Office of National Drug Control Policy
The Office of National Drug Control Policy is a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The Director of National Drug Control Policy, colloquially known as the Drug Czar, heads the office. "Drug Czar" was a term first used in the media by then-Senator Joe Biden in October 1982. In addition to running the ONDCP, the director evaluates and oversees both the international and domestic anti-drug efforts of executive branch agencies and ensures that such efforts sustain and complement State and local anti-drug activities; the Director advises the President regarding changes in the organization, management and personnel of federal agencies that affect U. S. anti-drug efforts. The most recent director is James. W. Carroll, who took over from former director Michael Botticelli; the Fiscal Year 2011 National Drug Control Budget proposed by the Obama Administration would devote significant new resources to the prevention and treatment of drug abuse. These resources are complemented by an aggressive effort to enhance domestic law enforcement and supply control programs.
New resources, $340 million, are added to the treatment of drug use. The programs directed by the ONDCP include: the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas program the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, a current domestic government propaganda campaign in the US the Drug Free Communities Program Anti-Doping Activities World Anti-Doping Agency dues The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988, which created the Office of National Drug Control Policy, was the product of bi-partisan support, it was co-sponsored in the House of Representatives by parties' leaders, Tom Foley and Robert Michel, it passed by margins of 346–11 and 87–3 in the House and Senate, respectively. Upon signing the law, Ronald Reagan said, "This bill is the product of a bipartisan effort." In September 2002, the Senate Appropriations Committee recommended that salaries and expenses at ONDCP be reduced from $26.6 million in fiscal 2006 to $11.5 million in fiscal 2007, to "more reflect actual performance." Committee members said they would request funding for a study of ONDCP by the National Academy of Public Administration.
They ordered a Government Accountability Office study on the distribution of grants. Plus, they directed the Director to provide quarterly updates on travel expenditures, staffing levels and plans for future hirings. In 2011, the ONDCP requested funding for 98 full-time employees, 64 of whom would be paid at either GS-15, GS-14, or SES pay grades, or more than $105,211.00 yearly, being adjusted for Washington, D. C. cost of living expenses. In 2005, the Bush Administration proposed transferring the $225 million High-Intensity Drug Trafficking Program from ONDCP to the Department of Justice; the program gives additional money to communities with chronic illicit drug sales. According to the Washington Post, "Many lawmakers oppose the transfer for fear the program would become less of a priority." By law, the drug czar must oppose any attempt to legalize the use of illicit drugs. According to the "Office of National Drug Control Policy Reauthorization Act of 1998" the director of the ONDCP shall ensure that no Federal funds appropriated to the Office of National Drug Control Policy shall be expended for any study or contract relating to the legalization of a substance listed in schedule I of section 202 of the Controlled Substances Act and take such actions as necessary to oppose any attempt to legalize the use of a substance that -- 1. is listed in schedule I of section 202 of the Controlled Substances Act.
The Deputy Director's statements reflect one perspective regarding marijuana - a perspective, disputed by others with different viewpoints. However, ONDCP is charged with the responsibility for "taking such actions as necessary to oppose any attempt to legalize the use" of certain controlled substances such as marijuana - a responsibility which logically could include the making of advocacy statements in opposition to legalization efforts; the Deputy Director's statements about marijuana are thus within the statutory role assigned to ONDCP. Given this role, we do not see a need to examine the accuracy of the Deputy Director's individual statements in detail. In September 2006, the office reported that the 2005 survey of 67,500 people found that 8.1 percent reported using an illicit drug in the 30 days prior to being asked about their drug use, which equates to 19.7 million people nationwide. The percentage was up compared to 2004. Youth drug use declined for the third year in a row. While the ONDCP measures their efficacy against prior use statistics within the U.
S. they do not publicize how these statistics compare against other countries at the time in their communications to the press. In 2008, ONDCP reported that actual youth drug use, as measured as the percent reporting past month use, has declined from 19.4% to 14.8% among middle and high school students between 2001 and 2007. In August 2001, the office told a Congressional committee that its N
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl
War on drugs
The war on drugs is a campaign, led by the U. S. federal government, of drug prohibition, military aid, military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade in the United States. The initiative includes a set of drug policies that are intended to discourage the production and consumption of psychoactive drugs that the participating governments and the UN have made illegal; the term was popularized by the media shortly after a press conference given on June 18, 1971, by President Richard Nixon—the day after publication of a special message from President Nixon to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control—during which he declared drug abuse "public enemy number one". That message to the Congress included text about devoting more federal resources to the "prevention of new addicts, the rehabilitation of those who are addicted", but that part did not receive the same public attention as the term "war on drugs". However, two years prior to this, Nixon had formally declared a "war on drugs" that would be directed toward eradication and incarceration.
