Lebanese Independence Day
Lebanese Independence Day is the national day of Lebanon, celebrated on November 22 in commemoration of the end of the French Mandate over Lebanon in 1943, after 23 years of Mandate rule. While the Lebanese have been in a constant struggle for independence from outside powers since Old Testament times, the modern struggle for Lebanese independence can be traced back to the emergence of Fakhr-al-Din II in the late 16th century, a Druze chief who became the first local leader in a thousand years to bring the major sects of Mount Lebanon into sustained mutual interaction. Fakhr-al-Din brought western Europe back to Mount Lebanon; the French traveler Laurent ďArvieux observed massive French commercial buildings in Sidon, Fakhr-al-Din's political centre, where bustling crowds of Muslims, Orthodox Christians and Jews intermingled. Under his rule, printing presses were introduced and Jesuit priests and Catholic nuns encouraged to open schools throughout the land. Fakhr-al-Din's growing influence and ambitions threatened Ottoman interests.
Ottoman Turkish troops captured Fakhr-al-Din and had him executed in Istanbul in 1635. In response to a massacre of Maronites by Druze during the 1860 civil war, 6000 French troops landed near Beirut to ostensibly protect the Maronite communities; the Ottoman sultan had no choice but to approve the French landing at Beirut and review the status of Mount Lebanon. In 1861, the Ottomans and five European powers negotiated a new political system for Mount Lebanon in a commission chaired by Mehmed Fuad Pasha, the Ottoman Foreign Minister; the international commission established a tribunal to punish the Druze lords for war crimes and the commission further agreed on an autonomous province of Mount Lebanon. In September 1864, the Ottomans and Europeans signed the règlement organique defining the new entity, including the French recommendation of an elected multi-communal council to advise the governor. Electoral representation and rough demographic weighting of communal membership was established after the foundation of the autonomous Mount Lebanon province.
A two-stage electoral process became refined over several decades, with secret balloting introduced in 1907. Mount Lebanon became the only Ottoman provincial council, democratically elected, representing members of the major sects. Elections for one-third of the council seats took place every two years; the governor of Mount Lebanon, a non-Maronite Catholic from outside, was of Ottoman ministerial rank with the title Pasha, though a step below a full provincial governor. Presiding judges of district courts were from the same sect as the largest religious group in the district, with deputy judges representing the next two largest groups. Court decisions had to involve the Court President and at least one other judge; this system facilitated Maronite acquiescence, Druze re-integration and sectarian reconciliation in Mount Lebanon. With the onset of World War I, the Ottoman Sultanate began to disintegrate; the Ottomans feared Arab independence. In response, the Ottomans abolished the autonomous province of Mount Lebanon in 1915, putting the mountain communities under emergency military rule.
The repression culminated on May 6, 1916, with the hanging of 14 activists and journalists, including proponents of both Arab and Lebanese independence and Muslims, clerics and secularists. The location of the hangings in central Beirut became known as Martyrs' Square, today the focal point of public Lebanese political expression. Respect for Ottoman authority in the local community collapsed after this event; the Ottomans confiscated grain from the Levant during the war. Half the population of Mount Lebanon was wiped out. Both Schilcher and Khalife estimated up to 200,000 deaths in the mountain. Following Ottoman repression, the Arabs were fed up with Ottoman rule. After the Turks were expelled from the Arab Levant at the end of World War I, the Syrian National Congress in Damascus proclaimed independence and sovereignty over a region that included Lebanon in 1920. In Beirut, the Christian press expressed its hostility to the decisions of the Syrian National Congress. Lebanese nationalists used the crisis to convene a council of Christian figures in Baabda that proclaimed the independence of Lebanon on 22 March 1920.
Despite these declarations, the region was divided among the victorious British and French according to the Sykes-Picot agreement. Mount Lebanon Maronites under the Maronite Patriarch Elias al-Huwayyik lobbied the French for an enlarged Lebanon to become a Catholic Christian homeland. Patriarch al-Huwayyik shrewdly conflated a new Lebanon with ancient Phoenicia to highlight a unique personality; the Phoenician allusion derived from a European passion for romanticizing antiquity. Among the wider public, the resurrection of Phoenicia and the concept of a distinctive Lebanon received stimulus from the literary output of Jibran Khalil Jibran. Jibran drew out feelings of oppression and conflict with established religion and interpersonal tensions; these themes resonated with a multi-sectarian Lebanon. Jibran's combination of Christian ambience with outreach to Muslims reinforced Lebanese nationalist thought. Incorporation of Jibran into school curricula in the 1920s helped make him by far Lebanon's most influential writer.
