International Women's Day
International Women's Day is celebrated on March 8 every year. It is a focal point in the movement for women's rights. A New York textile factory caught on fire on 8 March 1908, with the owner trapping his female workers inside to prevent them from striking with other factory workers, he had been forcing them to work 10-hour days, making fabric of lilac color. 129 workers died in the fire. The colors of the fabric they were working on were chosen as the symbol of the international women's rights movement. After the Socialist Party of America organized a Women's Day on February 1909, in New York. At the 1910 International Socialist Woman's Conference suggested German revolutionary Clara Zetkin proposed that 8 March be honored as a day annually in memory of working women; the day has been celebrated as International Women's Day or International Working Women's Day since. For women at that meeting, the day was about demanding the right to work without discrimination. After women gained suffrage in Soviet Russia in 1917, March 8 became a national holiday there.
The day was predominantly celebrated by the socialist movement and communist countries until it was adopted by the feminist movement in about 1967. The United Nations began celebrating the day in 1975. Commemoration of International Women's Day today ranges from being a public holiday in some countries to being ignored elsewhere. In some places, it is a day of protest. International Men's Day is celebrated on November 19; the earliest Women's Day observance, called "National Woman's Day," was held on February 28, 1909, in New York, organized by the Socialist Party of America at the suggestion of activist Theresa Malkiel. Though there have been claims that the day was commemorating a protest by women garment workers in New York on March 8, 1857, researchers have described this as a myth. In August 1910, an International Socialist Women's Conference was organized to precede the general meeting of the Socialist Second International in Copenhagen, Denmark. Inspired in part by the American socialists, German Socialist Luise Zietz proposed the establishment of an annual Women's Day and was seconded by fellow socialist and communist leader Clara Zetkin, supported by socialist activist Käte Duncker, although no date was specified at that conference.
Delegates agreed with the idea as a strategy to promote equal rights including suffrage for women. The following year on March 19, 1911, IWD was marked for the first time, by over a million people in Austria, Denmark and Switzerland. In the Austro-Hungarian Empire alone, there were 300 demonstrations. In Vienna, women paraded on the Ringstrasse and carried banners honouring the martyrs of the Paris Commune. Women demanded that they be given the right to hold public office, they protested against employment sex discrimination. The Americans continued to celebrate National Women's Day on the last Sunday in February. In 1913 Russian women observed their first International Women's Day on the last Saturday in February. In 1914 International Women's Day was held on March 8 in Germany because that day was a Sunday, now it is always held on March 8 in all countries; the 1914 observance of the Day in Germany was dedicated to women's right to vote, which German women did not win until 1918. In London there was a march from Bow to Trafalgar Square in support of women's suffrage on March 8, 1914.
Activist Sylvia Pankhurst was arrested in front of Charing Cross station on her way to speak in Trafalgar Square. On March 8, 1917, on the Gregorian calendar, in the capital of the Russian Empire, women textile workers began a demonstration, covering the whole city; this marked the beginning of the February Revolution, which alongside the October Revolution made up the Russian Revolution. Women in Saint Petersburg went on strike that day for "Bread and Peace" – demanding the end of World War I, an end to Russian food shortages, the end of czarism. Revolutionary leader Leon Trotsky wrote, "23 February was International Woman's Day and meetings and actions were foreseen, but we did not imagine. Revolutionary actions were foreseen but without date, but in the morning, despite the orders to the contrary, textile workers left their work in several factories and sent delegates to ask for support of the strike… which led to mass strike... all went out into the streets." Seven days Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, the provisional Government granted women the right to vote.
Following the October Revolution, the Bolshevik Alexandra Kollontai and Vladimir Lenin made it an official holiday in the Soviet Union, but it was a working day until 1965. On May 8, 1965, by the decree of the USSR Presidium of the Supreme Soviet International Women's Day was declared a non-working day in the USSR "in commemoration of the outstanding merits of Soviet women in communistic construction, in the defense of their Fatherland during the Great Patriotic War, in their heroism and selflessness at the front and in the rear, marking the great contribution of women to strengthening friendship between peoples, the struggle for peace, but still, women's day must be celebrated as are other holidays." From its official adoption in Soviet Russia following the Revolution in 1917, the holiday was predominantly celebrated in communist countries and by the communist movement worldwide. Communist leader Dolores Ibárruri led a women's march in Madrid in 1936 on the eve of the Spanish Civil War, it was commemorated by the communists in China from 1922.
