Republic Day (Turkey)
The Republic Day of Turkey is one of the public holidays in Turkey commemorating the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. It lasts 35 hours; the holiday commemorates the events of 29 October 1923, when Mustafa Kemal Atatürk declared that Turkey was henceforth a republic. Turkey had de facto been a republic since 23 April 1920, the date of the establishment of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, but the official confirmation of this fact came only three-and-a-half years later. On 29 October 1923, the status of the nation as a republic was declared and its official name was proclaimed to be Türkiye Cumhuriyeti. After that, a vote was held in the Grand National Assembly, Atatürk was elected as the first President of the Republic of Turkey. Thirty poems that highlight the beauty and virtues of Republic Day. In muallimce
Victory Day is a common name of many different public holidays in various countries to commemorate victories in important battles or wars in the countries' history. November 11: Remembrance Day, Veterans Day, Armistice Day Liberation Day: List of dates on which countries were liberated from occupiers National Day: A day marking the founding of a nation which can be related to a key victory Victory Parade, Moscow, 2015 on YouTube Victory Parade, Russia, St. Petersburg, 2015 on YouTube
Public holidays in India
India, being a culturally diverse and fervent society, celebrates various holidays and festivals. There are many national holidays in India: Republic Day on 26 January, International Workers' Day on 1 May, Independence Day on 15 August and Mahatma Gandhi's birthday on 2 October. States have local festivals depending on prevalent linguistic demographics. Popular Jain festivals including Paryushan. National holidays are observed in all states and union territories. India has three national days, they are: Hindus celebrate a number of festivals all through the year. Hindu festivals have one or more of religious and seasonal significance; the observance of the festival, the symbolisms used and attached, the style and intensity of celebration varies from region to region within the country. A list of the more popular festivals is given below. For dates see: A number of Sikh holidays are Gurpurbs, anniversaries of a guru's birth or death. Note: The Parsis in India use a Shahenshahi calendar, unlike the Iranians who use a Kadmi calendar.
The North American and European Parsis have adapted their own version of the Fasli calendar. This is however looked down upon by many of the Parsis in North America, who continue to use the Shahenshai calendar; these differences cause changes in the dates of the holidays. For example, the Zoroastrian New Year falls in the spring for the Iranians but in the summer for the Parsis. In addition to the official holidays, many religious and other traditional holidays populate the calendar, as well as observances proclaimed by officials and lighter celebrations; these are observed by Central government and businesses While having so many government holidays is in line with the idea of peaceful co-existence of all religions, there have been demands from various public bodies that the system of a multitude of religious holidays is hampering economic activities to a great extent. The past two Central Government Pay Commissions have recommended the abolition of all Central Government holidays on religious festivals, instead, substituting them with the three national holidays, i.e. Independence Day, Republic Day and Gandhi Jayanti.
Increasing the number of restricted holidays, depending on one's religious persuasion, from the existing two to eight was proposed, the rationale being that eight holidays can more than cater to the festivals of any particular religion. So, there is no point in having more than that number of holidays since religion does not warrant a Hindu to celebrate Eid or a Muslim to celebrate Diwali. With the proposed system, however, it was left to the individual to choose which eight holidays to celebrate, irrespective of his religious belief; this recommendation has not been accepted by the government of India, fearing a loss of popularity, thus the Indian government continues with an unusually large number of religious holidays as compared to most other countries. Central and State governments in India issue annually a list of holidays to be observed in the respective government offices during the year; the list is divided into two parts: Gazetted holidays Restricted holidays In addition, local administrations issue a list of holidays known as local holidays, which are observed at the district level.
The Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions on behalf of the Government of India issues a list of holidays to be observed in central government offices during the year. The list is divided in two parts i.e. Annexure I & Annexure II. Annexure I known as Gazetted holidays, consists of a list of holidays that are mandatory once decided; this list consists of two parts: Para 2 Para 3.1 It consists of holidays that are observed compulsorily across India. These holidays are: Republic Day Independence Day Gandhi Jayanti Mahavir Jayanti Budha Purnima Christmas Day Dussehra Diwali Good Friday Guru Nanak's Birthday Eid ul-Fitr Eid al-Adha §←→ Muharram Prophet Mohammad's Birthday so all the holidays are there In addition to the 14 compulsory holidays mentioned in para 2, three holidays are chosen from the list below by the Central Government Employees Welfare Coordination Committee in the State Capitals; the final list is applied uniformly across all Central Government offices within each State.