Greater Lebanon from Ra's Naqura in the south to Nahr al-Kabir north of Tripoli, from the coast to the Anti-Lebanon mountains was established under the French provisional mandate in April 1920. Patriarch al-Huwayyik, with the Ottoman imposed famine in recent memory, insisted on the acquisition of the Biq
Public holidays in Georgia
For the holidays in the U. S. state of Georgia, see Public holidays in Georgia National holidays of Georgia
Assumption of Mary
The Assumption of Mary into Heaven is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church and Oriental Orthodoxy, the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life. The Catholic Church teaches as dogma that the Virgin Mary "having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory"; this doctrine was dogmatically defined by Pope Pius XII on 1 November 1950, in the apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus by exercising papal infallibility. While the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church believe in the Dormition of the Theotokos, whether Mary had a physical death has not been dogmatically defined. In Munificentissimus Deus Pope Pius XII pointed to the Book of Genesis as scriptural support for the dogma in terms of Mary's victory over sin and death through her intimate association with "the new Adam" as reflected in 1 Corinthians 15:54: "then shall come to pass the saying, written, Death is swallowed up in victory".
The New Testament contains no explicit narrative about the death or Dormition, nor of the Assumption of Mary, but several scriptural passages have been theologically interpreted to describe the ultimate fate in this and the afterworld of the Mother of Jesus. In the churches that observe it, the Assumption is a major feast day celebrated on 15 August. In many countries, the feast is marked as a Holy Day of Obligation in the Roman Catholic Church; the Assumption was defined as dogma by the Catholic Church in 1950, when Pope Pius XII defined it ex cathedra in his Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus. The Catholic Church itself interprets chapter 12 of the Book of Revelation as referring to it; the earliest known narrative is the so-called Liber Requiei Mariae, which survives intact only in an Ethiopic translation. Composed by the 4th century, this Christian apocryphal narrative may be as early as the 3rd century. Quite early are the different traditions of the "Six Books" Dormition narratives.
The earliest versions of this apocryphon are preserved in several Syriac manuscripts of the 5th and 6th centuries, although the text itself belongs to the 4th century. Apocrypha based on these earlier texts include the De Obitu S. Dominae, attributed to St. John, a work from around the turn of the 6th century, a summary of the "Six Books" narrative; the story appears in De Transitu Virginis, a late 5th-century work ascribed to St. Melito of Sardis that presents a theologically redacted summary of the traditions in the Liber Requiei Mariae; the Transitus Mariae tells the story of the apostles being transported by white clouds to the deathbed of Mary, each from the town where he was preaching at the hour. The Decretum Gelasianum in the 490s declared some transitus Mariae literature apocryphal. An Armenian letter attributed to Dionysus the Areopagite mentioned the supposed event, although this was written sometime after the 6th century. John of Damascus, from this period, is the first church authority to advocate the doctrine under his own name.
His contemporaries, Gregory of Tours and Modestus of Jerusalem, helped promote the concept to the wider church. In some versions of the story, the event is said to have taken place in Ephesus, in the House of the Virgin Mary; this is a localized tradition. The earliest traditions say. By the 7th century, a variation emerged, according to which one of the apostles identified as St Thomas, was not present at the death of Mary but his late arrival precipitates a reopening of Mary's tomb, found to be empty except for her grave clothes. In a tradition, Mary drops her girdle down to the apostle from heaven as testament to the event; this incident is depicted in many paintings of the Assumption. Teaching of the Assumption of Mary became widespread across the Christian world, having been celebrated as early as the 5th century and having been established in the East by Emperor Maurice around AD 600. St. John Damascene records the following: St. Juvenal, Bishop of Jerusalem, at the Council of Chalcedon, made known to the Emperor Marcian and Pulcheria, who wished to possess the body of the Mother of God, that Mary died in the presence of all the Apostles, but that her tomb, when opened upon the request of St. Thomas, was found empty.