In 1927, in the Chinese city of Guangzhou, there was a march of 25,000 women and male supporters, including re
Public holidays in China
There are seven official public holidays in mainland China. Each year's holidays are announced about three weeks before the start of the year by the General Office of the State Council. A notable feature of mainland Chinese holidays is that weekends are swapped with the weekdays next to the actual holiday to create a longer holiday period. Festivals in China have been around since the Qin Dynasty around 221-206 BC. During the more prosperous Tang Dynasty from AD 618-907, festivals involved less sacrifice and mystery to more entertainment. Culminating to the modern era Between the 1920s until around the 1970s, the Chinese began observing two sets of holidays, which were the traditional and what became "official", celebrating the accomplishments of the communist regime. There was a major reform in 2008, abolishing the Labour Day Golden Week and adding three traditional Chinese holidays. From at least 2000 until this reform, the Spring Festival public holiday began on New Year's Day itself. From 2008 to 2013 it was shifted back by one day to begin on Chinese New Year's Eve.
In 2014, New Year's Eve became a working day again, which provoked hostile discussion by netizens and academics. However, since 2015, Chinese New Year's Eve is swapped with nearby weekends so that people need not work on Chinese New Year's Eve. New Year: 1 day Spring Festival: 3 days Labour Day: 1 day National Day: 2 days total: 7 days New Year: 1 day Spring Festival: 3 days Labour Day: 3 days National Day: 3 days total: 10 days New Year: 1 day Spring Festival: 3 days Tomb-Sweeping Day: 1 day Labour Day: 1 day Dragon Boat Festival: 1 day Mid-Autumn Festival: 1 day National Day: 3 days total: 11 days New Year: 1 day Spring Festival: 3 days Tomb-Sweeping Day: 1 day Labour Day: 1 day Dragon Boat Festival: 1 day Mid-Autumn Festival: 1 day National Day: 3 days total: 11 days Holidays in China are complicated and are one of the least predictable among developed nations. In all these holidays, if the holiday lands on a weekend, the days will be reimbursed after the weekend; the Chinese New Year and National Day holidays are three days long.
The week-long holidays on May Day and National Day began in 2000, as a measure to increase and encourage holiday spending. The resulting seven-day or eight-day holidays are called "Golden Weeks", have become peak seasons for travel and tourism. In 2008, the Labor Day holiday was shortened to three days to reduce travel rushes to just twice a year, instead, three traditional Chinese holidays were added. If there is a three-day or four-day holiday, the government will declare it to be a seven-day or eight-day holiday. However, citizens are required to work during a nearby weekend. Businesses and schools would treat the affected Saturdays and Sundays as the weekdays that the weekend has been swapped with. Schedules might change during the year; the following is a graphical schematic of. Shift the Saturdays and Sundays nearby to make a 7-day holiday. People may need to work for 6 or 7 continuous days after the holiday. Shift the Saturdays and Sundays nearby to make a 7-day holiday; the holiday is from 1 October to 7.
People may need to work for 6 or 7 continuous days after the holiday. Wednesday: No weekend shifting; the holiday is only 1 day long. This is to prevent people from working for 7 continuous days since 2014. Sometimes shift the Sundays nearby to make a 4-day holiday. People may need to work for 6 continuous days after the holiday. Tuesday or Thursday: Shift the Saturdays and Sundays nearby to make a 3-day holiday. People may need to work for 6 continuous days after the holiday. Saturday or Sunday: The public holiday is transferred to Monday. In addition to these holidays, applicable to the whole population, there are four official public holidays applicable to specific sections of the population: The closeness of Labor Day and Youth Day resulted in an unexpectedly long break for schools in 2008 - the Youth Day half-holiday entitlement had been forgotten because it has been subsumed into the Golden Week. There are public holidays celebrate by certain ethnic minorities in certain regions, which are decided by local governments.
The following are holidays at province-level divisions. The following are traditional holidays at prefecture-level divisions, there are more at lower level divisions, i.e. county-level. Besides, the following Autonomous Prefectures celebrates their founding date. Government takes 1 day off to all people working in such prefectures; some Chinese young adults have begun to celebrate 11 November as Singles Day because of the many ones and many singles in the date. Serfs Emancipation Day was established in Tibet in 2009. List of annual events in China Traditional Chinese holidays Public holidays in Hong Kong Public holidays in Taiwan "Chinese Holidays". Xinhua. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09
Public holidays in Azerbaijan
Holidays in Azerbaijan were regulated in the Constitution of Azerbaijan SSR for the first time on 19 May 1921 by the Azeri leader Nariman Narimanov. Through the history non-working days have changed. Non-working days in Azerbaijan include the following: National days in Azerbaijan that are working days follows: January 30 – Day of Azerbaijani customs February 2 – Day of Youth in Azerbaijan February 11 – Day of Revenue Service February 26 – Day of Remembrance for Victims of Khojaly massacre March 5 – Day of Physical Culture and Sport March 28 – Day of National Security March 31 – Day of Genocide of Azerbaijanis March 23 – Day of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources April 10 – Day of the builder May 10 – Flower Festival June 2 – Day of Civil Aviation June 5 – Day of Reclamation June 18 Human Rights Day June 20 – Day of the gas sector July 2 – Day of Azerbaijani police July 9 – Day of the employees of the diplomatic service July 22 – National Press Day in Azerbaijan August 1 – Day of Azerbaijani language and alphabet.
