Buddha's birthday is a holiday traditionally celebrated in most of East Asia to commemorate the birth of the Prince Siddhartha Gautama the Gautama Buddha and founder of Buddhism. It is celebrated in South and Southeast Asia as Vesak which acknowledges the enlightenment and death of the Buddha. According to the Theravada Tripitaka scriptures, Gautama was born c. 563/480 BCE in Lumbini in modern-day Nepal, raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilvastu, in the present day Tilaurakot, Nepal. At the age of thirty five, he attained enlightenment underneath a Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya, he delivered his first sermon at India. At the age of eighty, he died at India; the exact date of Buddha's birthday is based on the Asian lunisolar calendars. The date for the celebration of Buddha's birthday varies from year to year in the Western Gregorian calendar, but falls in April or May. In leap years it may be celebrated in June; the exact date of Buddha's Birthday is based on the Asian lunisolar calendars and is celebrated in Baisakh month of the Buddhist calendar and the Bikram Sambat Hindu calendar, hence it is called Vesak.
In modern-day India and Nepal, where the Historical Buddha lived, it is celebrated on the full moon day of the Vaisakha month of the Buddhist calendar. In Theravada countries following the Buddhist calendar, it falls on a full moon Uposatha day in the 5th or 6th lunar month. In China and Korea, it is celebrated on the eighth day of the fourth month in the Chinese lunar calendar; the date varies from year to year in the Western Gregorian calendar, but falls in April or May. In leap years it may be celebrated in June. In Tibet, it falls on the 7th day of the fourth month of the Tibetan calendar. In South Asian and Southeast Asian countries as well as Mongolia, Buddha's birthday is celebrated on the full moon day of the Vaisakha month of the Buddhist calendar and the Hindu calendar, which falls in April or May month of the Western Gregorian calendar; the festival is known as Buddha Purnima. It is called is Buddha Jayanti, with Jayanti meaning birthday in Sanskrit Language; the corresponding Western Gregorian calendar dates varies from year to year: 2017: May 10 2018: April 29, April 30, May 29 2019: May 19 In many East Asian countries Buddha's Birth is celebrated on the 8th day of the 4th month in the Chinese lunar calendar, the day is an official holiday in Hong Kong and South Korea.
The date falls from the end of April to the end of May in the Gregorian calendar. The solar Gregorian calendar date varies from year to year: 2017: May 3 2018: May 22 2019: May 12 2020: April 30 In 1999 the Taiwanese government set Buddha's birthday as the second Sunday of May, the same date as Mother's Day; as a result of the Meiji Restoration, Japan adopted the Gregorian calendar in lieu of the Chinese lunar calendar in 1873. However, it took until 1945, the end of World War II, for religious festivities to adopt the new calendar. In most Japanese temples, Buddha's birth is now celebrated on the Gregorian calendar date April 8. In Bangladesh the event is called Buddho Purnima. On the day of proceeding Purnima Buddhist monks and priests decorate temple in colourful decorations and candles. On the day of the festival the President and Prime Minister deliver speeches about the history and importance of Buddhism and religious harmony in the country. From noon onwards large fairs are held in and around temples and viharas selling bangles, clothes and conducting performances of Buddha's life, Buddhist music teaching about the Dharma and the 5 precepts.
On Buddhists attend a congression inside the monastery where the chief monk would deliver a speech discussing the Buddha and the 3 jewels and about living the ideal life after which a prayer to the buddha would be conducted and people would light candles and recite the three jewels and 5 precepts. In Cambodia, Buddha's Birthday is celebrated as Visak Bochea and is a public holiday where monks around the country carry flags, lotus flowers and candles to acknowledge Vesak. People take part in alms giving to the monks. Maybe in China, celebrations may occur in Buddhist temples where people may light incense and bring food offerings for the monks. In Hong Kong, Buddha's birthday is a public holiday. Lanterns are lit to symbolise the Buddha's enlightenment and many people visit the temple to pay their respects; the bathing of the Buddha is a major feature of Buddha's birthday celebrations in the city. The festival is a public holiday in Macau. India is the land where the Buddha established Buddhism.