Today, the Drug Policy Alliance, which advocates for an end to the War on Drugs, estimates that the United States spends $51 billion annually on these initiatives. On May 13, 2009, Gil Kerlikowske—the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy —signaled that the Obama administration did not plan to alter drug enforcement policy, but that the administration would not use the term "War on Drugs", because Kerlikowske considers the term to be "counter-productive". ONDCP's view is that "drug addiction is a disease that can be prevented and treated... making drugs more available will make it harder to keep our communities healthy and safe". In June 2011, the Global Commission on Drug Policy released a critical report on the War on Drugs, declaring: "The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world. Fifty years after the initiation of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, years after President Nixon launched the US government's war on drugs, fundamental reforms in national and global drug control policies are urgently needed."
The report was criticized by organizations. Morphine was isolated in 1805. Hypodermic syringes were first constructed in 1851. During the Civil War, wounded soldiers were treated with morphine; as a result, after the war, there were many addicted veterans. Until 1912, there had been products sold over-the-counter, such as heroin cough syrup, heroin cough syrup for children, stronger. Doctors prescribed heroin for irritable babies, insomnia, "nervous conditions," hysteria, menstrual cramps, "vapors." Millions of people became addicted. Laudanum, an opiod, was a common part of the home medicine cabinet. In fiction, Conan Doyle portrayed Sherlock Holmes, as a cocaine addict, he is rebuked by his physician. Citizens did not reach a consensus on dealing with the long-term affects of hard drug usage until towards the end of the 19th century; the first U. S. law that restricted the distribution and use of certain drugs was the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914. The first local laws came as early as 1860. In 1919, the United States passed the 18th Amendment, prohibiting the sale and transportation of alcohol, with exceptions for religious and medical use.
In 1920, the United States passed the National Prohibition Act, enacted to carry out the provisions in law of the 18th Amendment. During World War I many soldiers became addicts; the Federal Bureau of Narcotics was established in the United States Department of the Treasury by an act of June 14, 1930. In 1933, the federal prohibition for alcohol was repealed by passage of the 21st Amendment. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt publicly supported the adoption of the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act; the New York Times used the headline "Roosevelt Asks Narcotic War Aid". In 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed. Several scholars have claimed that the goal was to destroy the hemp industry as an effort of businessmen Andrew Mellon, Randolph Hearst, the Du Pont family; these scholars argue that with the invention of the decorticator, hemp became a cheap substitute for the paper pulp, used in the newspaper industry. These scholars believe. Mellon, United States Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America, had invested in the DuPont's new synthetic fiber and considered its success to depend on its replacement of the traditional resource, hemp.
However, there were circumstances. One reason for doubts about those claims is that the new decorticators did not perform satisfactorily in commercial production. To produce fiber from hemp was a labor-intensive process if you include harvest and processing. Technological developments decreased the labor with hemp but not sufficient to eliminate this disadvantage. On October 27, 1970, Congress passed the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, among other things, categorized controlled substances based on their medicinal use and potential for addiction. In 1971, two congressmen released a report on the growing heroin epidemic among U. S. servicemen in Vietnam. Although Nixon declared "drug abuse" to be public enemy number one in 1971, the policies that his administration implemented as part of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 were a co
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Abortion in the United States
Abortion in the United States is among the most controversial and divisive issues in American culture and politics. Various anti-abortion laws have been in force in each state since at least 1900. Before the U. S. Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade decriminalised abortion nationwide in 1973, abortion was legal in several states, but the decision imposed a uniform framework for state legislation on the subject, it established a minimal period. That basic framework, modified in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, remains nominally in place, although the effective availability of abortion varies from state to state, as many counties have no abortion providers. Planned Parenthood v. Casey held that a law cannot place legal restrictions imposing an undue burden for "the purpose or effect of placing a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus."The main actors in the abortion debate are most labeled either as "pro-choice" or "pro-life", though shades of opinion exist, most Americans are considered to be somewhere in the middle.
A 2018 Gallup survey found the percentages that were pro-choice or pro-life were equal, but more people considered abortion morally wrong than morally acceptable. The poll results indicated that Americans harbor a diverse and shifting set of opinions on the legal status of abortion; the survey found that only 29% of respondents believed abortion should be legal in all circumstances, 50% of respondents believed that abortion should be legal under certain circumstances. Recent polling results found that only 34% of Americans were satisfied with abortion laws; the abortion debate most relates to the "induced abortion" of an embryo or fetus at some point in a pregnancy, how the term is used in a legal sense. Some use the term "elective abortion", used in relation to a claim to an unrestricted right of a woman to an abortion, whether or not she chooses to have one. In medical parlance, "abortion" can refer to either miscarriage or abortion until the fetus is viable. After viability, doctors call an abortion a "termination of pregnancy".
