Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief. This annual observance is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam; the month lasts 29–30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, according to numerous biographical accounts compiled in the hadiths. The word Ramadan comes from the Arabic root ramiḍa or ar-ramaḍ, which means scorching heat or dryness. Fasting is fard for adult Muslims, except those who are suffering from an illness, are elderly, breastfeeding, chronically ill or menstruating. Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory during the month of Sha'ban, in the second year after the Muslims migrated from Mecca to Medina. Fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a natural phenomenon such as the midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca, but the more accepted opinion is that Muslims in those areas should follow the timetable of the closest country to them in which night can be distinguished from day.
While fasting from dawn until sunset, Muslims refrain from consuming food, drinking liquids and engaging in sexual relations. Muslims are instructed to refrain from sinful behavior that may negate the reward of fasting, such as false speech and fighting except in self-defense. Pre-fast meals before dawn are referred to as Suhoor, while the post-fast breaking feasts after sunset are called Iftar. Spiritual rewards for fasting are believed to be multiplied within the month of Ramadan. Fasting for Muslims during Ramadan includes the increased offering of salat, recitation of the Quran and an increase of doing good deeds and charity. Chapter 2, Verse 185, of the Quran states: The month of Ramadan is that in, revealed the Quran, and whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, a number of other days. Allah desires for you ease, it is believed that the Quran was first revealed to Muhammad during the month of Ramadan, referred to as the "best of times".
The first revelation was sent down on Laylat al-Qadr, one of the five odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadan. According to hadith, all holy scriptures were sent down during Ramadan, it is further believed that the tablets of Ibrahim, the Torah, the Psalms, the Gospel and the Quran were sent down on 1st, 6th, 12th, 13th and 24th Ramadan, respectively. According to the Quran, fasting was obligatory for prior nations, is a way to attain taqwa, fear of God. God proclaimed to Muhammad that fasting for His sake was not a new innovation in monotheism, but rather an obligation practiced by those devoted to the oneness of God; the pagans of Mecca fasted, but only on tenth day of Muharram to expiate sins and avoid droughts. The ruling to observe fasting during Ramadan was sent down 18 months after Hijra, during the month of Sha'ban in the second year of Hijra in 624 CE. Abu Zanad, an Arabic writer from Iraq who lived after the founding of Islam, in around 747 CE, wrote that at least one Mandaean community located in al-Jazira observed Ramadan before converting to Islam.
According to historian Philip Jenkins, Ramadan comes "from the strict Lenten discipline of the Syrian Churches", a postulation corroborated by other scholars, such as the theologian Paul-Gordon Chandler. This suggestion is based on the idea that the Quran itself has Syriac Christian origins, a claim to which some Muslim academics such as M. Al-Azami, object. With professional athletes sharing their experiences of fasting during this religious period, Ramadan is more in the public eye than before - and while tradition and religion remain at the forefront and more Muslims are finding ways to fit their lifestyle around their faith; the beginning and end of Ramadan are determined by the lunar Islamic calendar. Hilāl is a day after the astronomical new moon. Since the new moon marks the beginning of the new month, Muslims can safely estimate the beginning of Ramadan. However, to many Muslims, this is not in accordance with authenticated Hadiths stating that visual confirmation per region is recommended.
