SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Public law

Public law is that part of law which governs relationships between individuals and the government, those relationships between individuals which are of direct concern to society. Public law comprises constitutional law, administrative law, tax law and criminal law, as well as all procedural law. In public law, mandatory rules prevail. Laws concerning relationships between individuals belong to private law; the relationships public law governs are asymmetric and unequal – government bodies can make decisions about the rights of individuals. However, as a consequence of the rule of law doctrine, authorities may only act within the law; the government must obey the law. For example, a citizen unhappy with a decision of an administrative authority can ask a court for judicial review. Rights, can be divided into private rights and public rights. A paragon of a public right is the right to welfare benefits – only a natural person can claim such payments, they are awarded through an administrative decision out of the government budget.

The distinction between public law and private law dates back to Roman law. It has been picked up in the countries of civil law tradition at the beginning of the nineteenth century, but since spread to common law countries, too; the borderline between public law and private law is not always clear in particular cases, giving rise to attempts of theoretical understanding of its basis. Rule of law, the idea that the administration of the state should be controlled by a set of laws, originated in Greek Antiquity and was revitalized by modern philosophers in France and Austria in the 18th century, it is related to the strong position of the central government in the era of enlightened absolutism, was inspired by the French Revolution and enlightenment. It developed hand in hand with the creation of criminal codes. In modern states, constitutional law lays out the foundations of the state. Above all, it postulates the supremacy of law in the functioning of the state – the rule of law. Secondly, it sets out the form of government – how its different branches work, how they are elected or appointed, the division of powers and responsibilities between them.

Traditionally, the basic elements of government are the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. And thirdly, in describing what are the basic human rights, which must be protected for every person, what further civil and political rights citizens have, it sets the fundamental borders to what any government must and must not do. In most jurisdictions, constitutional law is enshrined in a written document, the Constitution, sometimes together with amendments or other constitutional laws. In some countries, such a supreme entrenched written document does not exist for historical and political reasons – the Constitution of the United Kingdom is an unwritten one. Administrative law refers to the body of law which regulates bureaucratic managerial procedures and defines the powers of administrative agencies; these laws are enforced by the executive branch of a government rather than the judicial or legislative branches. This body of law regulates international trade, pollution and the like; this is sometimes seen as a subcategory of civil law and sometimes seen as public law as it deals with regulation and public institutions Criminal law involves the state imposing sanctions for defined crimes committed by individuals or businesses, so that society can achieve its brand of justice and a peaceable social order.

In German-language legal literature, there is an extensive discussion on the precise nature of the distinction between public law and private law. Several theories have evolved, which are neither exhaustive, nor are they mutually exclusive or separate from each other; the interest theory has been developed by the Roman jurist Ulpian: "Publicum ius est, quod ad statum rei Romanae spectat, privatum quod ad singulorum utilitatem. The weak point of this theory is that many issues of private law affect the public interest. What is this public interest? Charles-Louis Montesquieu amplified supremely this distinction: International and Private Law, in his major work: The Spirit of the Law. “Considered as inhabitants of so great a planet, which contains a variety of nations, they have laws relating to their mutual intercourse, what we call the law of nations. As members of a society that must be properly supported, they have laws relating to the governors and the governed, this we distinguish by the name of politic law.

They have another sort of law, as they stand in relation to each other. The subjection theory focuses on explaining the distinction by emphasizing the subordination of private persons to the state. Public law is supposed to govern this relationship, whereas private law is considered to govern relationships where the parties involved meet on a level playing field; this theory fails in areas considered private law which imply subordination, such as employment law. The modern state knows relationships in which it appears as equal to a person; the subject theory is concerned with the position of the subject of law in the legal relationship in question. If it finds itself in a particular situation as a public person, public law applies, otherwise it is private law. A combination of the subjection theory and the subject theory arguably provides a

Agriculture in Ivory Coast

Agriculture was the foundation of the economy in Ivory Coast and its main source of growth. In 1987 the agricultural sector contributed 35 percent of the country's GDP and 66 percent of its export revenues, provided employment for about two-thirds of the national work force, generated substantial revenues despite the drop in coffee and cocoa prices. From 1965 to 1980, agricultural GDP grew by an average 4.6 percent per year. Growth of agricultural GDP from coffee and timber production, which totaled nearly 50 percent of Ivory Coast's export revenues, averaged 7 percent a year from 1965 to 1980. In Ivory Coast 64.8% of the land is agricultural and therefore their economy’s foundation is based on their agriculture. Fifty-five percent of their income come from exports of cocoa and coffee which are both agricultural products. Contributing to this impressive performance were an abundance of fertile land, cheap labor, the collective efforts of many farmers cultivating small plots favorable commodity prices, a stable political environment.

Success in the 1960s and 1970s overshadowed major problems developing in the agricultural sector. By the late 1980s, despite efforts to diversify its crops, 55 percent of Ivory Coast's export earnings still came from cocoa and coffee. Moreover volatile world markets for both commodities caused sharp fluctuations in government revenues and made development planning difficult. In addition, Ivory Coast was not yet self-sufficient in food production and imported substantial quantities of rice, wheat and red meat. Despite an enormous increase in the volume of agricultural output since independence, there was little improvement in agricultural productivity. To achieve higher production figures, traditional farmers using traditional technologies cleared more and more land. To overcome Ivory Coast's excessive dependence on coffee and cocoa, on timber, on imported food, the government in the mid-1970s embarked on a series of agricultural diversification and regional development projects with the hope of boosting agricultural production by 4 percent per year.