August 2 – National Day of Azerbaijani cinema September 15 – Day of Knowledge September 18 – Day of National Music September 20 – Day of Azerbaijani Oil / Oil Workers' Day October 1 – Day of prosecutors in Azerbaijan October 13 – Day of Azerbaijani Railway October 18 - Independence Day November 6 – Day of Baku Metro Employees November 12 – Constitution Day November 22 – Day of Justice of Azerbaijan December 6 – Day of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies of Azerbaijan December 16 – Day of Azerbaijani Ministry of Emergency Situations Only the holidays of Ramadan and Qurban remain as non-working religious days in Azerbaijan as the country is secular and irreligious. The religious population of the country in Nardaran and a number of other villages and regions celebrate the Day of Ashura, a Shia mourning day in the Islamic calendar. Religious minorities of the country – Orthodox Christians and Jews - celebrate notable religious days of their faith. Despite the fact that the holiday Novruz takes its roots from the religion of Zoroastranism all Azerbaijanis celebrates it as a holiday of spring.
Holidays of Azerbaijan
Victory Day (9 May)
Victory Day is a holiday that commemorates the surrender of Nazis in 1945. It was first inaugurated in the 15 republics of the Soviet Union, following the signing of the German Instrument of Surrender late in the evening on 8 May 1945; the Soviet government announced the victory early on 9 May after the signing ceremony in Berlin. Though the official inauguration occurred in 1945 the holiday became a non-labour day only in 1965 and only in certain Soviet republics. In East Germany, 8 May was observed as Liberation Day from 1950 to 1966, was celebrated again on the 40th anniversary in 1985. In 1975, a Soviet-style "Victory Day" was celebrated on 9 May. Since 2002, the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern has observed a commemoration day known as the Day of Liberation from National Socialism, the End of the Second World War; the German Instrument of Surrender was signed twice. It was signed in Reims on 7 May 1945 by Alfred Jodl for Germany, Walter Bedell Smith, on behalf of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force, Ivan Susloparov, on behalf of the Soviet High Command, in the presence of French Major-General François Sevez as the official witness.
Since the Soviet High Command was not informed about the surrender, because Susloparov, a low-ranking officer, was not authorized to sign this document, the USSR requested that a second instrument of surrender be signed in Berlin. Joseph Stalin declared that the Soviet Union considered the Reims surrender a preliminary document, Eisenhower agreed with that. Another argument was that some German troops considered the Reims instrument of surrender as a surrender to the Western Allies only, fighting continued in the East in Prague. Today, in Reims, Germans signed the preliminary act on an unconditional surrender; the main contribution, was done by Soviet people and not by the Allies, therefore the capitulation must be signed in front of the Supreme Command of all countries of the anti-Hitler coalition, not only in front of the Supreme Command of Allied Forces. Moreover, I disagree that the surrender was not signed in Berlin, the center of Nazi aggression. We agreed with the Allies to consider the Reims protocol as preliminary.
A second surrender ceremony was organized in a surviving manor in the outskirts of Berlin late on 8 May, when it was 9 May in Moscow due to the difference in time zones. Field-Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, chief of OKW, signed a final German Instrument of Surrender, signed by Marshal Georgy Zhukov, on behalf of the Supreme High Command of the Red Army, Air Chief Marshal Arthur Tedder, on behalf of the Allied Expeditionary Force, in the presence of General Carl Spaatz and General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, as witnesses; the surrender was signed in the Soviet Army headquarters in Berlin-Karlshorst. Both English and Russian versions of the instrument of surrender signed in Berlin were considered authentic texts; the text of the instrument of surrender explicitly stipulated complete disarmament of all German military forces and handing over all weapons. Both the Reims and Berlin instruments of surrender stipulated that forces under German control to cease active operations at 23:01 hours CET on 8 May 1945.
However, due to the difference in Central European and Moscow time zones, the end of war is celebrated on 9 May in the USSR and most post-Soviet countries. To commemorate the victory in the war, the ceremonial Moscow Victory Parade was held in the Soviet capital on 24 June 1945. During the Soviet Union's existence, 9 May was celebrated throughout the USSR and in the countries of the Eastern Bloc. Though the holiday was introduced in many Soviet republics between 1946 and 1950, it only became a non-labour day in the Ukrainian SSR in 1963 and the Russian SFSR in 1965. In the Russian SFSR a weekday off was given if 9 May fell on a Sunday; the celebration of Victory Day continued during subsequent years. The war became a topic of great importance in cinema, history lessons at school, the mass media, the arts; the ritual of the celebration obtained a distinctive character with a number of similar elements: ceremonial meetings, lectures and fireworks. In Russia during the 1990s, the 9 May holiday was not celebrated with large Soviet-style mass demonstrations due to the policies of successive Russian governments.