The consistent variations of a day have existed since the time of Muhammad. The Arabic Laylat al-Qadr, translated to English is "the night of power" or "the night of decree", is considered the holiest night of the year; this is the night in which Muslims believe the first revelation of the Quran was sent down to Muhammad stating that this night was "better than one thousand months ", as stated in Chapter 97:3 of the Qu'ran. Laylat al-Qadr is believed to have occurred on an odd-numbered night during the last ten days of Ramadan, i.e. the night of the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th. The Dawoodi Bohra Community believe; the holiday of Eid al-Fitr marks the end of Ramadan and the beginning of the next lunar month, Shawwal. This first day of the following month is declared after another crescent new moon has been sighted or the completion of 30 days of fasting if no visual sighting is possible due to weather conditi
Armed Forces Day
Many nations around the world observe some kind of Armed Forces Day to honor their military forces. It's celebrated in the US as a day to appreciate all active duty service members; this isn't to be confused with Memorial Day. In Argentina, the commemorative dates of the Armed Forces are as follows: 17 May: Argentine Navy Day 29 May: Argentine Army Day 10 August: Argentine Air Force Day Բանակի օր is celebrated on 28 January to commemorate the formation of the armed forces of the newly independent Republic of Armenia in 1992. ANZAC Day is a public holiday, it is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served." The date commemorates the landings in 1915 at Anzac Cove on the coast of the Dardanelles and the Aegean Sea of the old Ottoman Empire by Australian and New Zealand combined military forces in the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, the beginning of the costly casualties of the Gallipoli campaign in World War I.
Silahlı Qüvvələr Günü is celebrated on 26 June. The events are centered around a military parade in the national capital; the annual parade is one of the biggest in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Bangladesh observes Armed Forces Day on 21 November to mark the occasion of the Tri- Services joint operation against occupying Pakistani forces in the Liberation War, 1971; the day starts with laying of a floral wreath at'Sikha Anirban' at Dhaka Cantonment by the President, the Prime Minister and the service chiefs. In the afternoon a reception is held at Senakunja, Dhaka Cantonment where the Prime Minister, the leader of the opposition and other high civil and military officials attend. In other cantonments, naval bases, air bases, similar receptions are held. A special TV programme Anirban is broadcast on different TV channels the previous evening, special newspaper supplements are published with national dailies. Receptions are held by the Prime Minister and the service chiefs for recipients of the gallantry award Freedom Fighter Award.
Special meals for family members are served in all military stations. The Armed Forces Division brings out a special publication with articles related to the War of Independence and the armed forces. Bolivian Armed Forces Day is marked on 7 August, the day after Independence Day, as it was the day in 1826 when Bolivia's first President, Antonio José de Sucre gave his sanction to the creation of the Armed Forces of Bolivia. In Brazil, the commemorative dates of the Armed Forces are as follows:Marinha do Brasil: 11 June – Data Magna da Marinha do Brasil 13 December – Dia do Marinheiro Exército Brasileiro: 19 April – Dia do Exército 25 August – Dia do Soldado Força Aérea Brasileira: 23 October – Dia do Aviador The Day of Bravery and Bulgarian Armed Forces Day is commemorated every year on 6 May, The Feast of Saint George, the patron saint of the Bulgarian Armed Forces; the national parade is held on Prince Alexander of Battenberg Square in Sofia, the national capital city, on this day, with the salute taken by the President of Bulgaria, the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.
In Canada, Canadian Armed Forces Day is celebrated on the first Sunday in June and is a celebration of Canada's armed services, their heritage, their personnel. Official congratulations are given by the Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces, the Prime Minister of Canada, the Minister of National Defence, the Chief of the Defence Staff. An inspection of an inter-service guard of honour is commonplace during the holiday. Tributes to CF personnel happen at the National War Memorial and the Canadian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Ottawa; the event is similar to the Remembrance Day celebrations in the fall. Canadian Armed Forces Day is not a public holiday in Canada. In Chile, Día de las Glorias del Ejército is a national holiday celebrated every 19 September, a day after the independence day, with the "Parada Militar", a parade where all the branches of the armed forces display some of their troops and equipment in a special part of "Parque O'Higgins" in Santiago. Several other smaller parades can be seen on other cities of the country, as well as air displays by the air force, on Independence Day, 18 September.