The plan, estimated to cost CFA F100 billion per annum would allow the country to become self-sufficient in food and expand the production of rubber, sugar, bananas and tropical oils. In spite of these efforts, the agricultural sector appeared unable to adapt to changing conditions. Distortions in the system of incentives reduced the comparative advantage of alternative crops; the vast revenues collected by the CSSPPA were spent on marginally profitable investments, like the costly sugar complexes or expensive land clearing programs. Some diversification crops, like coconut and palm oil, faced new threats as health-conscious consumers in the United States and Europe began turning away from tropical oils; the future for Ivorian agriculture was uncertain. A way that organizations and government official support school feeding was through increasing productivity & income of small-scale farmers and integrating them with the markets, they try to make communities self sufficient with themselves producing/cultivate their own resources.

These two methods both use agricultural land to eradicate zero hunger. As they say the only thing, better than school feeding programs in the fight against hunger are the school feeding programs where the food is sourced locally. Coffee production in Ivory Coast West African Agricultural Market Observer/Observatoire du Marché Agricole, a project of the West-African Market Information Network, provides live market and commodity prices from fifty seven regional and local public agricultural markets across Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Niger, Senegal and Nigeria. Sixty commodities are tracked weekly; the project is run by the Benin Ministry of Agriculture, a number of European and United Nations agencies. CIA FACTBOOK

J.D. (Scrubs)

John Michael "J. D." Dorian, M. D. is a fictional character and the main protagonist of the American comedy-drama television series Scrubs. Played by Zach Braff, he acts as narrator and main character of the series from the first season to the eighth, providing voice-overs that reveal his internal thoughts and an overall narration in the show linking the story arcs in each episode thematically. J. D. appears in every episode during the first eight seasons except two season 8 episodes: "My Absence," in which he is only heard through a mobile phone, "My Full Moon". Braff briefly portrayed the character in the spin-off series Scrubs: Interns and the Muppets film It's a Very Merry Muppet Christmas Movie. Both the character and Braff's performance were positively received. Braff was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series in 2005 and received three consecutive Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy nominations from 2005 to 2007.

J. D.'s name is based on that of a college friend of series creator Bill Lawrence. Doris served as a medical advisor on the show. According to Zach Braff, he feels that after seven years, there is not much of J. D.'s personality left to be explored, except for his relationship with best friend Christopher Turk, while Lawrence has stated that the seventh season was to show J. D. growing up, in order to satisfy many fans who did not want to see him stay the same. However, Braff says that J. D. has evolved over the series, but at the same time cannot evolve too much, as they need to " the fans what they want, to see the characters be themselves."In a 2008 interview, Braff stated that while he feels "most at home when I’m playing a Jewish character", the writers for Scrubs chose to imply that Dorian was Christian because the show needed "to appeal to the most massive audience possible" out of concern that some people might not watch a show featuring a Jewish main character. J. D.'s most prominently featured.

When this happens, he tilts his head back and to blankly looking upwards. The sequences played out in his daydreams are of surreal scenarios and situations that have just been mentioned or wondered about in an exaggerated manner. Many of these are followed by a comment from him which, although in keeping with his daydream, sounds strange and is highly unrelated to the initial topic often earning him odd looks from nearby characters in the scene. Despite his numerous mistakes and personal neurosis, J. D. is shown throughout the series to be a skilled doctor. He is described as having compassion for his patients, a lot of determination and enthusiasm for his job, he grew up in Ohio. In a season 1 episode, JD states that 20 years ago he "had a little trouble with his "esses"" because he was five. In season five JD turns 30, his father, Sam, a failed office supply salesman, was absent for most of J. D.'s childhood, mooched off his son when he was around. D. realizes that his father was proud of him. His mother is Barbara Turner Dorian.

He has an older brother, with whom he has a love/hate relationship. J. D. begins the show as an intern at Sacred Heart Hospital. After a year, he becomes a resident an attending physician in internal medicine, residency director of another hospital. J. D. Begins work at Sacred Heart under Attending Physician Dr. Perry Cox, who refers to J. D. as "Newbie" or by a variety of girls' names. J. D. thinks of Cox as his mentor. As much as he hates to admit it, Cox respects J. D. as a doctor and cares about him as a person offering him personal advice on a few occasions. J. D.'s faith in Cox is shaken. After a depressed Cox shows up to work drunk, J. D. refuses claiming that he does not approve of Cox's behavior. However, he confesses to Cox that he still looks upon him as a hero, admires him for caring so much about his patients that he takes it hard when things go badly for them. At the end of the episode, Cox thanks J. D. — and, calls him by his real name — for helping him forgive himself and get on with his life.

After Cox is promoted to Chief of Medicine in season 8, he and J. D. are at odds over hospital matters, mirroring Cox's relationship with the former chief, Dr. Bob Kelso, in earlier seasons. Kelso advises J. D. that he is the one who will have to press for hospital matters if they're important enough if it means fighting Cox to do it. On J. D.'s last day Sacred Heart, Cox admits that J. D. is an exceptional physician, an exceptional person, a friend — albeit only when he thinks J. D. isn't around to hear it. J. D. is engaged in a constant battle with the Janitor from the first episode. The Janitor is trying to open a jammed door when J. D. suggests. When it turns out that there is a penny stuck in the door, the Janitor vows revenge. Throughout the series, the Janitor is playing tricks and pranks on J. D. In the eighth-season finale, it is revealed that J. D. did accidentally put the penny in the door. The Janitor saw him drop the penny, but because he never admitted it, decided that J. D. had failed a "test of character," thus igniting their feud.

J. D. Leaves Sacred Heart for a job at another hospital in order to be closer to his son, Sam. In season 9, J. D. becomes a visiting