The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year. The Ancient Greek word Hellas is the original word for Greece, from which the word Hellenistic was derived. At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, North Africa and Western Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, literature, architecture, mathematics and science, it is considered a period of transition, sometimes of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint and the philosophies of Stoicism and Epicureanism. Greek science was advanced by the works of the polymath Archimedes; the religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele and a syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism in Bactria and Northwest India.
After Alexander the Great's invasion of the Achaemenid Empire in 330 BC and its disintegration shortly after, the Hellenistic kingdoms were established throughout south-west Asia, north-east Africa and South Asia. The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa; this resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to these new realms, spanning as far as modern-day India. However, these new kingdoms were influenced by the indigenous cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary, or convenient. Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East, Southwest Asia; this mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world. Scholars and historians are divided as to; the Hellenistic period may be seen to end either with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by Rome in 146 BC following the Achean War, with the final defeat of the Ptolemaic Kingdom at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, or the move by Roman emperor Constantine the Great of the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in 330 AD.
"Hellenistic" is distinguished from "Hellenic" in that the first encompasses the entire sphere of direct ancient Greek influence, while the latter refers to Greece itself. The word originated from the German term hellenistisch, from Ancient Greek Ἑλληνιστής, from Ἑλλάς. "Hellenistic" is a 19th-century concept. Although words related in form or meaning, e.g. Hellenist, have been attested since ancient times, it was Johann Gustav Droysen in the mid-19th century, who in his classic work Geschichte des Hellenismus, coined the term Hellenistic to refer to and define the period when Greek culture spread in the non-Greek world after Alexander's conquest. Following Droysen and related terms, e.g. Hellenism, have been used in various contexts; the major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. Some areas of the conquered world were more affected by Greek influences than others; the term Hellenistic implies that the Greek populations were of majority in the areas in which they settled, but in many cases, the Greek settlers were the minority among the native populations.
The Greek population and the native population did not always mix. While a few fragments exist, there is no complete surviving historical work which dates to the hundred years following Alexander's death; the works of the major Hellenistic historians Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris of Samos and Phylarchus which were used by surviving sources are all lost. The earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis, a statesman of the Achaean League until 168 BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage, his Histories grew to a length of forty books, covering the years 220 to 167 BC. The most important source after Polybius is Diodorus Siculus who wrote his Bibliotheca historica between 60 and 30 BC and reproduced some important earlier sources such as Hieronymus, but his account of the Hellenistic period breaks off after the battle of Ipsus. Another important source, Plutarch's Parallel Lives although more preoccupied with issues of personal character and morality, outlines the history of important Hellenistic figures.
Appian of Alexandria wrote a history of the Roman empire that includes information of some Hellenistic kingdoms. Other sources include Justin's epitome of Pompeius Trogus' Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrian's Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople. Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus, Pausanias and the Byzantine encyclopedia the Suda. In the field of philosophy, Diogenes Laër
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus. Christmas Day is observed around the world, Christmas Eve is observed as a full or partial holiday in anticipation of Christmas Day. Together, both days are considered one of the most culturally significant celebrations in Christendom and Western society. Christmas celebrations in the denominations of Western Christianity have long begun on the night of the 24th, due in part to the Christian liturgical day starting at sunset, a practice inherited from Jewish tradition and based on the story of Creation in the Book of Genesis: "And there was evening, there was morning – the first day." Many churches still ring their church bells and hold prayers in the evening. Since tradition holds that Jesus was born at night, Midnight Mass is celebrated on Christmas Eve, traditionally at midnight, in commemoration of his birth; the idea of Jesus being born at night is reflected in the fact that Christmas Eve is referred to as Heilige Nacht in German, Nochebuena in Spanish and in other expressions of Christmas spirituality, such as the song "Silent Night, Holy Night".
Many other varying cultural traditions and experiences are associated with Christmas Eve around the world, including the gathering of family and friends, the singing of Christmas carols, the illumination and enjoyment of Christmas lights and other decorations, the wrapping and opening of gifts, general preparation for Christmas Day. Legendary Christmas gift-bearing figures including Santa Claus, Father Christmas and Saint Nicholas are often said to depart for their annual journey to deliver presents to children around the world on Christmas Eve, although until the Protestant introduction of Christkind in 16th-century Europe, such figures were said to instead deliver presents on the eve of Saint Nicholas' feast day. Roman Catholics and high church Anglicans traditionally celebrate Midnight Mass, which begins either at or sometime before midnight on Christmas Eve; this ceremony, held in churches throughout the world, celebrates the birth of Christ, believed to have occurred at night. Midnight Mass is popular in Poland.