The Assumption of Mary was celebrated in the West under Pope Sergius I in the 8th century and Pope Leo IV confirmed the feast as official. Theological debate about the Assumption continued, following the Reformation, but the people celebrated the Assumption as part of the cult of Mary that flourished from the Middle Ages. In 1950 Pope Pius XII defined it as dogma for the Catholic Church. Catholic theologian Ludwig Ott stated, "The idea of the bodily assumption of Mary is first expressed in certain transitus-narratives of the fifth and sixth centuries.... The first Church author to speak of the bodily assumption of Mary, in association with an apocryphal transitus B. M. V. is St. Gregory of Tours." The Catholic writer Eamon Duffy states that "there is no historical evidence whatever for it." However, the Catholic Church has never asserted nor denied that its teaching is based on the apocryphal accounts. The Church documents are silent on this matter and instead rely upon other sources and arguments as the basis for the doctrine.
Psychologist Carl Jung, interested in archetypes and comparative religion, celebrated that the Catholic Church had elevated the Virgin Mary (whom
Vardan Mamikonian was an Armenian military leader, a martyr and a saint of the Armenian Church. He is best known for leading the Armenian army at the Battle of Avarayr in 451, which secured the Armenians' right to practice Christianity. A member of the Mamikonian family of Armenia's highest caliber aristocrats, he is revered as one of the greatest military and spiritual leaders of Armenia, is considered a national hero by Armenians. According to Arshag Chobanian "To the Armenian nation, Vartan is the most beloved figure, the most sacred in their history, the symbolical hero who typifies the national spirit." Major Armenian churches are named after Saint Vardan. Equestrian statues of St. Vardan are found in the Armenian capital Yerevan and in the country's second largest city, Gyumri. Vardan Mamikonian was born in 387 AD at the village of Artashat of Taron region, north of the city of Moosh, to Hamazasp Mamikonian and to Sahakanush, daughter of Isaac of Armenia. After Vardan became Sparapet in 432, the Persians summoned him to Ctesiphon.
Upon his return home in 450 AD, Vardan repudiated the Persian religion and instigated an Armenian rebellion against their Sassanian overlords. Vardan died, he was tortured infront of his men. The Battle of Vardanants, was fought on May 26, 451 AD on the Avarayr Plain in Vaspurakan, between the Armenian Army under Saint Vardan and the Sassanid rulers. While the Persians were victorious on the battlefield itself,the Battle of Avarayr paved the way for the compact between Persians and Armenians that guaranteed religious freedom for Christian Armenians. After his death, the insurrection continued led by Vahan Mamikonian, the son of Vardan's brother, resulting in the restoration of Armenian autonomy with the Nvarsak Treaty, thus guaranteeing the survival of Armenian statehood in centuries. Vardan Mamikonian is the father of Vardeni Mamikonian, born around 409 AD, she married Varsken. When her husband, a prominent Mihranid feudal lord Varsken took a pro-Persian position renouncing Christianity and adopting Zoroastrianism, he tried to force his wife Shushanik to convert, but she refused vehemently to submit to his orders to abandon her Christian faith and was put to death in 475 AD on Varsken's orders.
Shushanik has been canonized by the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church and is venerated by the Armenian Apostolic Church. Known as Saint Shushanik, her feast day is celebrated on October 17. After his death, Vardan Mamikonian was consecrated as a saint of the Armenian Apostolic Church, he is revered by the Armenian Catholic Church as a saint of the church and by Armenian Evangelical Church. His commemoration day in the official Armenian Church calendar is in the month of February and on rare occasions may fall in the first week of March; the actual Saint Vardan day is a moving day. Major Christian Armenian churches are named after Saint Vardan, including the St. Vartan Cathedral in New York City. There is a St. Vartan city park right by the cathedral. Vardan or Vartan, are both common given names for Armenian males, the female version is Vardanoush or Vartanoush. Vardanyan and Vartanian are common Armenian family names
Lebanese Sunni Muslims
Lebanese Sunni Muslims refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Sunni branch of Islam in Lebanon, the largest denomination in Lebanon tied with Shia Muslims. Sunni Islam in Lebanon has a history of more than a millennium. According to a CIA study, Lebanese Sunni Muslims constitute an estimated 27% of Lebanon's population; the Lebanese Sunni Muslims are concentrated in west Beirut, Sidon, Western Beqaa, in the countryside of the Akkar. Under the terms of an unwritten agreement known as the National Pact between the various political and religious leaders of Lebanon, Sunni notables traditionally held power in the Lebanese state together, they are still the only sect eligible for the post of Prime Minister; the cultural and linguistic heritage of the Lebanese people is a blend of both indigenous Phoenician elements, Arab culture and the foreign cultures that have come to rule the land and its people over the course of thousands of years. In a 2013 interview the lead investigator, Pierre Zalloua, pointed out that genetic variation preceded religious variation and divisions:"Lebanon had well-differentiated communities with their own genetic peculiarities, but not significant differences, religions came as layers of paint on top.