They are notified after seeking the prior approval of this Ministry, no changes can be made thereafter. No change is permissible in regard to dates. An additional day for Dussehra Holi Janamashtami Ram Navami Maha Shivratri Ganesh Chaturthi/Vinayak Chaturthi Makar Sankrantili Onam Sri Panchami/Basanta Panchami Vishu/Vaisakhi/Vaisakhadi/Bhag Bihu/Mashadi Ugadi/Chaitra Sakladi/Cheti Chand/Gudhi Pada 1st Navratra/Nauraj Annexure II known as Restricted holidays, consists of a list of holidays which are optional; each employee is allowed to choose any two holidays from the list of Restricted Holidays. The Coordination Committees at the State Capitals draw up a separate list of Restricted Holidays, keeping in mind the occasions of local importance, but
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Northern Cyprus the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, is a de facto state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus. Recognised only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus is considered by the international community to be part of the Republic of Cyprus. Northern Cyprus extends from the tip of the Karpass Peninsula in the northeast to Morphou Bay, Cape Kormakitis and its westernmost point, the Kokkina exclave in the west, its southernmost point is the village of Louroujina. A buffer zone under the control of the United Nations stretches between Northern Cyprus and the rest of the island and divides Nicosia, the island's largest city and capital of both sides. A coup d'état in 1974, performed as part of an attempt to annex the island to Greece, prompted the Turkish invasion of Cyprus; this resulted in the eviction of much of the north's Greek Cypriot population, the flight of Turkish Cypriots from the south, the partitioning of the island, leading to a unilateral declaration of independence by the North in 1983.
Due to its lack of recognition, Northern Cyprus is dependent on Turkey for economic and military support. Attempts to reach a solution to the Cyprus dispute have been unsuccessful; the Turkish Army maintains a large force in Northern Cyprus. While its presence is supported and approved by the TRNC government, the Republic of Cyprus and the international community regard it as an occupation force, its presence has been denounced in several United Nations Security Council resolutions. Northern Cyprus is a semi-presidential, democratic republic with a cultural heritage incorporating various influences and an economy, dominated by the services sector; the economy has seen growth through the 2000s and 2010s, with the GNP per capita more than tripling in the 2000s, but is held back by an international embargo due to the official closure of the ports in Northern Cyprus by the Republic of Cyprus. The official language is Turkish, with a distinct local dialect being spoken; the vast majority of the population consists of Sunni Muslims, while religious attitudes are moderate and secular.
Northern Cyprus is an observer of the OIC and ECO, has observer status in the PACE under the title "Turkish Cypriot Community". A united Cyprus gained independence from British rule in August 1960, after both Greek and Turkish Cypriots agreed to abandon their respective plans for enosis and taksim; the agreement involved Cyprus being governed under a constitution which apportioned Cabinet posts, parliamentary seats and civil service jobs on an agreed ratio between the two communities. Within three years, tensions began to show between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in administrative affairs. In particular, disputes over separate municipalities and taxation created a deadlock in government. In 1963 President Makarios proposed unilateral changes via 13 amendments. Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots rejected the proposed amendments, claiming that this was an attempt to settle constitutional disputes in favour of the Greek Cypriots and to demote Turkish status from co-founders of the state to one of minority status, removing their constitutional safeguards in the process.
Turkish Cypriots filed a lawsuit against the 13 amendments in the Supreme Constitutional Court of Cyprus. Makarios announced that he would not comply with the decision of the SCCC, whatever it was, defended his amendments as being necessary "to resolve constitutional deadlocks" as opposed to the stance of the SCCC. On 25 April 1963, the SCCC decided; the Cyprus Supreme Court's ruling found that Makarios had violated the constitution by failing to implement its measures and that Turkish Cypriots had not been allowed to return to their positions in government without first accepting the proposed constitutional amendments. On 21 May, the president of the SCCC resigned due to Makarios's stance. On 15 July, Makarios ignored the decision of the SCCC. After the resignation of the president of the SCCC, the SCCC ceased to exist; the Supreme Court of Cyprus was formed by merging the SCCC and the High Court of Cyprus, undertook the jurisdiction and powers of the SCCC and HCC. On 30 November, Makarios legalized the 13 proposals.