When the United States first became independent, most states applied English common law to abortion. This meant it was not permitted after quickening, or the start of fetal movements felt 15–20 weeks after conception. Abortions became illegal by statute in Britain in 1803 with Lord Ellenborough's Act, various anti-abortion statutes began to appear in the United States in the 1820s that codified or expanded common law. In 1821, a Connecticut law targeted apothecaries who sold "poisons" to women for purposes of inducing an abortion, New York made post-quickening abortions a felony and pre-quickening abortions a misdemeanor in 1829; some argue that the early American abortion laws were motivated not by ethical concerns about abortion but by concern about the procedure's safety. However, some legal theorists point out that this theory is inconsistent with the fact that abortion was punishable regardless of whether any harm befell the pregnant woman and the fact that many of the early laws punished not only the doctor or abortionist, but the woman who hired them.
A number of other factors played a role in the rise of anti-abortion laws. Physicians, who were the leading advocates of abortion criminalization laws, appear to have been motivated at least in part by advances in medical knowledge. Science had discovered that conception inaugurated a more or less continuous process of development, which would produce a new human being if uninterrupted. Moreover, quickening was found to be neither more nor less crucial in the process of gestation than any other step. Many physicians concluded that if society considered it unjustifiable to terminate pregnancy after the fetus had quickened, if quickening was a unimportant step in the gestation process it was just as wrong to terminate a pregnancy before quickening as after quickening. Ideologically, the Hippocratic Oath and the medical mentality of that age to defend the value of human life as an absolute played a significant role in molding opinions about abortion. Doctors were influenced by practical reasons to impose anti-abortion laws.
For one, abortion providers tended to be untrained and not members of medical societies. In an age where the leading doctors in the nation were attempting to standardize the medical profession, these "irregulars" were considered a nuisance to public health; the more formalized medical profession disliked the "irregulars" because they were competition at a cheaper cost. Despite campaigns to end the practice of abortion, abortifacient advertising was effective, though less so across the Atlantic. Contemporary estimates of mid-19th century abortion rates suggest between 20-25% of all pregnancies in the United States during that era ended in abortion; this era saw a marked shift in those. Before the start of the 19th century, most abortions were sought by unmarried women who had become pregnant out of wedlock. Out of 54 abortion cases published in American medical journals between 1839 and 1880, over half were sought by married women, well over 60% of the married women had at least one child; the sense that married women were now obtaining abortions worried many conservative physicians, who were exclusively men.
In the post-Civil War era, much of the blame was placed on the burgeoning women's rights movement. Though the medical profession expressed hostility toward feminism, many feminists of the era were opposed to abortion. In The Revolution, operated by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, an anonymous co
United States farm bill
In the United States, the farm bill is the primary agricultural and food policy tool of the federal government. The comprehensive omnibus bill is renewed every 5 years or so and deals with both agriculture and all other affairs under the purview of the United States Department of Agriculture, it makes amendments and suspensions to provisions of permanent law, amends, or repeals provisions of preceding temporary agricultural acts, puts forth new policy provisions for a limited time into the future. Beginning in 1933, farm bills have included titles on commodity programs, rural development, farm credit, agricultural research and nutrition programs, etc. Farm bills can be controversial and can impact international trade, environmental conservation, food safety, the well-being of rural communities; the bill gets urban support because most of the funding goes to food subsidies for poor people, which liberals support and conservatives want to restrict. The current farm bill, the Agricultural Act of 2014, funds farm programs through 2018.
On May 18th, 2018 the $867 billion 2018 United States farm bill failed in the House of Representatives with a vote of 198 yea to 213 nay. All Democrats and 30 Republicans voted against the measure. Republican opposition came from the Freedom Caucus who insisted that a separate vote to restrict immigration be held before they would support the bill. Jim Jordan, a Freedom Caucus member said "My main focus was making sure we do immigration policy right." Democratic opposition was due to the proposed changes to the attached Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program that would impose work requirements. Farm bills were first created during the Great Depression to give financial assistance to farmers who were struggling due to an excess crop supply creating low prices, to control and ensure an adequate food supply; the first farm bill, known as the Agriculture Adjustment Act, was passed by Congress in 1933 as a part of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal; the bill allowed farmers to receive payment for not growing food on a percentage of their land as allocated by the United States Secretary of Agriculture.
It enabled the government to buy excess grain from farmers, which could be sold if bad weather or other circumstances negatively affected output. The AAA included a nutrition program, the precursor to food stamps. In 1938, Congress created a more permanent farm bill with a built-in requirement to update it every five years. In 1996, the first major structural change was made to the farm bill when Congress decided farm incomes should be determined by free market forces and stopped subsidizing farmland and purchasing extra grain. Instead, the government began requiring farmers to enroll in a crop insurance program in order to receive farm payments; this led to years of the highest farm subsidies in American history. Direct payments began in the late 1990s as a way to support struggling farmers, regardless of crop output; these payments allowed grain farmers to receive a government check every year based on yields and acreage of the farm as recorded the previous decade. In 2008, the farm bill was passed as the Food and Energy Act of 2008.
