Lethwei or Burmese bareknuckle boxing is a full contact combat sport from Myanmar that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Lethwei is considered to be one of the most aggressive and brutal martial arts in the world, because the fighters fight bareknuckle with only the use of tape and gauze on their hands; the use of fists, elbows and feet, but more the head makes it a unusual martial art. Although disallowed in many combat sports, in Lethwei, the use of headbutt is encouraged; this is the reason it known as "The Art of 9 Limbs". It is similar to related styles in other parts of the Indian cultural sphere, namely Muay Thai from Thailand, Pradal Serey from Cambodia, Muay Lao from Laos, Tomoi from Malaysia and Musti-yuddha from India. Records exists of Lethwei matches dating back to the Pyu Empire in Myanmar. Lethwei, along with Bando and its armed sibling Banshay were used by ancient Myanmar armies in many wars against neighboring countries. In ancient times, matches were popular with every strata of society.
Participation was opened to any male, whether commoner. At that time, matches took place in sandpits instead of rings. Boxers fought without protective equipment, only wrapping their hands in gauze. There were no draws and no point system—the fight went on until one of the participants was knocked out or could no longer continue. Back Burmese boxing champions would enter the ring and call for open challenges. Traditional matches include Flagship Tournament, which are still fought throughout Myanmar during holidays or celebration festivals like Thingy an. Kyar Ba Nyein, who participated in boxing at the 1952 Summer Olympics, pioneered modern Lethwei by setting in place modern rules and regulations, he travelled around Myanmar the Mon and Karen states, where many of the villagers were still practicing Lethwei. Kyar Ba Nyein brought them back to Mandalay and Yangon and, after training with them, encouraged them to compete in matches; the Myanmar government made some organizational changes to make Burmese boxing more marketable internationally.
In 2016, a new promotion called. Unlike traditional lethwei events, judges determine a winner. There are no injury time outs; the first international Lethwei event was held in June 2001, when three kickboxers from the USA competed against lethwei practitioners. They were Albert Ramirez and Doug Evans. All three Americans were knocked out in the first round. A revenge match with properly trained American and European fighters well prepared to fight bare-knuckle was cancelled the last minute by Lethwei promoters and the military in 2003; the first international challenge match in 2001 was used as a propaganda tool by the military and television stations and called a disgraceful sham by American and European promoters. From 10 to 11 July 2004, the second event headlining foreigners took place with four Japanese fighters fighting against Burmese boxers, they were Yoshitaro Niimi, Takeharu Yamamoto and Naruji Wakasugi. MMA fighter Tamura, knocked out Aya Bo Sein in the second round and became the first foreigner to beat a lethwei practitioner in an official match.
International matches continued from 2004 all the way until 2016 with the most exciting of them being the Cyrus Washington vs. Tun Tun Min trilogy. On 16 December 2016, the rematch Dave Leduc and Tun Tun Min took place at the Air KBZ Aung Lan Championship in Yangon, Myanmar; the two fought in October to an explosive draw, but the rematch was sweetened by an added bonus: ownership of the Lethwei Open Weight World Championship Belt. Leduc became the first non-Burmese fighter to win the Lethwei Golden Belt after defeating Tun Tun Min in the second round. Following his win, Leduc said. I see Lethwei doing the same for Myanmar as what Muay Thai has done for Thailand."On April 18, 2017, for his second title defense, Dave Leduc faced Turkish Australian fighter Adem Yilmaz in Tokyo, Japan in traditional Lethwei rules. The first Lethwei World Title fight headlining two non-burmese in the sport's history. For the occasion, the Ambassador of Myanmar to Japan was present at the event held in the Korakuen Hall.
Aside from punches, kicks and knee attacks, Burmese fighters make use of head-butts, raking knuckle strikes and take downs. The elbow can be used in several ways as a striking weapon: horizontal, diagonal-upwards, diagonal-downwards, downward, backward-spinning and flying, they can be used as a way to cut the opponent's eyebrow to draw blood. Elbows can be used to great effect as blocks or defenses against, for example, spring knees, side body knees, body kicks or punches; when well connected, an elbow strike can cause serious damage to the opponent, including cuts or a knockout. The foot-thrust is one of the techniques in Lethwei, it is used as a defensive technique to control distance or block attacks and as a way to set up attack. Foot-thrusts should be thrown but with enough force to knock an opponent off balance. Note - The Myanglish spelling and phonetics based spelling are two different things; the words used are phonetics based words which are more friendly and easy to pronounce for non-Myanmar speaking people.
