United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, sometimes called the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain, their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates. Each emirate is governed by a ruler. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates. Human occupation of the present UAE has been traced back to the emergence of anatomically modern humans from Africa some 125,000 BCE through finds at the Faya-1 site in Mleiha, Sharjah. Burial sites dating back to the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age include the oldest known such inland site at Jebel Buhais.
Known as Magan to the Sumerians, the area was home to a prosperous Bronze Age trading culture during the Umm Al Nar period, which traded between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia as well as Iran and the Levant. The ensuing Wadi Suq period and three Iron Ages saw the emergence of nomadism as well as the development of water management and irrigation systems supporting human settlement in both the coast and interior; the Islamic age of the UAE dates back to the expulsion of the Sasanians and the subsequent Battle of Dibba. The UAE's long history of trade led to the emergence of Julfar, in the present day emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, as a major regional trading and maritime hub in the area; the maritime dominance of the Persian Gulf by Emirati traders led to conflicts with European powers, including the Portuguese and British. Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the Trucial States with the signing of a Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace with the British in 1819, which established the Trucial States as a British Protectorate.
This arrangement ended with independence and the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971 following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. Six emirates joined the UAE in 1971, the seventh, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the federation on 10 February 1972. Islam is the official religion and Arabic is the official language of the UAE; the UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest. Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare and infrastructure; the UAE's economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city and an international aviation and maritime trade hub. The country is much less reliant on oil and gas than in previous years and is economically focusing on tourism and business; the UAE government does not levy income tax although there is a system of corporate tax in place and value added tax was established in 2018 at 5%.
The UAE's rising international profile has led to it being recognised as a regional and a middle power. It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OPEC, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Gulf Cooperation Council; the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an older habitation from 130,000 years ago. There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time lively trading links developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley; this contact persisted and became wide-ranging motivated by the trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3,000 BCE. Sumerian sources talk of the UAE as home to Magan people. There are six major periods of human settlement with distinctive behaviours in the pre-Islamic UAE, which includes the Hafit period from 3,200-2,600 BCE.
From 1,200 BC to the advent of Islam in Eastern Arabia, through three distinctive Iron Ages and the Mleiha period, the area was variously occupied by Achaemenid and other forces and saw the construction of fortified settlements and extensive husbandry thanks to the development of the falaj irrigation system. In ancient times, Al Hasa adjoined Greater Oman. From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani and Quda'ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman; the spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, to the rulers of Oman in 630 AD, nine years after the hijrah. This led to a group of rulers travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful u
Public holidays in China
There are seven official public holidays in mainland China. Each year's holidays are announced about three weeks before the start of the year by the General Office of the State Council. A notable feature of mainland Chinese holidays is that weekends are swapped with the weekdays next to the actual holiday to create a longer holiday period. Festivals in China have been around since the Qin Dynasty around 221-206 BC. During the more prosperous Tang Dynasty from AD 618-907, festivals involved less sacrifice and mystery to more entertainment. Culminating to the modern era Between the 1920s until around the 1970s, the Chinese began observing two sets of holidays, which were the traditional and what became "official", celebrating the accomplishments of the communist regime. There was a major reform in 2008, abolishing the Labour Day Golden Week and adding three traditional Chinese holidays. From at least 2000 until this reform, the Spring Festival public holiday began on New Year's Day itself. From 2008 to 2013 it was shifted back by one day to begin on Chinese New Year's Eve.
In 2014, New Year's Eve became a working day again, which provoked hostile discussion by netizens and academics. However, since 2015, Chinese New Year's Eve is swapped with nearby weekends so that people need not work on Chinese New Year's Eve. New Year: 1 day Spring Festival: 3 days Labour Day: 1 day National Day: 2 days total: 7 days New Year: 1 day Spring Festival: 3 days Labour Day: 3 days National Day: 3 days total: 10 days New Year: 1 day Spring Festival: 3 days Tomb-Sweeping Day: 1 day Labour Day: 1 day Dragon Boat Festival: 1 day Mid-Autumn Festival: 1 day National Day: 3 days total: 11 days New Year: 1 day Spring Festival: 3 days Tomb-Sweeping Day: 1 day Labour Day: 1 day Dragon Boat Festival: 1 day Mid-Autumn Festival: 1 day National Day: 3 days total: 11 days Holidays in China are complicated and are one of the least predictable among developed nations. In all these holidays, if the holiday lands on a weekend, the days will be reimbursed after the weekend; the Chinese New Year and National Day holidays are three days long.