For the Chilean Navy, its counterpart is the national Día de las Glorias de la Armada celebrations on 21 May, in honor of the double anniversaries of the Battle of Iquique and the Battle of Punta Gruesa in 1879. Valparaiso is where the main celebrations are concentrated, with a military parade in the morning and the President of Chile's State of the Nation address in the afternoon. Similar parades are hosted in minor cities and towns nationwide; the People's Liberation Army Day is celebrated in the People's Republic of China on 1 August in commemoration of the founding of the People's Liberation Army during the Nanchang Uprising of 1927. On June 30, 1933, the Central Committee for Military Revolutionary Cases of the Communist Party of China voted to declare August 1 an annual holiday; this was solidified on July 11th of that same year, when this decision was approved by the government of the Chinese Soviet Republic. Since the date has been celebrated as the professional ho
History of the Quran
The history of Quran refers to the oral revelation of the Quran to Islamic prophet Muhammad and its subsequent written compilation into a manuscript. It spans several forms an important part of early Islamic history. According to Muslim belief and Islamic scholarly accounts, the revelation of the Quran began in 610 C. E. when the angel Gabriel appeared to Muhammad in the cave Hira near Mecca, reciting to him the first verses of Surah Al-Alaq. Throughout his life, Muhammad continued to have revelations until before his death in 632; the Quran as it is known in the present, was first compiled into book format by Zayd ibn Thabit and other scribes under the third caliph Uthman. For this reason, the Quran as it exists today is known as the Uthmanic codex. According to Professor Francis Edward Peters, what was done to the Quran in the process seems to have been conservative and the content was formed in a mechanical fashion to avoid redactional bias. According to traditional Islamic beliefs, the Quran was revealed to Muhammad, starting one night during the month of Ramadan in 610 AD, when he, at the age of forty, received the first revelation from the angel Gabriel, who had given him the responsibility for inscribing these messages from God to give to mankind.
The Quran uses the term ummi to describe Muhammad. The majority of Muslim scholars interpret this word as a reference to an illiterate individual, though some modern scholars instead interpret it as a reference to those who belong to a community without a scripture. According to Bukhari, Muhammad's wife Khadija bint Khuwaylid described that the first Quranic revelation occurred when the angel Gabriel visited Muhammad and asked him to recite. Muhammad responded ma ana bīqāre'u, which could be translated into a number of ways:'I do not read' or'what am I to read/recite?' or'I will not read/recite'. Gabriel pressed him ``; this was repeated three times and upon the third, Gabriel released him and said, "Read in the name of the Sustainer who created humankind from a clot! Read! And your Sustainer is the most Beautiful." After this Muhammad continued to have revelations sporadically over a period of twenty-three years, until shortly before his death in 11/632. Muslims believe that Gabriel brought the word of God to Muhammad verbatim, without any alteration or change.
The Quran emphasizes that Muhammad was required only to receive the sacred text and that he had no authority to change it. It is believed that God did not make himself known through the revelations. There is nothing in the Quran. For Muhammad, the revelations were real and he believed the context was objective, but he was only able to describe the experience through metaphorical terms; when asked about the experience of revelation, Muhammad reported: "Sometimes it is revealed like the ringing of a bell. This form of inspiration is the hardest of them all and it passes off after I have grasped what is inspired. Sometimes the Angel comes in the form of a man and talks to me and I grasp whatever he says."At times, it was reported that the experience was painful for Muhammad. For example, he had been heard saying, "Never once did I receive a revelation without thinking that my soul had been torn away from me."After Muhammad would receive revelations, he would recite it to his companions, who memorized it or wrote it down.
Before the Quran was available in written form, speaking it from memory prevailed as the mode of teaching it to others. The practice of memorizing the whole Quran is still practiced among Muslims. Millions of people have memorized the entire Quran in Arabic; this fact, taken in the context of 7th-century Arabia, was not an extraordinary feat. People of that time had a penchant for recited poetry and had developed their skills in memorization to a remarkable degree. Events and competitions that featured the recitation of elaborate poetry were of great interest. Non-Muslim people questioned the nature and modes of Muhammad's revelations; the Meccans interpreted the Quranic revelations based on their understanding of'inspiration'. For them, poetry was connected to inspiration from a higher spiritual source. For this reason when Muhammad began preaching and reciting the Quran, the Meccans accused him of being a poet or a "poet possessed". Due to the fact that the Quran was revealed in disjointed verses and chapters, a point came when it needed to be gathered into a coherent whole text.