In recent years some churches have scheduled their "Midnight" Mass as early as 7 pm. In Spanish-speaking areas, the Midnight Mass is sometimes referred to as Misa de Gallo, or Missa do Galo in Portuguese. In the Philippines, the custom has expanded into the nine-day Simbang Gabi, when Filipinos attend dawn Masses from 16 December, continuing daily until Christmas Eve. In 2009 Vatican officials scheduled the Midnight Mass to start at 10 pm so that the 82-year-old Pope Benedict XVI would not have too late a night. Whilst it does not include any kind of Mass, the Church of Scotland has a service beginning just before midnight, in which carols are sung; the Church of Scotland no longer holds Hogmanay services on New Year's Eve, however. The Christmas Eve Services are still popular. On Christmas Eve, the Christ Candle in the center of the Advent wreath is traditionally lit in many church services. In candlelight services, while singing Silent Night, each member of the congregation receives a candle and passes along their flame, first received from the Christ Candle.
Lutherans traditionally practice Christmas Eve Eucharistic traditions typical of Germany and Scandinavia. "Krippenspiele", special festive music for organ and brass choirs and candlelight services make Christmas Eve one of the highlights in the Lutheran Church calendar. A nativity scene may be erected indoors or outdoors, is composed of figurines depicting the infant Jesus resting in a manger and Joseph. Other figures in the scene may include angels and various animals; the figures may be made of any material, arranged in a stable or grotto. The Magi may appear, are sometimes not placed in the scene until the week following Christmas to account for their travel time to Bethlehem. While most home nativity scenes are packed away at Christmas or shortly thereafter, nativity scenes in churches remain on display until the feast of the Baptism of the Lord. Christmas Vespers are popular in the early evening, midnight services are widespread in regions which are predominantly Lutheran; the old Lutheran tradition of a Christmas Vigil in the early morning hours of Christmas Day can still be found in some regions.
In eastern and middle Germany, congregations still continue the tradition of "Quempas singing": separate groups dispersed in various parts of the church sing verses of the song "He whom shepherds once came Praising" responsively. Methodists celebrate the evening in different ways. Some, in the early evening, come to their church to celebrate Holy Communion with their families; the mood is solemn, the only visible light is the Advent Wreath, the candles upon the Lord's Table. Others celebrate the evening with services of light, which include singing the song Silent Night as a variety of candles are lit. Other churches have late evening services at 11 pm, so that the church can celebrate Christmas Day together with the ringing of bells at midnight. Others offer Christmas Day services as well; the annual "Nine Lessons and Carols", broadcast from King's College, Cambridge on Christmas Eve, has established itself a Christmas custom in the United Kingdom. It is broadcast outside the UK via the BBC World Service, is bought by broadcasters around the world.
In the Byzantine Rite, Christmas Eve is referred to a
The Eyalet of Cyprus was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire made up of the island of Cyprus, annexed into the Empire in 1571. The Ottomans changed the way, it was a sanjak of the Eyalet of the Archipelago from 1670 to 1703, again from 1784 onwards. During Venetian rule, the Ottomans at times raided Cyprus. In 1489, the first year of Venetian control, Ottomans attacked the Karpass Peninsula and taking captives to be sold into slavery. In 1539 the Ottoman fleet destroyed Limassol. Fearing the ever-expanding Ottoman Empire, the Venetians had fortified Famagusta and Kyrenia, but most other cities were easy prey. In the summer of 1570, the Ottomans struck again, but this time with a full-scale invasion rather than a raid. About 60,000 troops, including cavalry and artillery, under the command of Lala Mustafa Pasha landed unopposed near Limassol on July 2, 1570, laid siege to Nicosia; the city fell on September 9, 1570. Only women and boys who were captured to be sold as slaves were spared. Word of the massacre spread, a few days Mustafa took Kyrenia without having to fire a shot.
Famagusta, resisted with the Siege of Famagusta and put up a defense that lasted from September 1570 until August 1571. The fall of Famagusta marked the beginning of the Ottoman period in Cyprus. Two months the naval forces of the Holy League, composed of Venetian and Papal ships under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in one of the decisive battles of world history; the victory over the Ottomans, came too late to help Cyprus, the island remained under Ottoman rule for the next three centuries. In 1570, the Ottomans first occupied Cyprus, Lala Mustafa Pasha became the first Turkish Governor of Cyprus, challenging the claims of Venice; the Pope formed a coalition between the Papal States, Spain and several other Italian states, with no real result. In 1573 the Venetians left; as soon as Nicosia was conquered, Cyprus was declared an eyalet under the administration of a beylerbey, Mustafa Pasha, the former beylerbey of Avlonya, was appointed to the post.
Cyprus was divided into three sanjaks: Famagusta and Paphos. Additionally, the sanjaks of Alâiye, Tarsus, İçel, Sis, Zülkadriye and Tripoli on the mainland were placed under the administration of the Cyprus eyalet. Cyprus was divided into several kazas: Tuzla, Episkopi, Paphos, Lefka, Hirsofu, Famagusta and Mesariye; these kazas each had naib. The sanjak of Tripoli, was removed from the jurisdiction of Cyprus in 1573 due to its distance and given to the Damascus Eyalet; the sanjaks of İçel, Alâiye and Tarsus were removed in 1610 and given to the newly created Adana Eyalet. However, after the Ottoman conquest of Crete, the Cypriot Orthodox Church argued that Cyprus had lost importance, that trade volume had decreased and that people were emigrating, it thus requested a change in the administrative status as Cyprus could not afford remaining an eyalet. Thus, in 1670, Cyprus became a sanjak under the Eyalet of the Archipelago, under the direct control of the Kapudan Pasha, the head of the Ottoman Navy.
This control was exercised through an appointed mütesellim. However, under this system, local aghas were the tax collectors; this magnified their power and resulted in discontent, with the rivalry between them causing a two-year long revolt in the 1680s, led by Boyacıoğlu Mehmed Agha. This proved that the existing system caused a power vacuum and was ineffective, so in 1703 Cyprus was placed directly under the control of the Grand Vizier, administered on his behalf by a muhassıl. To reduce the powers of the aghas, the muhassıl was given the power to collect taxes, as well as increased political and military authority. Between 1745 and 1748, Cyprus became an eyalet again; these three years the reign of governor Ebubekir Pasha, were a period of development and relative prosperity. After the end of Ebubekir Pasha's tenure, Cyprus reverted to its former status. Greek Cypriots had two important administrative positions: the Archbishop, who headed the Orthodox Church, was recognized as the sole representative of the Greek Cypriot population from the 1670s onwards, the Dragoman, chosen from the candidates determined by the Archbishop.
The muhassıl administration became more and more dysfunctional. In 1764, muhassıl Çil Osman Agha was killed amidst a chaotic environment caused by his rule. Meanwhile, the ongoing war with Russia meant a deterioration in the people's welfare. Thus, on the request of the Archbishop and the Dragoman, Cyprus was placed directly under the administration of the Imperial Council in 1785, with the muhassıl being directly appointed; these new muhassıls lacked some of their old powers, which increased the influence of the Orthodox clergy as they became tax collectors. In 1839, with the reforms of Abdülmecid I, the island once again became a sanjak of the Eyalet of the Archipelago but gained significant autonomy; the island was governed by a mutasarrıf, the kazas were consolidated into six larger kazas with their own administrative and judicial councils. A sanjak administrative council, in which Turks and other minorities were proportionally represented, was established. In 1861, Cy
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most known Crusades are the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule, but the term "Crusades" is applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns; these were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage. At the time of the early Crusades the word did not exist, only becoming the leading descriptive term around 1760. In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade in a sermon at the Council of Clermont, he encouraged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks colonizing Anatolia. One of Urban's aims was to guarantee pilgrims access to the Eastern Mediterranean holy sites that were under Muslim control but scholars disagree as to whether this was the primary motive for Urban or those who heeded his call.
Urban's strategy may have been to unite the Eastern and Western branches of Christendom, divided since the East–West Schism of 1054 and to establish himself as head of the unified Church. The initial success of the Crusade established the first four Crusader states in the Eastern Mediterranean: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the County of Tripoli; the enthusiastic response to Urban's preaching from all classes in Western Europe established a precedent for other Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the Church; some were hoping for a mass ascension into heaven at Jerusalem or God's forgiveness for all their sins. Others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, obtain glory and honour or to seek economic and political gain; the two-century attempt to recover the Holy Land ended in failure. Following the First Crusade there were numerous less significant ones. After the last Catholic outposts fell in 1291, there were no more Crusades.