The phonetics wording is provided by Liger Paing from United Myanmar Bando Nation. The lekkha moun is the traditional gesture performed by Lethwei fighters to challenge their opponent with courage and respect; the lekkha moun is done by clapping 3 times with right palm to the triangle shaped hole formed while bending the left arm. The cl
Burmese folk religion
Burmese folk religion refers to the animistic and polytheistic religious worship of nats in Burma. Although the beliefs of nats differ across different regions and villages in Burma, there are a handful of beliefs that are universal in Burmese folk religion. A nat is a spirit or god who resembles a human in shape that maintains or guards objects; when people die, they can become nats. Those who become nats have a gruesome violent death which explains their vengeful nature. Nats are believed to have the ability to possess animals, such as tigers or alligators; these spirits can be found in nature in things such as trees and rocks. The majority of these nats are viewed as irritable, they require calming and offerings. There is a specific nat called an ouktazaung, said to guard treasure. Rumor has it. If the victim is caught by the ouktazaung it takes her place and the ouktazaung can roam free, but only for twenty years, after which she must return to her treasure. A village will traditionally have a spirit, the patron of their village.
The precise origins of Burmese folk faith and nat worship are not definitively known. However at the time King Anawrahta was ruling, nat worship was rampant, he became frustrated with this widespread worship of nats, tried to eliminate them. The people continued to worship the nats, so the king ordered the destruction of all statues and images of nats. Despite this people still worshiped them, by using a coconut as a symbol for them. Now in place of a typical nat statue, there sat a coconut, which served as an offering to the nat, as well as a symbol for the nat itself; the king came to the realisation that he couldn’t stop these nats from being worshiped, so he created a formal list of 37, strategically renaming the head one, a name of Buddhist origin. He placed statues of deva in front of the nats; this symbolised the preference for practising Buddhism over folk faith. Despite continued opposition, this nat worship survived. A testament to the continued survival of Burmese folk religion can be seen by the fact that the prime minister of Burma in the mid 20th century, U Nu, erected a nat-sin as well as a traditional Buddhist shrine.
This toleration of the nats continued through the socialist regime. Every village has someone, a nat-kadaw; this person is seen as the master of ceremonies regarding a type of shaman. They lead festivals, called nat-pwes, which are devoted to interacting with the nats; the nat-kadaw has the special power to be able to be possessed by nats. Once possessed, their voice changes and they perform elaborate dances; this profession is somewhat frowned upon because it is centred on frivolity and letting go of restraints. Although it doesn’t have the best reputation as a profession, it is an profitable one. Oftentimes when offerings are given to the nats, they are given directly to the nat-kadaw, said to be possessed by a nat. Throughout a festival the nat-kadaw will ask for money. Although some of this money is given to the accompanying orchestra at a festival, the nat-kadaw keeps some of this money. Although this profession is seen as a frivolous one, nat-kadaws are in fact religious, they still follow and uphold the precepts of Buddhism, while interacting with these nats.
Oftentimes a nat-kadaw can become tormented by a specific nat. If they have a human husband or wife, they decide that they must marry this nat, for only will they be at peace, the torment that this nat is causing them will cease; the marriage of a nat and a nat-kadaw is done through an elaborate ceremony titled Ley-Bya-Taik. In this ceremony, the nat-kadaw identifies the particular nat that they would like to marry, surrenders to it. In this process mirrors are used to trap the soul. Once this soul has left, the nat takes the place of it. After this transformation is complete, the nat-kadaw dances, embracing their recent marriage with a nat; as mentioned earlier, these nat-kadaws are central in every nat-pwe. These nat-pwes are held at specific times of the year, they follow a similar sequence of events. They always include an orchestra, lots of dancing; the first step in these festivals is the donation of many offerings consisting of a coconut, fruits and rice. These offerings are prepared, to summon the nats to the ceremony.