The bill included $100 billion in annual spending for Department of Agriculture programs, around 80 percent of, allocated for food stamps and other nutritional programs. The 2008 Farm bill increased spending to $288Bn therefore causing controversy at the time by increasing the budget deficit, it increased subsidies for biofuels which the World Bank has named as one of three most important contributors, along with high fuel prices and price speculation, to the 2007–2008 world food price crisis. President George Bush had vetoed the 2008 bill due to its cost. However, the veto was overridden by Congress; the 2008 bill was publicly controversial due to its high cost and the uneven distribution of subsidy money among farmers. The bill was 47 percent more expensive than the 2003 bill, over the previous ten years, 10 percent of farmers had received 75 percent of subsidy dollars; some of these farm owners were then-members of Congress and other public figures, including former president Jimmy Carter, who received thousands of dollars in direct payments.
In 2007, it was found. In 2012, while writing the new farm bill, known as the Agriculture Reform and Jobs Act, Congress proposed many ways to cut down the overall cost of the bill, including stricter eligibility standards for food stamps and moving away from direct payments to farmers. However, food stamps and nutrition remained the largest portion of the bill's cost, amounting to a proposed $768.2 billion over ten years. The 2012 bill failed to pass in the House, which caused Congress to extend the 2008 bill until September 30, 2013; this was enacted as part of the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, passed by Congress on January 1, 2013 and signed into law the next day by President Barack Obama. Between the passage of the 2008 farm bill and the creation of the 2013 bill, the food stamp program changed its name to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, nearly doubled in size; the proposed 2013 bill would cut funding to SNAP by about $400 million a year, which amounts to half a percent of spending from previous years.
Under an amendment introduced by Senators Dick Durbin and Tom Coburn, it would reduce crop insurance subsidies by 15 percent for the top 1 percent of U. S. wealthiest farmers, those with a gross annual income of more than $750,000. The new bill proposed a new insurance program for dairy
United States Capitol
The United States Capitol called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress and the seat of the legislative branch of the U. S. federal government. It is located on Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Though no longer at the geographic center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the District's street-numbering system and the District's four quadrants; the original building was completed in 1800 and was subsequently expanded with the addition of the massive dome, expanded chambers for the bicameral legislature, the House of Representatives in the south wing and the Senate in the north wing. Like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are formally referred to as fronts, though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors and dignitaries. Prior to establishing the nation's capital in Washington, D.
C. the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia, New York City, a number of other locations. In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, which met from May 1775 to March 1781. After adopting the Articles of Confederation in York, the Congress of the Confederation was formed and convened in Philadelphia from March 1781 until June 1783, when a mob of angry soldiers converged upon Independence Hall, demanding payment for their service during the American Revolutionary War. Congress requested that John Dickinson, the Governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia; as a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21, 1783, met in Annapolis and Trenton, New Jersey, before ending up in New York City.
The United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4, 1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital; the decision of where to locate the capital was contentious, but Alexander Hamilton helped broker a compromise in which the federal government would take on war debt incurred during the American Revolutionary War, in exchange for support from northern states for locating the capital along the Potomac River. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a temporary capital for ten years, until the nation's capital in Washington, D. C. would be ready. Pierre Charles L'Enfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city. L'Enfant chose Jenkin's Hill as the site for the "Congress House", with a "grand avenue" connecting it with the President's House, a public space containing a broader "grand avenue" stretching westward to the Potomac River.
In reviewing L'Enfant's plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the "Capitol" rather than "Congress House". The word "Capitol" comes from Latin and is associated with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome; the connection between the two is not, crystal clear. In addition to coming up with a city plan, L'Enfant had been tasked with designing the Capitol and President's House; the word "capitol" has since been adopted, following the example of the United States Capitol, in many jurisdictions for other government buildings, for instance the "capitols" in the individual capitals of the states of the United States. This, in turn, has led to frequent misspellings of "capitol" and "capital"; the former refers to a building. In spring 1792, United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a design competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the "President's House", set a four-month deadline; the prize for the competition was a lot in the Federal City.
At least ten individuals submitted designs for the Capitol. The most promising of the submissions was by a trained French architect. However, Hallet's designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, were deemed too costly. A late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31, 1793, to much praise for its "Grandeur and Beauty" by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the center portion of the design. Thornton's design was approved in a letter dated April 5, 1793, from Washington, Thornton served as the first Architect of the Capitol. In an effort to console Hallet, the commissioners appointed him to review Thornton's plans, develop cost estimates, serve as superintendent of construction. Hallet proceeded to pick apart and make drastic changes