The Wendish Crusade and those of the Archbishop of Bremen brought all the North-East Baltic and the tribes of Mecklenburg and Lusatia under Catholic control in the late 12th century. In the early 13th century the Teutonic Order created a Crusader state in Prussia and the French monarchy used the Albigensian Crusade to extend the kingdom to the Mediterranean Sea; the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the late 14th century prompted a Catholic response which led to further defeats at Nicopolis in 1396 and Varna in 1444. Catholic Europe was in chaos and the final pivot of Christian–Islamic relations was marked by two seismic events: the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 and a final conclusive victory for the Spanish over the Moors with the conquest of Granada in 1492; the idea of Crusading continued, not least in the form of the Knights Hospitaller, until the end of the 18th-century but the focus of Western European interest moved to the New World. Modern historians hold varying opinions of the Crusaders.
To some, their conduct was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy, as evidenced by the fact that on occasion the Pope excommunicated Crusaders. Crusaders pillaged as they travelled, their leaders retained control of captured territory instead of returning it to the Byzantines. During the People's Crusade, thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres. Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade. However, the Crusades had a profound impact on Western civilisation: Italian city-states gained considerable concessions in return for assisting the Crusaders and established colonies which allowed trade with the eastern markets in the Ottoman period, allowing Genoa and Venice to flourish; the Crusades reinforced a connection between Western Christendom and militarism. The term crusade used in modern historiography at first referred to the wars in the Holy Land beginning in 1095, but the range of events to which the term has been applied has been extended, so that its use can create a misleading impression of coherence regarding the early Crusades.
The term used for the campaign of the First Crusade was iter "journey" or peregrinatio "pilgrimage". The terminology of crusading remained indistinguishable from that of pilgrimage during the 12th century, reflecting the reality of the first century of crusading where not all armed pilgrims fought, not all who fought had taken the cross, it was not until the late 12th to early 13th centuries that a more specific "language of crusading" emerged. Pope Innocent III used the term negotium crucis "affair of the cross" for the Eastern Mediterranean crusade, but was reluctant to apply crusading terminology to the Albigensian crusade; the Song of the Albigensian Crusade from about 1213 contains the first recorded vernacular use of the Occitan crozada. This term was adopted into French as croisade and in English as crusade; the modern spelling crusade dates to c. 1760. Sinibaldo Fieschi used the terms crux transmarina for crusades in Outremer against Muslims and crux cismarina for crusades in Europe against other enemies of the church.
The Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271–72. This conv
Ohi Day or Oxi Day is celebrated throughout Greece and the Greek communities around the world on 28 October each year. Ohi Day commemorates the rejection by Greek prime minister Ioannis Metaxas of the ultimatum made by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini on 28 October 1940, the Hellenic counterattack against the invading Italian forces at the mountains of Pindus during the Greco-Italian War, the Greek Resistance during the Axis occupation; this ultimatum, presented to Metaxas by the Italian ambassador to Greece, Emanuele Grazzi, shortly after 03:00 am on 28 October 1940, who had just come from a party in the Italian embassy in Athens, demanded Greece allow Axis forces to enter Greek territory and occupy certain unspecified "strategic locations" or otherwise face war. It was answered with a single laconic word: όχι. However, his actual reply was, “Alors, c’est la guerre!”. In response to Metaxas's refusal, Italian troops stationed in Albania an Italian protectorate, attacked the Greek border at 05:30 am—the beginning of Greece's participation in World War II.