Buddha spent majority of his life in what is now modern day India. Some of the holiest sites associated with Buddha's life include Bodhgaya, Sarnath and Rajgir, Kushinagar Under Emperor Ashoka, Buddhism spread from India to other nations. Buddha Purnima or Buddha Jayanthi in South India or Tathagata is a public holiday in India; the public holiday for Buddha purnima in India was initiated by Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar when he was the minister of social justice It is celebrated in Sikkim
Public holidays in Georgia
For the holidays in the U. S. state of Georgia, see Public holidays in Georgia National holidays of Georgia
The Mid-Autumn Festival is a harvest festival celebrated notably by the Chinese and Vietnamese people. The festival is held on the 15th day of the 8th month of the lunar calendar with full moon at night, corresponding to late September to early October of the Gregorian calendar with a full moon at night. Mooncakes, a rich pastry filled with sweet bean paste or lotus seed paste are traditionally eaten during the festival; the Mid-Autumn Festival is known by other names, such as: Moon Festival or Harvest Moon Festival, because of the celebration's association with the full moon on this night, as well as the traditions of moon worship and moon gazing. Jūng-chāu Jit, official name in Cantonese. Tết Trung Thu, official name in Vietnamese. Zhōngqiū Jié, the official name in Mandarin. Lantern Festival, a term sometimes used in Singapore and Indonesia, not to be confused with the Lantern Festival in China that occurs on the 15th day of the first month of the Chinese calendar. Reunion Festival, in earlier times, a woman in China took this occasion to visit her parents before returning to celebrate with her husband and his parents.
Children's Festival, in Vietnam, because of the emphasis on the celebration of children. The festival celebrates three fundamental concepts that are connected: Gathering, such as family and friends coming together, or harvesting crops for the festival. It's said the moon is roundest on this day which means family reunion; this is the main reason why the festival is thought to be important. Thanksgiving, to give thanks for the harvest, or for harmonious unions Praying, such as for babies, a spouse, longevity, or for a good futureTraditions and myths surrounding the festival are formed around these concepts, although traditions have changed over time due to changes in technology, economy and religion. It's about well being together; the Chinese have celebrated the harvest during the autumn full moon since the Shang dynasty. For the Baiyue peoples, the harvest time commemorated the dragon; the celebration as a festival only started to gain popularity during the early Tang dynasty. One legend explains that Emperor Xuanzong of Tang started to hold formal celebrations in his palace after having explored the Moon-Palace.
The term mid-autumn first appeared in Rites of Zhou, a written collection of rituals of the Western Zhou dynasty. Empress Dowager Cixi enjoyed celebrating Mid-Autumn Festival so much that she would spend the period between the thirteenth and seventeenth day of the eighth month staging elaborate rituals. An important part of the festival celebration is moon worship; the ancient Chinese believed in rejuvenation being associated with the moon and water, connected this concept to the menstruation of women, calling it "monthly water". The Zhuang people, for example, have an ancient fable saying the sun and moon are a couple and the stars are their children, when the moon is pregnant, it becomes round, becomes crescent after giving birth to a child; these beliefs made it popular among women to give offerings to the moon on this evening. In some areas of China, there are still customs in which "men do not worship the moon and the women do not offer sacrifices to the kitchen gods."Offerings are made to a more well-known lunar deity, Chang'e, known as the Moon Goddess of Immortality.
The myths associated with Chang'e explain the origin of moon worship during this day. One version of the story is as follows, as described in Lihui Yang's Handbook of Chinese Mythology: In the ancient past, there was a hero named Hou Yi, excellent at archery, his wife was Chang'e. One year, the ten suns rose in the sky together. Yi left only one to provide light. An immortal sent him the elixir of immortality. Yi did not want to leave Chang'e and be immortal without her, so he let Chang'e keep the elixir, but Pang Meng, one of his apprentices, knew this secret. So, on the fifteenth of August in the lunar calendar, when Yi went hunting, Peng Meng broke into Yi's house and forced Chang'e to give the elixir to him. Chang'e refused to do so. Instead, she flew into the sky. Since she loved much her husband and hoped to live nearby, she chose the moon for her residence; when Yi came back and learned what had happened, he felt so sad that he displayed the fruits and cakes Chang'e liked in the yard and gave sacrifices to his wife.