The week-long holidays on May Day and National Day began in 2000, as a measure to increase and encourage holiday spending. The resulting seven-day or eight-day holidays are called "Golden Weeks", have become peak seasons for travel and tourism. In 2008, the Labor Day holiday was shortened to three days to reduce travel rushes to just twice a year, instead, three traditional Chinese holidays were added. If there is a three-day or four-day holiday, the government will declare it to be a seven-day or eight-day holiday. However, citizens are required to work during a nearby weekend. Businesses and schools would treat the affected Saturdays and Sundays as the weekdays that the weekend has been swapped with. Schedules might change during the year; the following is a graphical schematic of. Shift the Saturdays and Sundays nearby to make a 7-day holiday. People may need to work for 6 or 7 continuous days after the holiday. Shift the Saturdays and Sundays nearby to make a 7-day holiday; the holiday is from 1 October to 7.
People may need to work for 6 or 7 continuous days after the holiday. Wednesday: No weekend shifting; the holiday is only 1 day long. This is to prevent people from working for 7 continuous days since 2014. Sometimes shift the Sundays nearby to make a 4-day holiday. People may need to work for 6 continuous days after the holiday. Tuesday or Thursday: Shift the Saturdays and Sundays nearby to make a 3-day holiday. People may need to work for 6 continuous days after the holiday. Saturday or Sunday: The public holiday is transferred to Monday. In addition to these holidays, applicable to the whole population, there are four official public holidays applicable to specific sections of the population: The closeness of Labor Day and Youth Day resulted in an unexpectedly long break for schools in 2008 - the Youth Day half-holiday entitlement had been forgotten because it has been subsumed into the Golden Week. There are public holidays celebrate by certain ethnic minorities in certain regions, which are decided by local governments.
The following are holidays at province-level divisions. The following are traditional holidays at prefecture-level divisions, there are more at lower level divisions, i.e. county-level. Besides, the following Autonomous Prefectures celebrates their founding date. Government takes 1 day off to all people working in such prefectures; some Chinese young adults have begun to celebrate 11 November as Singles Day because of the many ones and many singles in the date. Serfs Emancipation Day was established in Tibet in 2009. List of annual events in China Traditional Chinese holidays Public holidays in Hong Kong Public holidays in Taiwan "Chinese Holidays". Xinhua. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09
Public holidays in Taiwan
The following are considered holidays in Taiwan. Some are official holidays, some are not: The following holidays are observed on Taiwan, but are not official holidays observed by civil servants of the central government; some sectors of the workforce may have time off on some of the following holidays such as Labor Day, Armed Forces Day, Teachers' Day. Before 1949, a number of public holidays were celebrated by certain ethnic minorities in regions within the ROC, which were decided by local governments and entities. Since 1949, these holidays continued to be celebrated by ethnic groups as such in Taiwan Area only. Traditional Chinese holidays Public holidays in China Holidays and Festivals in Taiwan Official Work Calendar in Taiwan by the Directorate-General of Personnel Administration
National Day (United Arab Emirates)
National Day is celebrated on 2 December each year in the United Arab Emirates. It marks the UAE's Union Day between the seven emirates, followed by the joining of the seventh emirate, Ras Al Khaimah, in 1971; the National day of UAE stands for the nationalisation from the British Protectorate Treaties which were declared in 1968 and falls on the anniversary of the federal unification of the seven emirates in 1971 which combined to form the modern-day country, headed by Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, the federation's first president. Grand celebrations are held across the country to mark the event. Fireworks, car rallies and dance shows are the most common activities. Over 57% of UAE residents anticipate to see famous UAE fireworks during the last UAE National day weekend. People will dress up in UAE national flag colours, decorate their homes, workplaces and streets to celebrate the day with joy and happiness. Heritage Villages are set all over the emirates in order to celebrate this event traditionally.