There is no distinct pattern that shows that one community carries more Phoenician than another."Genealogical DNA testing has shown that 27,7% of Lebanese Muslims belong to the Y-DNA haplogroup J1. Although there is common ancestral roots, these studies show some difference was found between Muslims and non-Muslims in Lebanon, of whom only 17.1% have this haplotype. As haplogroup J1 finds its putative origins in the Arabian peninsula, this means that the lineage was introduced by Arabs beginning at the time of the 7th century Muslim conquest of the Levant and has persisted among the Muslim population since. On the other hand, only 4.7% of all Lebanese Muslims belong to haplogroup R1b, compared to 9.6% of Lebanese Christians. Modern Muslims in Lebanon thus do not seem to have a significant genetic influence from the Crusaders, who introduced this common Western European marker to the extant Christian populations of the Levant when they were active in the region from 1096 until around the turn of the 14th century.
Haplogroup J2 is a significant marker in throughout Lebanon. This marker found in many inhabitants of Lebanon, regardless of religion, signals pre-Arab descendants, including the Phoenicians; these genetic studies show us there is no significant differences between the Muslims and non-Muslims of Lebanon. The Sunnis of Lebanon have close ties with Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the stronghold of the Lebanese Sunnis, is the birthplace of Lebanon's Salafi Movement, a puritanical Sunni movement from Saudi Arabia; the Lebanese Sunni Muslims opposed the creation of the Lebanese state separated from Syria, where the majority of the population was Sunni Muslim, wanted the territory of present-day Lebanon to be incorporated within the so-called Greater Syria. Sunni Muslims and Alawites have been in conflict with each other for centuries; the Alawites of the Levant were oppressed by the Sunni Ottoman Empire, but gained power and influence when the French recruited Alawites as soldiers during the French mandate of Syria.
After independence from France, their co-religionists the Assad family came to power in Syria in 1970. Over the years, there have been numerous clashes between the Sunni and Alawi communities in Tripoli over the past 14 months since Syria's uprising began, as part of the Arab Spring that started in Tunisia; the deadliest exchange took place last June, when seven people were killed and more than 60 wounded, after Sunni Muslims staged a protest against the Syrian government. At the best of times, the Alawites are regarded by Sunnis as heretics, and when a popular Salafist figure is strangely abducted and arrested by Lebanon's General Security Service – an organization linked to the Hezbollah militia that, in turn, is linked to the Syrian government – the Alawites become the whipping boys. Lebanese Sunni Muslims are concentrated in west Beirut, Sidon and in the countryside of the Akkar district, located in Northern Lebanon, Northeastern Beqaa Valley around the city of Arsal; the last census in Lebanon in 1932 put the numbers of Sunnis at 22% of the population.
A study done by the Central Intelligence Agency in 1985 put the numbers of Sunnis at 27% of the population. Sunni Muslims constitute 27% of Lebanon's population, according to a 2012 estimate. Emir Khaled Chehab, former Prime Minister of Lebanon and Speaker of the Parliament of Lebanon. Riad Al Solh, the first Prime Minister of Lebanon, after the country's independence Rafik Hariri, assassinated former Prime Minister of Lebanon Saad Hariri, former Prime Minister of Lebanon Fouad Siniora, former Prime Minister of Lebanon Abdul Hamid Karami, former Prime Minister of Lebanon Omar Karami, former Prime Minister of Lebanon Rashid Karami, former Prime Minister of Lebanon Najib Mikati, former Prime Minister of Lebanon Saeb Salam, who served as Prime Minister six times between 1952 and 1973 Tammam Salam and current Prime Minister of Lebanon Walid Toufic, singer Al-Waleed bin Talal, Saudi-Lebanese businessman and grandson of Riad Al Solh, Lebanon's first Prime Minister Marwa, singer Suzanne Tamim, the late singer Fadl Shaker, singer Hassan Khaled, late former leader of Lebanon's Sunni Muslim community Wissam al-Hassan, assassinated brigadier general at the Lebanese Internal Security Forces Mohamad Chatah, assassinated Lebanese
Yom Ashura or Ashura is the tenth day of Muḥarram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. For the majority of Shia Muslims Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram, commemorates the death of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH. Sunni Muslims have the same accounts of these events, but ceremonial mourning did not become a custom - although poems and recounting the events were and continue to be common. Mourning for the incident began immediately after the Battle of Karbala. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, the earliest public mourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty. In Afghanistan, Iraq, Bahrain and Pakistan, Ashura has become a national holiday, many ethnic and religious communities participate in it. In Sunni Islam, Ashura marks the day that Moses and the Israelites were saved from Pharaoh by God creating a path in the Sea, is the Islamic equivalent to Yom Kippur.