There are disagreements among both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars as to when the Quran was first compiled. A hadith in Sahih Bukhari states that the caliph Abu Bakr commanded Zayd ibn Thabit to compile the written Quran, relying upon both textual fragments and the memories of those who had memorized it; some Shia Muslims believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib was the first to compile the Quran into one written text, a task completed shortly after the death of Muhammad. The society during the time of Muhammad was predominantly oral and for this reason he would recite the Quranic verses to his Companions for them to memorize. Therefore, it is unknown whether the Quran was written and collected during the time of Muhammad. While writing was not a common skill during Muhammad's time, being a commercial center, had a number of people who could write; some scholars believe that up to 48 scribes including Zayd ibn Thabit and Ubay ibn Ka'b recorded verses of the Quran. This provides an explanation as to how the Quran existed in written form during the life of Muhammad if it was not compiled into one text.
Sunni and Shia scholars believe that the Quran was written dow
Royal Brunei Armed Forces
The Royal Brunei Armed Forces was formed on 31 May 1961. Known as the Royal Brunei Malay Regiment, it was honoured with the royal title on 31 May 1965, when the word'Diraja' was added to the title, it was known as Askar Melayu Diraja Brunei. Since Independence Day, 1 January 1984, the Royal Brunei Malay Regiment has been renamed as the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. Only Brunei citizens of the Malay ethnicity are allowed to enlist in the Royal Brunei Armed Forces; the Malay ethnicity comprises the Belait, Brunei, Kedayan and Tutong indigenous races as defined in the Brunei constitution. Military service is not compulsory for any segment of the population; the Royal Brunei Armed Forces use a wide range of foreign equipment, with a large percentage originating from the United Kingdom, France/Europe and the United States. The Royal Brunei Land Forces is the largest of the armed services, with a small air force and navy; the Bruneian military lacks any recent combat experience but has been deployed regionally in humanitarian and peacekeeping missions.
Brunei has extensive military relations with Singapore. On 31 May 2011, Royal Brunei Armed Forces reached its golden jubilee; the Role of Royal Brunei Armed Forces is to: Deter any outside powers intending to undermine directly or indirectly in the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the State of Brunei, to prevent any subversive elements actual or potential operating in the State of Brunei. The Royal Brunei Armed Forces is divided into four branches: Royal Brunei Land Forces Royal Brunei Air Force Royal Brunei Navy Training Institute The Royal Brunei Land Forces is a brigade sized formation that consists of three battalions and a support battalion; the role of the Royal Brunei Land Forces is to maintain the security of Brunei and to defend the sovereignty of the country. Its main responsibility is to oppose any threat from within or outside the country and to maintain peace and security in the country; the Royal Brunei Air Force is a small helicopter-based force, tasked with supporting the other branches of the armed services and defending Bruneian air space.
It was established in 1965 and consists of a range of helicopters, including: 10 Bell 212 and 4 Sikorsky S-70. The Bell 212s are to be replaced between 2013–15 by 12 Sikorsky S-70i; the Royal Brunei Air Force fixed-wing inventory is limited to around 4 Pilatus PC-7 training aircraft and Airbus CN-235 transport aircraft. On 14 July 2014, the Commander of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces announced plans to order the C-130J in the near future. On 7 October 2014, Brunei purchased a single C-130J with spare parts and logistic support for 343 million dollars; the Royal Brunei Navy is the naval defence force of Brunei Darrussalam. It is a small but well-equipped force whose main responsibility is to conduct search and rescue missions and to deter and defend the Brunei waters against attack mounted by sea borne forces; the Support Services Royal Brunei Armed Forces had the responsibility of providing support services to units in the RBAF in all aspects pertaining to their administration, health, communication and technical equipment service support to all units in the Royal Brunei Armed Forces.
The Support Services or the Royal Brunei Armed Forces worked with other units in the Royal Brunei Armed Forces to undergo and help co-ordinate military training and operations As part of the reorganisation of the RBAF, the Support Services was disbanded in early 2009 and its various units were relocated.. The Training Institute of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces is known as the Military Training Institution, it provides basic military training to all new recruits to the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. Other military courses are offered and conducted in the institution to personnel of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. Gurkha Reserve Unit Military Forces Based in Brunei Ministry of Defence, Brunei
Brunei Civil War
The Brunei Civil War was a civil war fought in the Bruneian Empire from 1660 to 1673. During the reign of the thirteenth Sultan Muhammad Ali, there was a disagreement between the son of the Sultan, Pengiran Muda Bongsu and Pengiran Muda Alam, the son of Pengiran Abdul Mubin over the results of a cockfight which Pengiran Muda Bungsu lost, his defeat was jeered by Pengiran Muda Alam. In his rage, Bongsu escaped from the scene. In revenge, Abdul Mubin and his followers garroted Sultan Muhammad Ali. Abdul Mubin made himself the fourteenth Sultan and took the title of "Sultan Hakkul Abdul Mubin", he tried to appease the previous Sultan's followers by appointing Muhammad Ali's grandson, Muhyiddin as the new Bendahara. After a while, Muhammad Ali's supporters took revenge by convincing Bendahara Muhyiddin to stand up against Abdul Mubin. Bendahara Muhyddin refused, but later agreed to do so, his supporters started making disturbances in the form of poking spears into homes. Sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin moved his palace to Chermin Island under the advice of Muhyiddin with the intent to wait the crisis out.
After he left, Muhyiddin declared himself the fifteenth sultan. A battle between the two competing Sultans ensued. Thus, the civil war of Brunei started. During the Civil War, Abdul Mubin fled to Kinarut where, he stayed there for ten years, repelling repeated attacks by Sultan Muhyiddin, they returned to Brunei after a final attack by Muhyiddin's forces in which they failed to defeat Abdul Mubin. Muhyiddin was concerned that the civil war was dragging on too long and asked the help of the sultan of Sulu to send forces, he promised the land of eastern Sabah as a reward for the Sulu's assistance. Muhyiddin emerged victorious. Abdul Mubin was killed in the civil war, it is not clear to historians. The Sultan of Sulu at that time on his part, claimed that he was asked by Brunei to help and was promised eastern Sabah as a reward; as promised, the Sultan of Sulu received eastern Sabah as an honorary gift from the Sultan of Brunei, for the Tausugs' help during the civil war. Sabah Brunei Sultanate of Sulu History of Brunei History of Sabah Sultan of Brunei Cockfighting
History of Southeast Asia
The term Southeast Asia has been in use since World War II. The region has been further divided into two distinct sub-regions: Mainland Southeast Asia, which comprises the modern states of Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand and West Malaysia, Maritime Southeast Asia, which comprises the modern states of Indonesia, East Malaysia, Philippines, East Timor, Cocos Islands, Christmas Island; the earliest Homo sapiens presence in Mainland Southeast Asia can be traced back to 50,000 years ago and to at least 40,000 years ago in Maritime Southeast Asia. As early as 10,000 years ago, Hoabinhian settlers had developed a tradition and culture of distinct artefact and tool production. During the Neolithic, Austroasiatic peoples populated Indochina via land routes and sea-borne Austronesian immigrants preferably settled in insular Southeast Asia; the earliest agricultural societies that cultivated millet and wet-rice emerged around 1,700 BCE in the lowlands and river floodplains of Indochina. The Phung Nguyen culture and the Ban Chiang site account for the earliest use of copper by around 2,000 BCE, followed by the Dong Son culture, who by around 500 BCE had developed a sophisticated industry of bronze production and processing.