In 1963, the Greek Cypriot wing of the government created the Akritas plan which outlined a policy that would remove Turkish Cypriots from the government and lead to union with Greece. The plan stated that if the Turkish Cypriots objected they should be "violently subjugated before foreign powers could intervene". On 21 December 1963, shots were fired at a Turkish Cypriot crowd that had gathered as the Greek police patrol stopped two Turkish Cypriots, claiming to ask for identification. Intercommunal violence broke out with a major Greek Cypriot paramilitary attack upon Turkish Cypriots in Nicosia and Larnaca. Though the TMT—a Turkish resistance group created in 1959 to promote a policy of taksim, in opposition to the Greek Cypriot nationalist group EOKA and its advocacy of enosis —committed a number of acts of retaliation, historian of the Cyprus conflict Keith Kyle noted that "there is no doubt that the main victims of the numerous incidents that took place during the next few months were Turks".
Seven hundred Turkish hostages, including children, were taken from the northern suburbs of Nicosia. Nikos Sampson, a nationalist and future coup leader, led a group of Greek Cypriot irregulars into the mixed suburb of Omorphita/Küçük Kaymaklı and attacked the Turkish Cypriot population. By 1964, 364 Turkish Cypriots and 174 Greek
Public holidays in Azerbaijan
Holidays in Azerbaijan were regulated in the Constitution of Azerbaijan SSR for the first time on 19 May 1921 by the Azeri leader Nariman Narimanov. Through the history non-working days have changed. Non-working days in Azerbaijan include the following: National days in Azerbaijan that are working days follows: January 30 – Day of Azerbaijani customs February 2 – Day of Youth in Azerbaijan February 11 – Day of Revenue Service February 26 – Day of Remembrance for Victims of Khojaly massacre March 5 – Day of Physical Culture and Sport March 28 – Day of National Security March 31 – Day of Genocide of Azerbaijanis March 23 – Day of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources April 10 – Day of the builder May 10 – Flower Festival June 2 – Day of Civil Aviation June 5 – Day of Reclamation June 18 Human Rights Day June 20 – Day of the gas sector July 2 – Day of Azerbaijani police July 9 – Day of the employees of the diplomatic service July 22 – National Press Day in Azerbaijan August 1 – Day of Azerbaijani language and alphabet.
August 2 – National Day of Azerbaijani cinema September 15 – Day of Knowledge September 18 – Day of National Music September 20 – Day of Azerbaijani Oil / Oil Workers' Day October 1 – Day of prosecutors in Azerbaijan October 13 – Day of Azerbaijani Railway October 18 - Independence Day November 6 – Day of Baku Metro Employees November 12 – Constitution Day November 22 – Day of Justice of Azerbaijan December 6 – Day of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies of Azerbaijan December 16 – Day of Azerbaijani Ministry of Emergency Situations Only the holidays of Ramadan and Qurban remain as non-working religious days in Azerbaijan as the country is secular and irreligious. The religious population of the country in Nardaran and a number of other villages and regions celebrate the Day of Ashura, a Shia mourning day in the Islamic calendar. Religious minorities of the country – Orthodox Christians and Jews - celebrate notable religious days of their faith. Despite the fact that the holiday Novruz takes its roots from the religion of Zoroastranism all Azerbaijanis celebrates it as a holiday of spring.