This practice of summoning is done by the nat-kadaw. Once the nats are summoned, a feast is had with them. After this, there is everyone bids the nats goodbye. Burmese folk religion and Buddhism are closely tied to each other. Oftentimes it is common to see a Buddhist offering, a nat-sin besides it. In Burma there are varying degrees of reliance on nats versus Buddhist doctrine; the beliefs and practices of folk faith vary across Burma, so it is difficult to define this religion exactly. Several scholars in the 19th and 20th century have done field research in villages in Burma, their findings have been reported by themselves, as well as by others in various books and articles. Although it is difficult to determine what the precise beliefs and practices are, these anthropologists found several common trends that help give us a better picture of Burmese folk religion. In many instances folk faith was practised directly alongside Buddhism, it wasn’t uncommon to see families who had both Buddhist shri
National symbols of Myanmar
The national symbols of Myanmar are icons and other cultural expressions which are seen as representative of the Burmese people. These have been accumulated over centuries and are from the Bamar majority, while other ethnic groups maintain their own symbols. No official codification or de jure recognition exists, but most of these symbols are seen as de facto representative of the Burmese people; the use of much of these symbols were cultivated during the Konbaung dynasty which ruled the country from 1761 to 1885. The Burmese ascribe a flower to each of the twelve months of the traditional Burmese calendar. However, two flowers are seen as national symbols. A popular saying states "thayet. Mythical creatures in Burmese folklore Burmese dance Cuisine of Myanmar Music of Myanmar Longyi
Myanmar the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea; the country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size, its capital city is Naypyidaw, its largest city and former capital is Yangon. Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations since 1997. Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language and Theravada Buddhism became dominant in the country.
The Pagan Kingdom fell. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia; the early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was dissolved following a 2010 general election, a nominally civilian government was installed.
This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics. Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at its GDP at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government; as of 2016, Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development, according to the Human Development Index. Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Mranma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology.
The terms are popularly thought to derive from "Brahma Desha" after Brahma. In 1989, the military government changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar"; the renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi clarified that foreigners are free to use either name, "because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular"; the country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar". Countries that do not recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead. In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar". Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group.
Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Myamah; the name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century. Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of countries such as the United Kingdom. Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma" and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names; the government of Canada has in the past used Burma, such as in its 2007 legislation imposing sanctions, but as of the mid-2010s uses Myanmar. The Czech Republic uses Myanmar, although its Ministry of Foreign Affairs mentions both Myanmar and Burma on its website; the United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Russia, China, Bangladesh, Norway and Switzerland. Most English-speaking international news media refer to the country by the name Myanmar, including the BBC, CNN, Al Jazeera and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation /Ra
The British Empire comprised the dominions, protectorates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2, 24% of the Earth's total land area; as a result, its political, legal and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories. During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, in the process established large overseas empires.
Envious of the great wealth these empires generated, England and the Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia. A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England and following union between England and Scotland in 1707, Great Britain, the dominant colonial power in North America, it became the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent after the East India Company's conquest of Mughal Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The independence of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after the American War of Independence caused Britain to lose some of its oldest and most populous colonies. British attention soon turned towards Asia and the Pacific. After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century. Unchallenged at sea, British dominance was described as Pax Britannica, a period of relative peace in Europe and the world during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman.
In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain. The British Empire expanded to include most of India, large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. Alongside the formal control that Britain exerted over its own colonies, its dominance of much of world trade meant that it controlled the economies of many regions, such as Asia and Latin America. During the 19th century, Britain's population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, which caused significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the British government under Benjamin Disraeli initiated a period of imperial expansion in Egypt, South Africa, elsewhere. Canada and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century and the United States had begun to challenge Britain's economic lead. Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied upon its empire.
The conflict placed enormous strain on the military and manpower resources of Britain. Although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent after World War I, Britain was no longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power. In the Second World War, Britain's colonies in East and Southeast Asia were occupied by Japan. Despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire; the Suez Crisis confirmed Britain's decline as a global power. The transfer of Hong Kong to China in 1997 marked for many the end of the British Empire. Fourteen overseas territories remain under British sovereignty. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states.
The United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, that share a monarch Queen Elizabeth II. The foundations of the British Empire were laid when Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Cabot sailed in 1497, five years after the European discovery of America, but he made landfall on the coast of Newfoundland, mistakenly believing that he had reached Asia, there was no attempt to found a colony. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was heard of his ships again. No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, during the last decades of the 16th century. In the meantime, the 1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals had declared "that this realm of England is an Empire".