Other commemorations include Noah leaving the Muhammad's arrival in Medina. The root of the word Ashura has the meaning of tenth in Semitic languages. According to the orientalist A. J. Wensinck, the name is derived from the Hebrew ʿāsōr, with the Aramaic determinative ending; the day is indeed the tenth day of the month, although some Islamic scholars offer up different etymologies. In his book Ghuniyatut Talibin, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani writes that Islamic scholars differ as to why this day is known as Ashura, some of them suggesting that it is the tenth most important day with which God has blessed Muslims; the Battle of Karbala took place within the crisis environment resulting from the succession of Yazid I. After succession, Yazid instructed the governor of Medina to compel Husayn and a few other prominent figures to pledge their allegiance. Husayn, refrained from making such a pledge, believing that Yazid was going against the teachings of Islam and changing the sunnah of Muhammad. He, accompanied by his household, his sons and the sons of Hasan left Medina to seek asylum in Mecca.
On the other hand, the people in Kufa, when informed of Muawiyah's death, sent letters urging Husayn to join them and pledging to support him against the Umayyads. Husayn wrote back to them saying that he would send his cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel to report to him on the situation and that if he found them supportive as their letters indicated, he would speedily join them because an Imam should act in accordance with the Quran and uphold justice, proclaim the truth, dedicate himself to the cause of God; the mission of Muslim was successful and according to reports, 18,000 men pledged their allegiance. But the situation changed radically when Yazid appointed Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad as the new governor of Kufa, ordering him to deal with Ibn Aqeel. In Mecca, Husayn learned assassins had been sent by Yazid to kill him in the holy city in the midst of Hajj. Husayn, to preserve the sanctity of the city and that of the Kaaba, abandoned his Hajj and encouraged others around him to follow him to Kufa without knowing the situation there had taken an adverse turn.
On the way, Husayn found that Muslim ibn Aqeel, had been killed in Kufa. Husayn encountered the vanguard of the army of Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad along the route towards Kufa. Husayn addressed the Kufan army, reminding them that they had invited him to come because they were without an Imam, he told them that he intended to proceed to Kufa with their support, but if they were now opposed to his coming, he would return to where he had come from. In response, the army urged him to proceed by another route. Thus, he turned to the left and reached Karbala, where the army forced him not to go further and stop at a location that had limited access to water. Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad, the governor instructed Umar ibn Sa'ad, the head of the Kufan army, to offer Ḥusayn and his supporters the opportunity to swear allegiance to Yazid, he ordered Umar ibn Sa'ad to cut off Husayn and his followers from access to the water of the Euphrates. On the next morning, Umar ibn Sa'ad arranged the Kufan army in battle order; the Battle of Karbala lasted from morning to sunset on October 10, 680.
Husayn's small group of companions and family members fought against a large army under the command of Umar ibn Sa'ad and were killed near the river, from which they were not allowed to get water. The renowned historian Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī states: … hen fire was set to their camp and the bodies were trampled by the hoofs of the horses. Once the Umayyad troops had murdered Husayn and his male followers, they looted the tents, stripped the women of their jewelry, took the skin upon which Zain al-Abidin was prostrate. Husayn's sister Zaynab was taken along with the enslaved women to the caliph in Damascus when she was imprisoned and after a year was allowed to return to Medina. According to Ignác Goldziher, ver since the black day of Karbala, the history of this family … has been a continuous series of sufferings and persecutions; these are narrated in poetry and prose, in a richly cultivated literature of martyrologies …'More touching than the tears of the Shi'is' has become an Arabic proverb.