Holidays of Azerbaijan
Labour Day is an annual holiday to celebrate the achievements of workers. Labour Day has its origins in the labour union movement the eight-hour day movement, which advocated eight hours for work, eight hours for recreation, eight hours for rest. For most countries, Labour Day is synonymous with, or linked with, International Workers' Day, which occurs on 1 May. For other countries, Labour Day is celebrated on a different date one with special significance for the labour movement in that country. Labour Day is a public holiday in many countries. In Canada and the United States, the holiday is celebrated on the first Monday of September and considered the unofficial end of summer, with summer vacations ending and students returning to school around then. For most countries, "Labour Day" is synonymous with, or linked with, International Workers' Day, which occurs on 1 May; some countries vary the actual date of their celebrations so that the holiday occurs on a Monday close to 1 May. Labour Day in Australia is a public holiday on dates which vary between territories.
It is the first Monday in October in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and South Australia. In Victoria and Tasmania, it is the second Monday in March. In Western Australia, Labour Day is the first Monday in March. In the Northern Territory and Queensland it occurs on the first Monday in May, it is on the fourth Monday of March in the territory of Christmas Island. The first march for an eight-hour day by the labour movement occurred in Melbourne on 21 April 1856. On this day stonemasons and building workers on building sites around Melbourne stopped work and marched from the University of Melbourne to Parliament House to achieve an eight-hour day, their direct action protest was a success, they are noted as being among the first organised workers in the world to achieve an 8-hour day, with no loss of pay. Bangladesh Garment Sramik Sanghati, an organization working for the welfare of garment workers, has requested that 24 April be declared Labour Safety Day in Bangladesh, in memory of the victims of the Rana Plaza building collapse.
Labour Day is a national holiday in the Bahamas, celebrated on the first Friday in June in order to create a long weekend for workers. The traditional date of Labour Day in the Bahamas, however, is 7 June, in commemoration of a significant workers' strike that began on that day in 1942. Labour Day is meant to honor and celebrate workers and the importance of their contributions to the nation and society. In the capital city, thousands of people come to watch a parade through the streets, which begins at mid-morning. Bands in colorful uniforms, traditional African junkanoo performers, members of various labour unions and political parties are all part of the procession, which ends up at the Southern Recreation Grounds, where government officials make speeches for the occasion. For many residents and visitors to the Bahamas, the afternoon of Labour Day is a time to relax at home or visit the beach. Labour Day has been celebrated in Canada on the first Monday in September since the 1880s; the origins of Labour Day in Canada can be traced back to December 1872 when a parade was staged in support of the Toronto Typographical Union's strike for a 58-hour work-week a full decade before a similar event in New York City by the American Knights of Labor, a late 19th-century U.
S. labor federation, launched the movement towards the American Labor Day holiday. The Toronto Trades Assembly called its 27 unions to demonstrate in support of the Typographical Union, on strike since 25 March. George Brown, Canadian politician and editor of the Toronto Globe hit back at his striking employees, pressing police to charge the Typographical Union with "conspiracy." Although the laws criminalising union activity were outdated and had been abolished in Great Britain, they were still on the books in Canada and police arrested 24 leaders of the Typographical Union. Labour leaders decided to call another similar demonstration on 3 September to protest the arrests. Seven unions marched in Ottawa, prompting a promise by Canadian Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald to repeal the "barbarous" anti-union laws. Parliament passed the Trade Union Act on 14 June the following year, soon all unions were seeking a 54-hour work-week; the Toronto Trades and Labour Council held similar celebrations every spring.
American Peter J. McGuire, co-founder of the American Federation of Labor, was asked to speak at a labour festival in Toronto, Canada on 22 July 1882. Returning to the United States, McGuire and the Knights of Labor organised a similar parade based on the Canadian event on 5 September 1882 in New York City, USA. On 23 July 1894, Canadian Prime Minister John Thompson and his government made Labour Day, to be held in September, an official holiday. In the United States, the New York parade became an annual event that year, in 1894 was adopted by American president Grover Cleveland to compete with International Workers' Day. While Labour Day parades and picnics are organised by unions, many Canadians regard Labour Day as the Monday of the last long weekend of summer. Non-union celebrations include picnics, fireworks displays, water activities, public art events. Since the new school year starts right after Labour Day, families with school-age children take it as the last chance to travel before the end of summer.
An old fashioned tradition in Canada and the United States frowns upon the wearing of white after Labour Day. Explanations for this tradition vary.