, he wrote Tara Tinjon, Anonto Nakshatra Bithi, Fiha Somikoron, other works. Bengali science fiction is considered to have reached a new level of literary sophistication with the contributions of Muhammed Zafar Iqbal. Iqbal wrote; this story was included in a compilation of Iqbal's work in a book by the same name. Muktodhara, a famous publishing house of Dhaka was the publisher of this book; this collection of science fiction stories gained huge popularity and the new trend of science fiction emerged among Bengali writers and readers. After his first collection, Mr. Iqbal transformed his own science fiction cartoon strip Mohakashe Mohatrash into a novel.
All told, Muhammed Zafar Iqbal has written the greatest number of science fiction works in Bengali science fiction. Following in the footsteps of the ancestors and more writers young writers, started writing science fiction, a new era of writing started in the writing of Bengali literature. In 1997, the first and longest-running Bangladeshi science fiction magazine, was first published, with famous cartoonist Ahsan Habib as the editor; this monthly magazine played an important role in the development of Bengali science fiction in Bangladesh. A number of new and promising science fiction writers including Rabiul Hasan Avi, Anik Khan, Asrar Masud, Sajjad Kabir, Russel Ahmed, Mizanur Rahman Kallol came of age while working with the magazine. Nasim Sahnic is a promising young science fiction writer in Bangladesh, his latest science fiction books like Genetic code, Sundarbone Truti, Coxsbazarer Cossop are famous to young generation. Other notable writers in the genre include: Vobdesh Ray, Rakib Hasan, Nipun Alam, Ali Imam, Qazi Anwar Hussain,Altamas Pasha, Abdul Ahad, Anirudha Alam, Ahsanul Habib, Kamal Arsalan, Dr. Ahmed Mujibar Rahman, Moinul Ahsan Saber, Swapan Kumar Gayen, Mohammad Zaidul Alam, Mostafa Tanim, Muhammad Anwarul Hoque Khan, Jubaida Gulshan Ara Hena, Amirul Islam, Touhidur Rahman, Zakaria Swapan and Qazi Shahnur Hussain.
Mr. Khan loves to write science fiction on parallel mystery of science or mathematics. A number of writers from West Bengal, India have written science fiction. Credit for the first Bengali science fiction story is given to Bengali authors such as Jagadananda Roy, Hemlal Dutta and the polymath Jagadish Chandra Bose. Eminent film maker and writer Satyajit Ray enriched Bengali science fiction by writing many short stories as well as science fiction series, Professor Shonku. Professor Shonku is a fictional scientist created by Satyajit Ray in a series of Bengali science fiction books, his full name is Trilokeshwar Shonku, by occupation, he is an inventor. A short story known as The Alien written by Satyajit Ray about an alien named "Mr. Ang" gained pop