People soon learned about these activities, since they were sympathetic to Chang'e they participated in these sacrifices with Yi. Handbook of Chinese Mythology describes an alternate common version of the myth: After the hero Houyi shot down nine of the ten suns, he was pronounced king by the thankful people. However, he soon became a tyrannical ruler. In order to live long without death, he asked for the elixir from Xiwangmu, but his wife, Chang'e, stole it on the fifteenth of August because she did not want the cruel king to live long and hurt more people. She took the magic potion to prevent her husband from becoming immortal. Houyi was so angry when discovered that Chang'e took the elixir, he shot at his wife as she flew toward the moon, though he missed. Chang' e became the spirit of the moon. Houyi died. Thereafter, people offer a sacrifice to Chang'e on every lunar fifteenth of August to commemorate Chang'e's action; the festival was a time to enjoy the successful reaping of rice and wheat with food offerings made in honor of the moon.
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Public holidays in India
India, being a culturally diverse and fervent society, celebrates various holidays and festivals. There are many national holidays in India: Republic Day on 26 January, International Workers' Day on 1 May, Independence Day on 15 August and Mahatma Gandhi's birthday on 2 October. States have local festivals depending on prevalent linguistic demographics. Popular Jain festivals including Paryushan. National holidays are observed in all states and union territories. India has three national days, they are: Hindus celebrate a number of festivals all through the year. Hindu festivals have one or more of religious and seasonal significance; the observance of the festival, the symbolisms used and attached, the style and intensity of celebration varies from region to region within the country. A list of the more popular festivals is given below. For dates see: A number of Sikh holidays are Gurpurbs, anniversaries of a guru's birth or death. Note: The Parsis in India use a Shahenshahi calendar, unlike the Iranians who use a Kadmi calendar.
The North American and European Parsis have adapted their own version of the Fasli calendar. This is however looked down upon by many of the Parsis in North America, who continue to use the Shahenshai calendar; these differences cause changes in the dates of the holidays. For example, the Zoroastrian New Year falls in the spring for the Iranians but in the summer for the Parsis. In addition to the official holidays, many religious and other traditional holidays populate the calendar, as well as observances proclaimed by officials and lighter celebrations; these are observed by Central government and businesses While having so many government holidays is in line with the idea of peaceful co-existence of all religions, there have been demands from various public bodies that the system of a multitude of religious holidays is hampering economic activities to a great extent. The past two Central Government Pay Commissions have recommended the abolition of all Central Government holidays on religious festivals, instead, substituting them with the three national holidays, i.e. Independence Day, Republic Day and Gandhi Jayanti.
Increasing the number of restricted holidays, depending on one's religious persuasion, from the existing two to eight was proposed, the rationale being that eight holidays can more than cater to the festivals of any particular religion. So, there is no point in having more than that number of holidays since religion does not warrant a Hindu to celebrate Eid or a Muslim to celebrate Diwali. With the proposed system, however, it was left to the individual to choose which eight holidays to celebrate, irrespective of his religious belief; this recommendation has not been accepted by the government of India, fearing a loss of popularity, thus the Indian government continues with an unusually large number of religious holidays as compared to most other countries. Central and State governments in India issue annually a list of holidays to be observed in the respective government offices during the year; the list is divided into two parts: Gazetted holidays Restricted holidays In addition, local administrations issue a list of holidays known as local holidays, which are observed at the district level.
The Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions on behalf of the Government of India issues a list of holidays to be observed in central government offices during the year. The list is divided in two parts i.e. Annexure I & Annexure II. Annexure I known as Gazetted holidays, consists of a list of holidays that are mandatory once decided; this list consists of two parts: Para 2 Para 3.1 It consists of holidays that are observed compulsorily across India. These holidays are: Republic Day Independence Day Gandhi Jayanti Mahavir Jayanti Budha Purnima Christmas Day Dussehra Diwali Good Friday Guru Nanak's Birthday Eid ul-Fitr Eid al-Adha §←→ Muharram Prophet Mohammad's Birthday so all the holidays are there In addition to the 14 compulsory holidays mentioned in para 2, three holidays are chosen from the list below by the Central Government Employees Welfare Coordination Committee in the State Capitals; the final list is applied uniformly across all Central Government offices within each State.
They are notified after seeking the prior approval of this Ministry, no changes can be made thereafter. No change is permissible in regard to dates. An additional day for Dussehra Holi Janamashtami Ram Navami Maha Shivratri Ganesh Chaturthi/Vinayak Chaturthi Makar Sankrantili Onam Sri Panchami/Basanta Panchami Vishu/Vaisakhi/Vaisakhadi/Bhag Bihu/Mashadi Ugadi/Chaitra Sakladi/Cheti Chand/Gudhi Pada 1st Navratra/Nauraj Annexure II known as Restricted holidays, consists of a list of holidays which are optional; each employee is allowed to choose any two holidays from the list of Restricted Holidays. The Coordination Committees at the State Capitals draw up a separate list of Restricted Holidays, keeping in mind the occasions of local importance, but
Boxing Day is a secular holiday celebrated the day after Christmas Day. It originated in the United Kingdom and is celebrated in a number of countries that formed part of the British Empire. Boxing Day is on 26 December, although the attached bank holiday or public holiday may take place either on that day or two days later. In some European countries, such as Romania, Germany, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, 26 December is celebrated as a Second Christmas Day. There are competing theories for the origins of the term; the Oxford English Dictionary gives the earliest attestations from Britain in the 1830s, defining it as "the first week-day after Christmas-day, observed as a holiday on which post-men, errand-boys, servants of various kinds expect to receive a Christmas-box". The term "Christmas-box" dates back to the 17th century, among other things meant: A present or gratuity given at Christmas: in Great Britain confined to gratuities given to those who are supposed to have a vague claim upon the donor for services rendered to him as one of the general public by whom they are employed and paid, or as a customer of their legal employer.
In Britain, it was a custom for tradesmen to collect "Christmas boxes" of money or presents on the first weekday after Christmas as thanks for good service throughout the year. This is mentioned in Samuel Pepys' diary entry for 19 December 1663; this custom is linked to an older British tradition: since they would have to wait on their masters on Christmas Day, the servants of the wealthy were allowed the next day to visit their families. The employers would give each servant a box to take home containing gifts and sometimes leftover food. In South Africa as as the 1980s, milkmen and garbage collectors, who had little if any interaction with those they served, were accustomed to knock on their doors asking for a "Christmas box", being a small cash donation, in the week or so before and after Christmas; the European tradition, which has long included giving money and other gifts to those who were needy and in service positions, has been dated to the Middle Ages, but the exact origin is unknown.
It is believed to be in reference to the Alms Box placed in areas of worship to collect donations to the poor. It may come from a custom in the late Roman/early Christian era, wherein metal boxes placed outside churches were used to collect special offerings tied to the Feast of Saint Stephen, which in the Western Church falls on the same day as Boxing Day. Boxing Day is a secular holiday, traditionally celebrated on 26 December, the day after Christmas Day. 26 December is Saint Stephen's Day, a religious holiday. In the UK, Boxing Day is a bank holiday; when 26 December falls on a Saturday, the Boxing Day public holiday is moved to the following Monday. If 26 December falls on a Sunday, the substitute public holiday is the following Tuesday; as Boxing Day was traditionally the first weekday after Christmas, it cannot technically be on a Sunday as, considered to be the day of worship. However, 26 December is nowadays referred to as Boxing Day when it falls on a Sunday. In Scotland, Boxing Day has been specified as an additional bank holiday since 1974, by Royal Proclamation under the Banking and Financial Dealings Act 1971.