Around the same time the first Agrarian Kingdoms emerged where territory was abundant and favourable, such as Funan at the lower Mekong and Van Lang in the Red River delta. Smaller and insular principalities engaged in and contributed to the expanding sea trade; the history of Southeast Asia has been influenced by its wide topographical diversity. Maritime Southeast Asia is apart from exceptions like Borneo and Sumatra a patchwork of recurring land-sea patterns on dispersed islands and archipelagos. A discontinuity, that admitted moderately sized thalassocratic states indifferent to territorial ambitions where growth and prosperity was associated with sea trade. Mainland Southeast Asia with a continuous, but rugged and difficult terrain provided the basis for the early Khmer and Mon civilisations. However, an extensive coastline and the south—and south-eastbound major river systems of the Irrawaddy, Chao Phraya and Red River always have directed focus, local trade, socio-cultural and economic activities towards the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.
Since around 100 BCE the Southeast Asian archipelago occupied a central position at the crossroads of the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea trading routes which immensely stimulated the economy and the influx of ideas promoted societal organisation and advance. Most local trading polities selectively adopted Indian Hindu elements of statecraft, religion and administration during the early centuries of the common era, which marked the beginning of recorded history and the continuation of a characteristic cultural development. Chinese culture diffused more indirectly and sporadic as trade was based on land routes like the Silk Road. Long periods of Chinese isolationism and political relations that were confined to ritualistic tribute procedures prevented deep acculturation. Buddhism in Indochina began to affect the political structure beginning in the 8th to 9th centuries. Islam ideas arrived in insular Southeast Asia as early as the 8th century, where the first Muslim societies emerged by the 13th century.
The era of European colonialism, early Modernity and the Cold War era revealed the reality of limited political significance for the various Southeast Asian polities. Post-World War II national survival and progress required a modern state and a strong national identity. Most modern Southeast Asian countries enjoy a unprecedented degree of political freedom and self-determination and have embraced the practical concept of intergovernmental co-operation within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. There are numerous ancient historic Asian designations for Southeast Asia, none are geographically consistent with each other. Names referring to Southeast Asia include Suvarnabhumi or Sovannah Phoum and Suvarnadvipa in Indian tradition, the Lands below the Winds in Arabia and Persia, Nanyang to the Chinese and Nanyo in Japan. A 2nd-century world map created by Ptolemy of Alexandria names the Malay Peninsula as Avrea Chersonesvs; the term Southeast Asia has been coined to designate the area of operation for Anglo-American forces in the Pacific Theater of World War II from 1941 to 1945.
Anatomically modern human hunter-gatherer migration into Southeast Asia before 50,000 years ago has been confirmed by the combined fossil record of the region. These immigrants might have, to a certain extent and reproduced with members of the archaic population of Homo erectus, as the fossil discoveries in the Tam Pa Ling Cave suggest. Data analysis of stone tool assemblages and fossil discoveries from Indonesia, Southern China, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and more Cambodia and Malaysia has established Homo erectus migration routes and episodes of presence as early as 120,000 years ago and older isolated finds date back to 1.8 million years ago. Java Man and Homo floresiensis attest for a sustained regional presence and isolation, long enough for notable diversification of the species' specifics. Ocean drops of up to 120 m below the present level during Pleistocene glacial periods revealed the vast lowlands known as Sundaland, enabling hunter-gatherer populations to access insular Southeast Asia via extensive terrestrial corridors.
Modern human presence in the Niah cave on East Malaysia dates back to 40,000 years BP, although archaeological documentation
Eid al-Fitr is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting. This religious Eid is the first and only day in the month of Shawwal during which Muslims are not permitted to fast; the holiday celebrates the conclusion of the 29 or 30 days of dawn-to-sunset fasting during the entire month of Ramadan. The day of Eid, falls on the first day of the month of Shawwal; the date for the start of any lunar Hijri month varies based on when the new moon is sighted by local religious authorities, so the exact day of celebration varies by locality. Eid al-Fitr has a particular salat consisting of two rakats and offered in an open field or large hall, it may be performed only in congregation and has an additional extra six Takbirs, three of them in the beginning of the first raka'ah and three of them just before rukūʿ in the second raka'ah in the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam. Other Sunni schools have twelve Takbirs, seven in the first, five at the beginning of the second raka'ah.