Holidays are given from the National Day until two days later. Air shows are conducted while military processions are held at Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Centre for the rulers of the Emirates, members of the Federal National Council, Emirati citizens.. Public holidays in the United Arab Emirates Aqil Kazim. "The Formation of the United Arab Emirate". The United Arab Emirates - A. D. 600 To The Present. Pp. 321–324. UAE National Day UAE National Day & Flag
Public holidays in Azerbaijan
Holidays in Azerbaijan were regulated in the Constitution of Azerbaijan SSR for the first time on 19 May 1921 by the Azeri leader Nariman Narimanov. Through the history non-working days have changed. Non-working days in Azerbaijan include the following: National days in Azerbaijan that are working days follows: January 30 – Day of Azerbaijani customs February 2 – Day of Youth in Azerbaijan February 11 – Day of Revenue Service February 26 – Day of Remembrance for Victims of Khojaly massacre March 5 – Day of Physical Culture and Sport March 28 – Day of National Security March 31 – Day of Genocide of Azerbaijanis March 23 – Day of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources April 10 – Day of the builder May 10 – Flower Festival June 2 – Day of Civil Aviation June 5 – Day of Reclamation June 18 Human Rights Day June 20 – Day of the gas sector July 2 – Day of Azerbaijani police July 9 – Day of the employees of the diplomatic service July 22 – National Press Day in Azerbaijan August 1 – Day of Azerbaijani language and alphabet.
August 2 – National Day of Azerbaijani cinema September 15 – Day of Knowledge September 18 – Day of National Music September 20 – Day of Azerbaijani Oil / Oil Workers' Day October 1 – Day of prosecutors in Azerbaijan October 13 – Day of Azerbaijani Railway October 18 - Independence Day November 6 – Day of Baku Metro Employees November 12 – Constitution Day November 22 – Day of Justice of Azerbaijan December 6 – Day of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies of Azerbaijan December 16 – Day of Azerbaijani Ministry of Emergency Situations Only the holidays of Ramadan and Qurban remain as non-working religious days in Azerbaijan as the country is secular and irreligious. The religious population of the country in Nardaran and a number of other villages and regions celebrate the Day of Ashura, a Shia mourning day in the Islamic calendar. Religious minorities of the country – Orthodox Christians and Jews - celebrate notable religious days of their faith. Despite the fact that the holiday Novruz takes its roots from the religion of Zoroastranism all Azerbaijanis celebrates it as a holiday of spring.
Holidays of Azerbaijan
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca; the civil calendar of all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents and similar regular commitments are paid by the civil calendar; the Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE. During that year and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib and established the first Muslim community, an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are denoted AH in parallel with the Christian and Jewish eras. In Muslim countries, it is sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form. In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH.
The current Islamic year is 1440 AH. In the Gregorian calendar, 1440 AH runs from 11 September 2018 to 30 August 2019. For central Arabia Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system. Both al-Biruni and al-Mas'udi suggest that the ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs; the Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of Tihamah and Najd distinguished between two types of months and forbidden months. The forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, Muharram. Information about the forbidden months is found in the writings of Procopius, where he describes an armistice with the Eastern Arabs of the Lakhmid al-Mundhir which happened in the summer of 541 AD/CE.
However, Muslim historians do not link these months to a particular season. The Qur'an links the four forbidden months with Nasī’, a word that means "postponement". According to Muslim tradition, the decision of postponement was administered by the tribe of Kinanah, by a man known as the al-Qalammas of Kinanah and his descendants. Different interpretations of the concept of Nasī’ have been proposed; some scholars, both Muslim and Western, maintain that the pre-Islamic calendar used in central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar. According to this view, Nasī’ is related to the pre-Islamic practices of the Meccan Arabs, where they would alter the distribution of the forbidden months within a given year without implying a calendar manipulation; this interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like Ibn Hisham, Ibn Manzur, the corpus of Qur'anic exegesis. This is corroborated by an early Sabaic inscription, where a religious ritual was "postponed" due to war.
According to the context of this inscription, the verb ns'’ has nothing to do with intercalation, but only with moving religious events within the calendar itself. The similarity between the religious concept of this ancient inscription and the Qur'an suggests that non-calendaring postponement is the Qur'anic meaning of Nasī’; the Encyclopaedia of Islam concludes "The Arabic system of can only have been intended to move the Hajj and the fairs associated with it in the vicinity of Mecca to a suitable season of the year. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be observed." The term "fixed calendar" is understood to refer to the non-intercalated calendar. Others concur that it was a lunar calendar, but suggest that about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant; this interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, by al-Biruni, al-Mas'udi, some western scholars.
This interpretation considers Nasī’ to be a synonym to the Arabic word for "intercalation". The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews; the Jewish Nasi was the official. Some sources say that the Arabs followed the Jewish practice and intercalated seven months over nineteen years, or else that they intercalated nine months over 24 years. Postponement of one ritual in a particular circumstance does not imply alteration of the sequence of months, scholars agree that this did not happen. Al-Biruni says this did not happen, the festivals were kept within their season by intercalation every second or third year of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, he says that, in terms of the fixed calendar, not introduced until 10 AH, the first intercalation was, for example, of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, the second of a month between Muharram and Safar, the third of a month between Safar and Rabi'I, so on. The intercalations were arranged.