In Ireland – when the island as a whole was part of the United Kingdom – the Bank Holidays Act 1871 established the feast day of Saint Stephen as a non-moveable public holiday on 26 December. Following partition in 1920, Northern Ireland reverted to Boxing Day. In Hong Kong, despite the transfer of sovereignty from the UK to China in 1997, Boxing Day continues to be a public holiday. Government offices, post offices and most other offices are closed on Boxing Day. If it falls on a Sunday, a compensation day is given on the immediate next weekday. In Australia, Boxing Day is a public holiday in all jurisdictions except the Australian state of South Australia where a public holiday known as Proclamation Day is celebrated on the first weekday after Christmas Day or the Christmas Day holiday. In New Zealand, Boxing Day is a statutory holiday. In Canada, Boxing Day is a federal statutory holiday. Government offices and post offices/delivery are closed. In some Canadian provinces, Boxing Day is a statutory holiday, always celebrated on 26 December.
In Canadian provinces where Boxing Day is a statutory holiday and it falls on a Saturday or Sunday, compensation days are given in the following week. While not observed in the United States, on 5 December 1996, Massachusetts Gov. William F. Weld declared 26 December as Boxing Day in Massachusetts in response to the efforts of a local coalition of British citizens to "transport the English tradition to the United States", but not as an employee holiday. In Nigeria, Boxing Day is a public holiday for working students; when it falls on a Saturday or Sunday, there is always a holiday on Monday. In Trinidad and Tobago, Boxing Day is a public holiday. In Singapore, Boxing Day was a public holiday for working students. However, in recent years this tradition has ceased in Singapore. In the British overseas territory of Bermuda, the costumed Gombey dancers perform throughout the mid-Atlantic island on Boxing Day, a tradition believed to date back to the 18th century when slav
An equinox is regarded as the instant of time when the plane of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun. This occurs 23 September. In other words, it is the moment at which the center of the visible Sun is directly above the Equator; the word is derived from aequus and nox. On the day of an equinox and nighttime are of equal duration all over the planet, they are not equal, due to the angular size of the Sun, atmospheric refraction, the changing duration of the length of day that occurs at most latitudes around the equinoxes. Long before conceiving this equality primitive cultures noted the day when the Sun rises due East and sets due West and indeed this happens on the day closest to the astronomically defined event. In the northern hemisphere, the equinox in March is called the Spring Equinox; the dates are variable, dependent as they are on the leap year cycle. Because the Moon cause the motion of the Earth to vary from a perfect ellipse, the equinox is now defined by the Sun's more regular ecliptic longitude rather than by its declination.
The instants of the equinoxes are defined to be when the longitude of the Sun is 0° and 180°. Systematically observing the sunrise, people discovered that it occurs between two extreme locations at the horizon and noted the midpoint between the two, it was realized that this happens on a day when the durations of the day and the night are equal and the word "equinox" comes from Latin Aequus, meaning "equal", Nox, meaning "night". In the northern hemisphere, the vernal equinox conventionally marks the beginning of spring in most cultures and is considered the start of the New Year in the Assyrian calendar and the Persian calendar or Iranian calendars as Nowruz, while the autumnal equinox marks the beginning of autumn; the equinoxes are the only times. As a result, the northern and southern hemispheres are illuminated. In other words, the equinoxes are the only times when the subsolar point is on the equator, meaning that the Sun is overhead at a point on the equatorial line; the subsolar point crosses the equator moving northward at the March equinox and southward at the September equinox.