According to Shia Islam, it has 6 Takbirs in the first Rakat at the end of qira'a, before rukūʿ, 5 in the second. This Eid al-Fitr salat is, depending on which juristic opinion is followed, farḍ فرض, mustaḥabb مستحب or mandūb مندوب. Muslims believe that they are commanded by God, as mentioned in the Quran, to continue their fast until the last day of Ramadan and pay the Zakat al-Fitr before offering the Eid prayers. Eid al-Fitr was originated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, it is observed on the first day of the Islamic month of Shawwal at the end of the month of Ramadan, during which Muslims undergo a period of fasting. According to certain traditions, these festivals were initiated in Medina after the migration of Muhammad from Mecca. Anas reports: When the Prophet arrived in Madinah, he found people celebrating two specific days in which they used to entertain themselves with recreation and merriment, he asked them about the nature of these festivities at which they replied that these days were occasions of fun and recreation.
At this, the Prophet remarked that the Almighty has fixed two days instead of these for you which are better than these: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha Traditionally, it is the day of the first sighting of the crescent moon shortly after sunset. If the moon is not observed after the 29th day of the previous lunar month it is the following day. Eid al-Fitr is celebrated for two or three days, it is forbidden to fast on the Day of Eid. A specific prayer is nominated for this day; as an obligatory act of charity, money is paid to the poor and the needy before performing the ‘Eid prayer.. As another rituals, Muslims praise God in a loud voice while going to the Eid prayer: Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar. Lā ilāha illà l-Lāh wal-Lāhu akbar, Allahu akbar walil-Lāhi l-ḥamd. Recitation ceases once the Imam commences activities; the Eid prayer is performed in congregation in open areas like fields, community centres, etc. or at mosques. No call to prayer is given for this Eid prayer, it consists of only two units of prayer with an additional six Takbirs.
The Eid prayer is followed by the sermon and a supplication asking for Allah's forgiveness, mercy and blessings for all living beings across the world. The sermon instructs Muslims as to the performance of rituals of Eid, such as the zakat. Listening to the sermon at Eid is not required and is optional, a Sunnah i.e. while the sermon is being delivered. After the prayers, Muslims visit their relatives and acquaintances or hold large communal celebrations in homes, community centres or rented halls. Eid gifts, known as Eidi, are given at eid to children and immediate relatives. Eid al-Fitr prayer or Eid al-Fitr Namaz is performed on the occasion of Eid; the Prayer of Eid al-Fitr is performed in two different ways by Shia Islam. There are two Rak'ah performed in the Eid al-Fitr prayer; the prayer of Eid al-Fitr starts by doing "Niyyat" for the prayer and Takbeer is said by the Imam and all the followers. The next is to recite "Takbeer-e-Tehreema" in first Rakaat; the congregation says Allahu Akbar seven times, every time raising hands to the ears and dropping them except the last time when hands are folded.
The Imam reads the Surah-e-Fatiha and other Surah. The congregation performs Ruku and Sujud as in other prayers; this completes the first Rak’ah. The congregation rises up from the first Rak'ah and folds hands for the second Rak’ah. In the next step the Imam says five takbirat, followed by the congregation, every time raising the hands to the ears and dropping them except the last time when the hands are folded. Again the Imam reads another Surah followed by the Ruku and Sujud; this completes the Eid prayer. After the prayer there is a khutbah. Shia perform two Rak’ah in the Eid al-Fitr prayer. Prayer starts with the Niyyat followed by the five "Takbeers". During every "Takbeer" of the first Rak’ah, a special Dua is recited; the Imam recites Sūrat al-Fātiḥah and Surat Al-'A`lá and the congregation performs Ruku and Sujud as in other prayers. In the second Rak’ah again the same above steps are