On the morning of 28 October, the Greek population took to the streets, irrespective of political affiliation, shouting'ohi'. From 1942, it was celebrated as Ohi Day, first among the members of the resistance and after the war by all the Greeks. During the war, 28 October was commemorated yearly by Greek communities around the world and in Greece and Cyprus, after World War II it became a public holiday in Greece and Cyprus; the events of 1940 are commemorated every year with student parades. On every anniversary, most public buildings and residences are decorated with national flags. Schools and all places of work are closed. Kontserto gia polyvola Ohi The battle of Crete October 28th, time 5:30 Lieutenant Natassa Oi gennaioi tou Vorra The Mediterranean in flames Submarine Papanikolis Axis occupation of Greece Battle of Greece Greco-Italian War
2004 enlargement of the European Union
The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union, in terms of territory, number of states, population to date. It occurred on 1 May 2004; the simultaneous accessions concerned the following countries: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland and Slovenia. Seven of these were part of the former Eastern Bloc, one of the former Yugoslavia, the remaining two were Mediterranean islands and former British colonies. Part of the same wave of enlargement was the accession of Bulgaria and Romania in 2007, who were unable to join in 2004, according to the Commission, constitute part of the fifth enlargement. With the end of the Second World War in 1945, Europe found itself divided between a capitalist Western Bloc and a communist Eastern Bloc, as well as Third World neutral countries; the European Economic Community was created in 1957 between six countries within the Western Bloc and expanded to twelve countries across Europe. European communist countries had a looser economic grouping with the USSR known as Comecon.
To the south there was a non-aligned communist federated country – Yugoslavia. In 1989, the Cold War between the two superpowers was coming to an end, with the USSR's influence over communist Europe collapsing; as the communist states began their transition to free market democracies, aligning to Euro-Atlantic integration, the question of enlargement into the continent was thrust onto the EEC's agenda. The Phare strategy was launched soon after to adapt more the structure of the Central and Eastern European countries to the European Economic Community. One of the major tools of this strategy was the Regional Quality Assurance Program which started in 1993 to help the PECO States implement the New Approach in their economy; the Acquis Communautaire contained 3,000 directives and some 100,000 pages in the Official Journal of the European Union to be transposed. It demanded a lot of administrative work and immense economic change, raised major cultural problems – e.g. new legal concepts and language consistency problems.
Copenhagen criteria Nuclear plants. Malta held a non-binding referendum on 8 March 2003; the Treaty of Accession 2003 was signed on 16 April 2003, at the Stoa of Attalus in Athens, between the then-EU members and the ten acceding countries. The text amended the main EU treaties, including the Qualified Majority Voting of the Council of the European Union; the treaty was entered into force on 1 May 2004 amid ceremonies around Europe. European leaders met in Dublin for fireworks and a flag-raising ceremony at Áras an Uachtaráin, the Irish presidential residence. At the same time, citizens across Ireland enjoyed a nationwide celebration styled as the Day of Welcomes. President Romano Prodi took part in celebrations on the Italian-Slovenian border at the divided town of Gorizia/Nova Gorica, at the German-Polish border, the EU flag was raised and Ode to Joy was sung and there was a laser show in Malta among the various other celebrations. Limerick, Ireland's third largest City, hosted Slovenia as one of ten Cities and Towns to individually welcome the ten accession countries.
The Slovenian Prime Minister Anton Rop was Guest Speaker at a business luncheon hosted by Limerick Chamber. 1 EU Association Agreement type: Europe Agreement for the states of the Fifth Enlargement. As of May 2011, there are no longer any special restrictions on the free movement of citizens of these new member states. With their original accession to the EU, free movement of people between all 25 states would have applied. However, due to concerns of mass migration from the new members to the old EU-15, some transitional restrictions were put in place. Mobility within the EU-15 and within the new states functioned as normal. Between the old and new states, transitional restrictions up to 1 May 2011 could be put in place, EU workers still had a preferential right over non-EU workers in looking for jobs if restrictions were placed upon their country. No restrictions were placed on Malta; the following restrictions were put in place by each country. Work permits still needed for all countries. In Austria, to be employed the worker needs to have been employed for more than a year in his home country prior to accession.
Germany had bilateral quotas. Cyprus: No restrictions. Malta: No restrictions on its workers, but does have the right to migration into the country. Netherlands: Initially against restrictions, but tightened up its policies in early 2004 and said it would tighten its policies if more than 22,000 workers arrived per year. Finland: 2 years of transitional arrangements where a work permit would be granted only where a Finnish national cannot be found for the job. Does not apply to students, part-time workers, people living in Finland for non-work purposes, people who were living in Finland for a year or people who would be entitled to work anyway if they were from a third countr
History of Cyprus
Human habitation of Cyprus dates back to the Paleolithic era. Cyprus's geographic position has caused Cyprus to be influenced by differing Eastern Mediterranean civilisations over the millennia. Periods of Cyprus's history from 1050 BC have been named according to styles of pottery found as follows: Cypro-Geometric I: 1050-950 BC Cypro-Geometric II: 950-850 BC Cypro-Geometric III: 850-700 BC Cypro-Archaic I: 700-600 BC Cypro-Archaic II: 600-475 BC Cypro-Classical I: 475-400 BC Cypro-Classical II: 400-323 BC Cyprus was settled by humans in the Paleolithic period who coexisted with various dwarf animal species, such as dwarf elephants and pygmy hippos well into the Holocene. There are claims of an association of this fauna with artifacts of Epipalaeolithic foragers at Aetokremnos near Limassol on the southern coast of Cyprus; the first undisputed settlement occurred in the 9th millennium BC from the Levant. The first settlers did not yet produce pottery; the dog, sheep and cattle and pigs were introduced, as well as numerous wild animals such as foxes and Persian fallow deer that were unknown on the island.