When Julius Caesar established the Julian calendar in 45 BC, he set 25 March as the date of the spring equinox. Because the Julian year is longer than the tropical year by about 11.3 minutes on average, the calendar "drifted" with respect to the two equinoxes – so that in AD 300 the spring equinox occurred on about 21 March, by AD 1500 it had drifted backwards to 11 March. This drift induced Pope Gregory XIII to create the modern Gregorian calendar; the Pope wanted to continue to conform with the edicts of the Council of Nicaea in AD 325 concerning the date of Easter, which means he wanted to move the vernal equinox to the date on which it fell at that time, to maintain it at around that date in the future, which he achieved by reducing the number of leap years from 100 to 97 every 400 years. However, there remained a small residual variation in the date and time of the vernal equinox of about ±27 hours from its mean position all because the distribution of 24-hour centurial leap days causes large jumps.
This in turn raised the possibility that it could fall on 22 March, thus Easter Day might theoretically commence before the equinox. The astronomers chose the appropriate number of days to omit so that the equinox would swing from 19 to 21 March but never fall on 22 March; the dates of the equinoxes change progressively during the leap-year cycle, because the Gregorian calendar year is not commensurate with the period of the Earth's revolution about the Sun. It is only after a complete Gregorian leap-year cycle of 400 years that the seasons commence at the same time. In the 21st century the earliest March equinox will be 19 March 2096, while the latest was 21 March 2003; the earliest September equinox will be 21 September 2096 while the latest was 23 September 2003. Vernal equinox and autumnal equinox: these classical names are direct derivatives of Latin; these are the universal and still most used terms for the equinoxes, but are confusing because in the southern hemisphere the vernal equinox does not occur in spring and the autumnal equinox does not occur in autumn.
The equivalent common language English terms spring equinox and autumn equinox are more ambiguous. It has become common for people to refer to the September equinox in the southern hemisphere as the Vernal equinox. March equinox and September equinox: names referring to the months of the year in which they occur, with no ambiguity as to which hemisphere is the context, they are still not universal, however, as not all cultures use a solar-based calendar where the equinoxes occur every year in the same month. Although the terms have become common in the 21st century, they were sometimes used at least as long ago as the mid-20th century. Northward equinox and southward equinox: names referring to the appare
Public holidays in Azerbaijan
Holidays in Azerbaijan were regulated in the Constitution of Azerbaijan SSR for the first time on 19 May 1921 by the Azeri leader Nariman Narimanov. Through the history non-working days have changed. Non-working days in Azerbaijan include the following: National days in Azerbaijan that are working days follows: January 30 – Day of Azerbaijani customs February 2 – Day of Youth in Azerbaijan February 11 – Day of Revenue Service February 26 – Day of Remembrance for Victims of Khojaly massacre March 5 – Day of Physical Culture and Sport March 28 – Day of National Security March 31 – Day of Genocide of Azerbaijanis March 23 – Day of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources April 10 – Day of the builder May 10 – Flower Festival June 2 – Day of Civil Aviation June 5 – Day of Reclamation June 18 Human Rights Day June 20 – Day of the gas sector July 2 – Day of Azerbaijani police July 9 – Day of the employees of the diplomatic service July 22 – National Press Day in Azerbaijan August 1 – Day of Azerbaijani language and alphabet.
August 2 – National Day of Azerbaijani cinema September 15 – Day of Knowledge September 18 – Day of National Music September 20 – Day of Azerbaijani Oil / Oil Workers' Day October 1 – Day of prosecutors in Azerbaijan October 13 – Day of Azerbaijani Railway October 18 - Independence Day November 6 – Day of Baku Metro Employees November 12 – Constitution Day November 22 – Day of Justice of Azerbaijan December 6 – Day of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies of Azerbaijan December 16 – Day of Azerbaijani Ministry of Emergency Situations Only the holidays of Ramadan and Qurban remain as non-working religious days in Azerbaijan as the country is secular and irreligious. The religious population of the country in Nardaran and a number of other villages and regions celebrate the Day of Ashura, a Shia mourning day in the Islamic calendar. Religious minorities of the country – Orthodox Christians and Jews - celebrate notable religious days of their faith. Despite the fact that the holiday Novruz takes its roots from the religion of Zoroastranism all Azerbaijanis celebrates it as a holiday of spring.
Holidays of Azerbaijan