The subsequent Protestant Reformation turned Catholic Spain into implacable enemies. In 1562, the English Crown encouraged the privateers John Hawkins and Francis Drake to engage in slave-raiding attacks against Spanish and Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa with the aim of breaking into the Atlantic slave tr
Hinduism in Myanmar
Hinduism is practised by about 252,763 people in Myanmar, has been influenced by elements of Buddhism, with many Hindu temples in Myanmar housing statues of the Buddha. The Burmese census data only reports individuals. Pew Research estimated a range of 820,000 to 840,000 Hindus in 2010. Population of Hindus by State/Region, according to the 2014 census Predominantly, Burmese Indians make up Myanmar's population of Hindus; the practice of Hinduism among Burmese Indians is influenced by Buddhism. In addition to Hindu deities, the Buddha is worshiped and many Hindu temples in Myanmar house statues of the Buddha; the Burmese Indians include Myanmar Tamils, Odias etc. The majority of the Meitei in Myanmar practice Hinduism, they are descendants of forced labourers taken from Manipur during the Manipuri–Burmese war from 1819 to 1825. Manipuris are concentrated in about 13 villages in the Mandalay and Amarapura areas. Manipuri settlements are found along the Ningthi river, the areas sandwiched between the river and the boundary of Manipur.
Many Nepali-speaking Burmese Gurkha in Myanmar practice Hinduism. Burmese Gurkha came along with British Army during colonial period. There are 250 Hindu Temples build by Burmese Gurkha in and across country which of 30 temples are in Mandalay Region of Mogok City alone. Apparent there are three to five temples. A small minority of predominantly-Muslim Rohingya people practice Hinduism. Hinduism, along with Buddhism, arrived in Burma during ancient times. Both names of the country are rooted in Hinduism. Brahma is part of Hindu trinity, a deity with four heads; the name Myanmar is the regional language transliteration of Brahma, where b and m are interchangeable. Arakan Yoma is a significant natural mountainous barrier between Burma and India, the migration of Hinduism and Buddhism into Burma occurred through Manipur and by South Asian seaborne traders. Hinduism influenced the royal court of Burmese kings in pre-colonial times, as seen in the architecture of cities such as Bagan; the Burmese language adopted many words from Sanskrit and Pali, many of which relate to religion.
While ancient and medieval arrival of ideas and culture fusion transformed Burma over time, it is in 19th and 20th century that over a million Hindu workers were brought in by British colonial government to serve in plantations and mines. The British felt that surrounding the European residential centre with Indian immigrants provided a buffer and a degree of security from tribal theft and raids. According to 1931 census, 55% of Rangoon's population were Indian migrants Hindus. After independence from Britain, Burma Socialist Programme Party under Ne Win adopted xenophobic policies and expelled 300,000 Indian ethnic people, along with 100,000 Chinese, from Burma between 1963 and 1967; the Indian policy of encouraging democratic protests in Burma increased persecution of Hindus, as well as led to Burmese retaliatory support of left-leaning rebel groups in northeastern states of India. Aspects of Hinduism continue in Burma today in the majority Buddhist culture. For example, Thagyamin is worshipped.
Burmese literature has been enriched by Hinduism, including the Burmese adaptation of the Ramayana, called Yama Zatdaw. Many Hindu gods are worshipped by many Burmese people, such as Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge, worshipped before examinations. Many of these ideas are part of thirty seven deities found in Burmese culture. In modern Myanmar, most Hindus are found in the urban centres of Mandalay. Ancient Hindu temples are present in other parts of Burma, such as the 11th century Nathlaung Kyaung Temple dedicated to Vishnu in Bagan. Deepavali is a public holiday in Myanmar. After independence from Britain, Burma Socialist Programme Party under Ne Win adopted xenophobic policies and expelled 300,000 Indian ethnic people, along with 100,000 Chinese, from Burma between 1963 and 1967. On 25 August 2017, the villages in a cluster known as Kha Maung Seik in northern Maungdaw District of Rakhine State in Myanmar were attacked by Rohingya Muslims of Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army; this was called Kha Maung Seik massacre.