The first assembly of the Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali is said to have been held by Zaynab in prison. In Damascus, she is reported to have deliv
Nativity of Mary
The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Nativity of Mary, or the Birth of the Virgin Mary, refers to a Christian feast day celebrating the birth of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The modern canon of scripture does not record Mary's birth; the earliest known account of Mary's birth is found in the Protoevangelium of James, an apocryphal text from the late second century, with her parents known as Saint Anne and Saint Joachim. In the case of saints, the Church commemorates their date of death, with Saint John the Baptist and the Virgin Mary as the few whose birth dates are commemorated; the reason for this is found in the singular mission each had in salvation history, but traditionally because these alone were holy in their birth. Devotion to the innocence of Mary under this Marian title is celebrated in many cultures across the globe; the "Protoevangelium of James", put into its final written form in the early second century, describes Mary's father Joachim as a wealthy member of one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel.
He and his wife Anne were grieved by their childlessness. Pious accounts place the birthplace of the Virgin Mary in Sepphoris, Israel where a 5th-century basilica is excavated at the site; some accounts speak of Nazareth and others say it was in a house near the Sheep Gate in Jerusalem. It is possible that a wealthy man such as Joachim had a home in both Galilee. However, Charles Souvay, writing in the Catholic Encyclopedia, says that the idea that Joachim possessed large herds and flocks cannot be asserted with certainty, as the sources for this are "...of doubtful value....". Tradition celebrates the event as a liturgical feast in the General Roman Calendar and in most Anglican liturgical calendars on 8 September, nine months after the solemnity of her Immaculate Conception, celebrated on 8 December; the feast is included in the Tridentine Calendar for 8 September. This date is used in the Western Rite Orthodox Church; the Byzantine Rite Orthodox celebrate the Nativity of the Theotokos on 8 September.
The Syriac Orthodox Church, like its related sister church, the Byzantine Rite Antiochian Orthodox Church celebrates the feast on 8 September. For churches using the old Julian Calendar for liturgical purposes September 8 falls on September 21 of the Gregorian Calendar. In other words, "Old Calendar" Churches, such as the Russian Orthodox Church, still celebrate the Nativity of the Theotokos on the 8th, but the day is the 21st according to the everyday calendar used by society at large; the Armenian Apostolic Church uses the traditional date of 8 September. Yet the Coptic Orthodox and Ethiopian Orthodox Christians celebrate it on May 9; the earliest document commemorating this feast comes from a hymn written in the sixth century. The feast may have originated somewhere in Syria or Palestine in the beginning of the sixth century, when after the Council of Ephesus, the cult of the Mother of God was intensified in Syria; the first liturgical commemoration is connected with the sixth century dedication of the Basilica Sanctae Mariae ubi nata est, now called the Church of St. Anne in Jerusalem.
The original church built, in the fifth century, was a Marian basilica erected on the spot known as the shepherd's pool and thought to have been the home of Mary's parents. In the seventh century, the feast was celebrated by the Byzantines as the feast of the Birth of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Since the story of Mary's Nativity is known only from apocryphal sources, the Latin Church was slower in adopting this festival. At Rome the Feast began to be kept toward the end of the 7th century, brought there by Eastern monks; the church of Angers in France claims that St. Maurilius instituted this feast at Angers in consequence of a revelation about 430. On the night of 8 September, a man heard the angels singing in heaven, on asking the reason, they told him they were rejoicing because the Virgin was born on that night; the winegrowers in France called this feast "Our Lady of the Grape Harvest". The best grapes are brought to the local church to be blessed and some bunches are attached to the hands of the statue of Mary.
A festive meal that includes the new grapes is part of this day. In Goa, the feast of Mary's Nativity, called the "Monti Fest", is a major family celebration, serving as a thanksgiving festival blessing the harvest of new crops, observed with a festive lunch centered on the blessed grain of the harvest. In Mangalore it is the feast of Mary's Nativity, called the "Monthi Fest". On this day every Mangalorean eats vegetables; the priest blesses a branch of grain, added to food. Before the feast on 8 September there are nine days of novena followed by the throwing of flowers on baby Mary's statue; the scene was depicted in art, as part of cycles of the Life of the Virgin. Medieval depictions of Mary in infancy include her birth by Saint Anne. In late medieval depictions the setting was in a wealthy household. In 1730, devotion to Mary in her first infancy among the Franciscan nuns in Lovere, where a wax statue of the Santissima Maria Bambina was venerated and brought to Milan under the care of Sisters of Charity.
In Southern France, the devotion penetrated into the bride gift wedding custom of Globe de Marièe, where the baby Mary is placed on the cushion, representing children and fertility as one of the ideal wishes of a newlywed bride. A similar devotion showcasing the toddler years of Mary began to develop in former Spani