The PPNB settlers built round houses with floors made of terrazzo of burned lime and cultivated einkorn and emmer. Pigs, sheep and cattle were kept but remained, for the most part, behaviourally wild. Evidence of cattle such as that attested at Shillourokambos is rare, when they died out in the course of the 8th millennium they were not re-introduced until the ceramic Neolithic. In the 6th millennium BC, the aceramic Khirokitia culture was characterised by roundhouses, stone vessels and an economy based on sheep and pigs. Cattle were unknown, Persian fallow deer were hunted; this was followed by the ceramic Sotira phase. The Eneolithic era is characterised by stone figurines with spread arms. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old, putting them in the Stone Age, they are said to show the sophistication of early settlers, their heightened appreciation for the environment. In 2004, the remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with its human owner at a Neolithic archeological site in Cyprus.
The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating Egyptian civilization and pushing back the earliest known feline-human association significantly. In the Bronze Age the first cities, such as Enkomi, were built. Systematic copper mining began, this resource was traded. Mycenaean Greeks were undoubtedly inhabiting Cyprus from the late stage of the Bronze Age, while the island's Greek name is attested from the 15th century BC in the Linear B script; the Cypriot syllabic script was first used in early phases of the late Bronze Age and continued in use for ca. 500 years into the LC IIIB, maybe up to the second half of the eleventh century BC. Most scholars believe it was used for a native Cypriot language that survived until the 4th century BC, but the actual proofs for this are scant, as the tablets still have not been deciphered; the LCIIC was a time of local prosperity. Cities such as Enkomi were rebuilt on a rectangular grid plan, where the town gates correspond to the grid axes and numerous grand buildings front the street system or newly founded.
Great official buildings constructed from ashlar masonry point to increased social hierarchisation and control. Some of these buildings contain facilities for processing and storing olive oil, such as Maroni-Vournes and Building X at Kalavassos-Ayios Dhimitrios. A Sanctuary with a horned altar constructed from ashlar masonry has been found at Myrtou-Pigadhes, other temples have been located at Enkomi and Kouklia. Both the regular layout of the cities and the new masonry techniques find their closest parallels in Syria in Ugarit. Rectangular corbelled tombs point to close contacts with Palestine as well; the practice of writing spread and tablets in the Cypriot syllabic script have been found at Ras Shamra, the Phoenician city of Ugarit. Ugaritic texts from Ras Shamra and Enkomi mention Ya, the Assyrian name of Cyprus, that thus seems to have been in use in the late Bronze Age. Copper ingots shaped like oxhides have been recovered from shipwrecks such as at Ulu Burun and Cape Gelidonya which attest to the widespread metal trade.
Weights in the shape of animals found in Enkomi and Kalavassos follow the Syro-Palestinian, Mesopotamian and Aegean standards and thus attest to the wide-ranging trade as well. Late Bronze Age Cyprus was a part of the Hittite empire but was a client state and as such was not invaded but rather part of the empire by association and governed by the ruling kings of Ugarit; as such Cyprus was "left alone with little intervention in Cypriot affairs". However, during the reign of Tudhaliya, the island was invaded by the Hittites for either reasons of securing the copper resource or as a way of preventing piracy. Shortly afterwards the island was reconquered by his son around 1200 BC. Although Achaean Greeks were living in Cyprus from the 14th century, most of them inhabited the island after the Trojan war. Achaeans were colonizing Cyprus from 1210 to 1000 BC. Dorian Greeks arrived around 1100 BC and, unlike the pattern on the Greek mainland, the evidence suggests that they settled on Cyprus peacefully.
Another wave of Greek settlement is believed to have taken place in the following century, amon