The notice of interca
Public holidays in India
India, being a culturally diverse and fervent society, celebrates various holidays and festivals. There are many national holidays in India: Republic Day on 26 January, International Workers' Day on 1 May, Independence Day on 15 August and Mahatma Gandhi's birthday on 2 October. States have local festivals depending on prevalent linguistic demographics. Popular Jain festivals including Paryushan. National holidays are observed in all states and union territories. India has three national days, they are: Hindus celebrate a number of festivals all through the year. Hindu festivals have one or more of religious and seasonal significance; the observance of the festival, the symbolisms used and attached, the style and intensity of celebration varies from region to region within the country. A list of the more popular festivals is given below. For dates see: A number of Sikh holidays are Gurpurbs, anniversaries of a guru's birth or death. Note: The Parsis in India use a Shahenshahi calendar, unlike the Iranians who use a Kadmi calendar.
The North American and European Parsis have adapted their own version of the Fasli calendar. This is however looked down upon by many of the Parsis in North America, who continue to use the Shahenshai calendar; these differences cause changes in the dates of the holidays. For example, the Zoroastrian New Year falls in the spring for the Iranians but in the summer for the Parsis. In addition to the official holidays, many religious and other traditional holidays populate the calendar, as well as observances proclaimed by officials and lighter celebrations; these are observed by Central government and businesses While having so many government holidays is in line with the idea of peaceful co-existence of all religions, there have been demands from various public bodies that the system of a multitude of religious holidays is hampering economic activities to a great extent. The past two Central Government Pay Commissions have recommended the abolition of all Central Government holidays on religious festivals, instead, substituting them with the three national holidays, i.e. Independence Day, Republic Day and Gandhi Jayanti.
Increasing the number of restricted holidays, depending on one's religious persuasion, from the existing two to eight was proposed, the rationale being that eight holidays can more than cater to the festivals of any particular religion. So, there is no point in having more than that number of holidays since religion does not warrant a Hindu to celebrate Eid or a Muslim to celebrate Diwali. With the proposed system, however, it was left to the individual to choose which eight holidays to celebrate, irrespective of his religious belief; this recommendation has not been accepted by the government of India, fearing a loss of popularity, thus the Indian government continues with an unusually large number of religious holidays as compared to most other countries. Central and State governments in India issue annually a list of holidays to be observed in the respective government offices during the year; the list is divided into two parts: Gazetted holidays Restricted holidays In addition, local administrations issue a list of holidays known as local holidays, which are observed at the district level.
The Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions on behalf of the Government of India issues a list of holidays to be observed in central government offices during the year. The list is divided in two parts i.e. Annexure I & Annexure II. Annexure I known as Gazetted holidays, consists of a list of holidays that are mandatory once decided; this list consists of two parts: Para 2 Para 3.1 It consists of holidays that are observed compulsorily across India. These holidays are: Republic Day Independence Day Gandhi Jayanti Mahavir Jayanti Budha Purnima Christmas Day Dussehra Diwali Good Friday Guru Nanak's Birthday Eid ul-Fitr Eid al-Adha §←→ Muharram Prophet Mohammad's Birthday so all the holidays are there In addition to the 14 compulsory holidays mentioned in para 2, three holidays are chosen from the list below by the Central Government Employees Welfare Coordination Committee in the State Capitals; the final list is applied uniformly across all Central Government offices within each State.
They are notified after seeking the prior approval of this Ministry, no changes can be made thereafter. No change is permissible in regard to dates. An additional day for Dussehra Holi Janamashtami Ram Navami Maha Shivratri Ganesh Chaturthi/Vinayak Chaturthi Makar Sankrantili Onam Sri Panchami/Basanta Panchami Vishu/Vaisakhi/Vaisakhadi/Bhag Bihu/Mashadi Ugadi/Chaitra Sakladi/Cheti Chand/Gudhi Pada 1st Navratra/Nauraj Annexure II known as Restricted holidays, consists of a list of holidays which are optional; each employee is allowed to choose any two holidays from the list of Restricted Holidays. The Coordination Committees at the State Capitals draw up a separate list of Restricted Holidays, keeping in mind the occasions of local importance, but