Amnesty International said. Due to these, many Rohingya Hindus have started identifying themselves as Chittagonian Hindus rather than Rohingyas. In Myanmar and in Bangladeshi refugee camps—according to some media accounts—Hindu Rohingyas faced kidnapping, religious abuse and "forced conversions" at the hands of Muslim Rohingyas. Nathlaung Kyaung Temple Shri Kali Temple, Burma Hinduism in Bangladesh Hinduism in India Hinduism in West Bengal Hinduism in Nepal Religion in Myanmar Burmese Indians
Art of Myanmar
Art of Myanmar refers to visual art created in Myanmar. From the 1400s CE, artists have been creating paintings and sculptures that reflect the Burmese culture. Burmese artists have been subjected to government interference and censorship, hindering the development of art in Myanmar. Burmese art reflects the central Buddhist elements including the mudra, Jataka tales, the pagoda, Bodhisattva. From 1962 to 1988, during the Cold War era, postcolonial Myanmar was isolated from the rest of the world as a way to maintain independence. In 1989, Myanmar began to open international state control was relaxed; this allowed Myanmar's artists more opportunities to engage with international artists. In 1997, access to the internet allowed a contemporary art community in Myanmar to grow. However, government censorship, economic hardship and isolation have affected Myanmar artists and their art. For instance, the government restricted art to religious depictions and expressions of the natural beauty of the nation.
The government of Myanmar banned or confiscated artwork on prohibited subjects censored art exhibitions. The prohibited subjects included political criticism and the use of certain colours. In 1970, censors defaced unapproved artworks with stamps reading "not allowed to show" on the front and back. Approved paintings depicted the political leader Ne Win and its agrarian utopia, the purity of Burmese culture and Buddhism; some artists became defiant of the censorship. Win Pe Myint, a cartoonist and director, worked for the Ludu Kyi-bwa-yay Press in Mandalay, his work was censored by the government. Win Pe said, "The military wanted to be sure of themselves, their security… that there was no direct assault against them through art." Aung Khaing — Khaing was a semi-abstract painter. In 1984, at the Bogyoke Aung San Market, Khaing attempted his first solo exhibition of works influenced by those of Gauguin and Monet. During his exhibit, government censors visited him on three separate occasions. During the first few visits, the censors removed around thirty paintings.
On the final visit, all remaining artworks left on display were deemed unacceptable to be viewed. In protest, Khaing no longer displayed his paintings. However, in October 2013 at the Bogyoke Aung San Market, he held a solo exhibit. Maung Theid Dhi — During a more severe period of art censorship in Burma, Maung was arrested for not complying with censors' orders to alter his artwork. In 1974, at the Wild Eye Art Exhibition in Yangon, Maung exhibited a self-portrait on wood surrounded by a metal chain. Government censors interpreted this piece as a criticism of government restriction of Burmese life. Censors removed Maung’s work from the exhibit; the censors allowed Maung to retrieve the painting later. However, when it was returned, the work was missing its original adornments. Maung put the same piece in another exhibit, but this time, he wrapped it with leather and rope and placed it atop the skull of a deer. Soon after displaying his “new” art piece, censors arrested him without explanation and Maung spent a week in jail.
After his release, Maung continued to exhibit the same piece. As a result and detectives arrived at his home accusing him of creating political artworks. Several such visits caused his family great distress. Maung was arrested again for his “suspicious” artworks; such distress left Maung too afraid to create paintings based on his political sketches but he did create paintings depicting the censors. Art historians do not have an agreed-upon definition of Shan art, it is believed to have originated between 1550 and 1772 CE, around the time that the two kingdoms of Lanna and Lan Xang were both under the support of the Burmese. Many pieces of Shan artwork depict a Buddha in a seated position, with his right hand pointed towards the Earth. In Buddhism, the Maravijaya pose represents Buddha calling the Earth Goddess to witness Gautama Shakyamuni’s victory over Mara. Sculptures made in this art style were made of bronze and would be sculpted with wood or in lacquer. Traditional Shan art had a Buddha with the characteristic monk's robes, or adorned with a crown and decorated with various other mediums like putty and glass.
Shan sculptures are distinctive and recognizable when looking through the history of Burmese Buddhist art. Shan sculptures are identified with oval shaped faces, soft smiles, closed relaxed eyes