Following Vladimir Putin's rise to power, the Russian government began promoting the prestige of the governing regime and history, national holidays and commemorations became a source of national self-esteem. Victory Day in Russia has become a celebration in which popular culture plays a central role; the 60th and 70th anniversaries of Victory Day in Russia became the largest popular holidays since the collapse of the Soviet Union. In 2015 around 30 leaders, including those of China and India, attended the 2015 celebration, while Western leaders boycotted the ceremonies because of the Russian military intervention in Ukraine. Armenia has recognized 9 May since its independence in 1991; the holiday was celebrated there while the country was part of the Soviet Union. Azerbaijan has recognized 9 May since its independence in 1991; the holiday was celebrated there while the country was part of the Soviet Union. A wreath laying ceremony is held at the monument to Hazi Aslanov. Belarus has recognized 9 May since its independence in 1991 and considers it a non-working day.
The holiday was celebrated there while the country was part of the Soviet Union. Belarus has had 2 Victory Day Parades on Masherov Avenue (1995, 2005, 2010, an
Christmas is an annual festival, commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is preceded by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world's nations, is celebrated religiously by a majority of Christians, as well as culturally by many non-Christians, forms an integral part of the holiday season centered around it; the traditional Christmas narrative, the Nativity of Jesus, delineated in the New Testament says that Jesus was born in Bethlehem, in accordance with messianic prophecies. When Joseph and Mary arrived in the city, the inn had no room and so they were offered a stable where the Christ Child was soon born, with angels proclaiming this news to shepherds who further disseminated the information.
Although the month and date of Jesus' birth are unknown, the church in the early fourth century fixed the date as December 25. This corresponds to the date of the solstice on the Roman calendar. Most Christians celebrate on December 25 in the Gregorian calendar, adopted universally in the civil calendars used in countries throughout the world. However, some Eastern Christian Churches celebrate Christmas on December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which corresponds to a January date in the Gregorian calendar. For Christians, the belief that God came into the world in the form of man to atone for the sins of humanity, rather than the exact birth date, is considered to be the primary purpose in celebrating Christmas; the celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian and secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, completing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath, Christmas music and caroling, lighting a Christingle, viewing a Nativity play, an exchange of Christmas cards, church services, a special meal, pulling Christmas crackers and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, wreaths and holly.
In addition, several related and interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses; the economic impact of Christmas has grown over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. "Christmas" is a shortened form of "Christ's mass". The word is recorded as Crīstesmæsse in 1038 and Cristes-messe in 1131. Crīst is from Greek Khrīstos, a translation of Hebrew Māšîaḥ, "Messiah", meaning "anointed"; the form Christenmas was historically used, but is now considered archaic and dialectal. Xmas is an abbreviation of Christmas found in print, based on the initial letter chi in Greek Khrīstos, "Christ", though numerous style guides discourage its use.
In addition to "Christmas", the holiday has been known by various other names throughout its history. The Anglo-Saxons referred to the feast as "midwinter", or, more as Nātiuiteð. "Nativity", meaning "birth", is from Latin nātīvitās. In Old English, Gēola referred to the period corresponding to December and January, equated with Christian Christmas. "Noel" entered English in the late 14th century and is from the Old French noël or naël, itself from the Latin nātālis meaning "birth". The gospels of Luke and Matthew describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem to the Virgin Mary. In Luke and Mary travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem for the census, Jesus is born there and laid in a manger. Angels proclaimed him a savior for all people, shepherds came to adore him. Matthew adds that the magi follow a star to Bethlehem to bring gifts to Jesus, born the king of the Jews. King Herod orders the massacre of all the boys less than two years old in Bethlehem, but the family flees to Egypt and returns to Nazareth.
The nativity stories recounted in Matthew and Luke prompted early Christian writers to suggest various dates for the anniversary. Although no date is indicated in the gospels, early Christians connected Jesus to the Sun through the use of such phrases as "Sun of righteousness." The Romans marked the winter solstice on December 25. The first recorded Christmas celebration was in Rome on December 25, 336. Christmas played a role in the Arian controversy of the fourth century. After this controversy was played out, the prominence of the holiday declined; the feast regained prominence after 800. Associating it with drunkenness and other misbehavior, the Puritans banned Christmas during the Reformation, it remained disreputable. In the early 19th century, Christmas was reconceived by Washington Irving, Charles Dickens, other authors as a holiday emphasizing family, kind-heartedness, gift-giving, Santa Claus. Christmas does not appear on th
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta