Public administration is the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" whose fundamental goal is to "advance management and policies so that government can function"; some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs". Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, regional and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, cabinet secretaries. Public administrators are public servants working in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government. In the United States, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted civil service reform in the 1880s, moving public administration into academia. However, "until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy" there was not "much interest in a theory of public administration".
The field is multidisciplinary in character. In 1947 Paul H. Appleby defined public administration as "public leadership of public affairs directly responsible for executive action". In a democracy, it has to do with such leadership and executive action in terms that respect and contribute to the dignity, the worth, the potentials of the citizen. One year Gordon Clapp Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority defined public administration "as a public instrument whereby democratic society may be more realized." This implies that it must "relate itself to concepts of justice and fuller economic opportunity for human beings" and is thus "concerned with "people, with ideas, with things". According to James D. Carroll & Alfred M. Zuck, the publication by "Woodrow Wilson of his essay, "The Study of Administration" in 1887 is regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specific field of study". Drawing on the democracy theme and discarding the link to the executive branch, Patricia M. Shields asserts that public administration "deals with the stewardship and implementation of the products of a living democracy".
The key term "product" refers to "those items that are constructed or produced" such as prisons, laws and security. "As implementors, public managers engage these products." They participate in the making of the "living" democracy. A living democracy is "an environment, changing, organic", imperfect and teaming with values. "Stewardship is emphasized because public administration is concerned "with accountability and effective use of scarce resources and making the connection between the doing, the making and democratic values". More scholars claim that "public administration has no accepted definition", because the "scope of the subject is so great and so debatable that it is easier to explain than define". Public administration is a field of an occupation. There is much disagreement about whether the study of public administration can properly be called a discipline because of the debate over whether public administration is a subfield of political science or a subfield of administrative science", the latter an outgrowth of its roots in policy analysis and evaluation research.
Scholar Donald Kettl is among those who view public administration "as a subfield within political science". According to Lalor a society with a public authority that provides at least one public good can be said to have a public administration whereas the absence of either a public authority or the provision of at least one public good implies the absence of a public administration, he argues that public administration is the public provision of public goods in which the demand function is satisfied more or less by politics, whose primary tool is rhetoric, providing for public goods, the supply function is satisfied more or less efficiently by public management, whose primary tools are speech acts, producing public goods. The moral purpose of public administration, implicit in its acceptance of its role, is the maximization of the opportunities of the public to satisfy its wants; the North American Industry Classification System definition of the Public Administration sector states that public administration "... comprises establishments engaged in activities of a governmental nature, that is, the enactment and judicial interpretation of laws and their pursuant regulations, the administration of programs based on them".
This includes "Legislative activities, national defense, public order and safety, immigration services, foreign affairs and international assistance, the administration of government programs are activities that are purely governmental in nature". From the academic perspective, the National Center for Education Statistics in the United States defines the study of public administration as "
Information technology is the use of computers to store, retrieve and manipulate data, or information in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of communications technology. An information technology system is an information system, a communications system or, more speaking, a computer system – including all hardware and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users. Humans have been storing, retrieving and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review. We shall call it information technology." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs. The term is used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones.
Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, electronics, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce. Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical, electromechanical, electronic; this article focuses on the most recent period, which began in about 1940. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years initially in the form of a tally stick; the Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, the earliest known geared mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed. Electronic computers, using either valves, began to appear in the early 1940s.
The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task, it lacked the ability to store its program in memory. The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Baby, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948; the development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.
Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of, the mercury delay line; the first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube, but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932 and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. IBM introduced the first hard disk drive as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs.
Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally: 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape, it has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007, doubling every 3 years. Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM's Information Management System, still deployed more than 50 years later. IMS stores data hierarchically, but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables and columns; the first commercially available relational database management system was available from Oracle in 1981. All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultan
Timo Meynhardt is a German psychologist and business economist. He is the managing director of the Center for Leadership and Values in Society at the University of St. Gallen. From 2013 to 2015 he held the chair of management at the Leuphana University in Lüneburg. Since October 2015, Timo Meynhardt holds the Dr. Arend Oetker chair for business psychology and leadership at HHL Leipzig Graduate School of Management. Meynhardt studied psychology at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, at the Oxford Brookes University, in Beijing, graduating from the Jena University as a M. A. in psychology. He held a scholarship from the Study Foundation of the German People. In 2003 he obtained his Doctorate at the University of St. Gallen. In 2013 he received a habilitation from the same university, qualifying as a lecturer in business economics with a special focus on organizational and personnel management. From 1999 until 2007 he worked as a practice expert at Company, Inc. in Berlin. Meynhardt has two daughters and a son.
In his research, Meynhardt combines psychological and business management topics: Public value: Meynhardt developed the St. Gallen Public Value approach in keeping with the intellectual tradition of Peter Drucker and the St. Gallen Management Model and based on the work by Hans Ulrich and Walter Krieg; the societal wealth creation of an organization is captured conceptually and examined empirically by means of philosophical value and sociological theories. Meynhardt thus attempts to answer management’s question regarding the public value contribution of businesses, public authorities, non-governmental organizations. Under his guidance, the Public Value Atlas of Switzerland was developed, which transparently represents the contribution to the common good of the largest Swiss companies and organizations from the population's point of view. After 2014 and 2015, the third Public Value Atlas Switzerland was published in September 2017; as for Germany, such a Public Value Atlas was published in October 2015 for the first time.
Competency management: His interest focuses on the analysis and assessment of individual competencies and their link to organizations’ core competencies. Leipzig Leadership Model: Being a member of the core team of HHL - Leipzig Graduate School of Management, he developed the Leipzig Leadership Model, published in 2016, along with Manfred Kirchgeorg, Andreas Pinkwart, Andreas Suchanek and Henning Zülch; as for the Leipzig Leadership Model, the contribution to the common good is characterized as a purpose, oriented towards a social benefit, serving as a motivating and legitimising function. Thus, public value becomes a resource of good leadership. To date, Meynhardt has developed three social science diagnostic methods: “Value Knowledge Guide”: Based on Peter Orlik's "self-concept grid," which follows in the tradition of George A. Kelly’s repertory grid, Meynhardt has developed a grid variant to analyze value knowledge in organizations. “My Competency Profile”: With this internet-based diagnostic method, Meynhardt developed an innovative method for the survey and automated analysis of basic competencies.
The conceptual reference point is the work of Volker Heyse. „Public Value Scorecard”: This tool transforms Meynhardt’s public value theory into a scorecard. The five available variations can be adapted to manifold corporate development issues. Best Lecturer Award, HHL Leipzig Graduate School of Management Peter Werhahn Memorial Award, University of St. Gallen Examination prize of the Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences at the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena. Article by Timo Meynhardt, Peter Gomez and Markus Schweizer in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Profile and publications by Timo Meynhardt on the research platform “Alexandria” of the University of St. Gallen Information about Timo Meynhardt on the Lüneburg University’s website Radio interview contribution on the Public Value Atlas by Timo Meynhardt Public Value: Common Good and the Society. Movie by the University of St. Gallen
A corporation is an organization a group of people or a company, authorized to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they are formed to make a profit or not. Corporations can be divided by the number of owners: corporation corporation sole; the subject of this article is a corporation aggregate. A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office, occupied by a single natural person. Where local law distinguishes corporations by the ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders".
Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for-profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well. A for-profit corporation is always a stock corporation, but some for-profit corporations may choose to be non-stock. To simplify the explanation, whenever "Stockholder" or "shareholder" is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as "member" for a non-profit corporation or for a profit, non-stock corporation. Registered corporations have legal personality and their shares are owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to their investment. Shareholders do not actively manage a corporation. In most circumstances, a shareholder may serve as a director or officer of a corporation.
In American English, the word corporation is most used to describe large business corporations. In British English and in the Commonwealth countries, the term company is more used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity. Late in the 19th century, a new form of company having the limited liability protections of a corporation, the more favorable tax treatment of either a sole proprietorship or partnership was developed. While not a corporation, this new type of entity became attractive as an alternative for corporations not needing to issue stock. In Germany, the organization was referred to as Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung or GmbH. In the last quarter of the 20th Century this new form of non-corporate organization became available in the United States and other countries, was known as the limited liability company or LLC.
Since the GmbH and LLC forms of organization are technically not corporations, they will not be discussed in this article. The word "corporation" derives from corpus, the Latin word for body, or a "body of people". By the time of Justinian, Roman law recognized a range of corporate entities under the names universitas, corpus or collegium; these included the state itself and such private associations as sponsors of a religious cult, burial clubs, political groups, guilds of craftsmen or traders. Such bodies had the right to own property and make contracts, to receive gifts and legacies, to sue and be sued, and, in general, to perform legal acts through representatives. Private associations were granted designated liberties by the emperor. Entities which carried on business and were the subjects of legal rights were found in ancient Rome, the Maurya Empire in ancient India. In medieval Europe, churches became incorporated, as did local governments, such as the Pope and the City of London Corporation.
The point was that the incorporation would survive longer than the lives of any particular member, existing in perpetuity. The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world, the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, obtained a charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. In medieval times, traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed. Early guilds and livery companies were often involved in the regulation of competition between traders. Dutch and English chartered companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were created to lead the colonial ventures of European nations in the 17th century. Acting under a charter sanctioned by the Dutch government, the Dutch East India Company defeated Portuguese forces and established itself in the Moluccan Islands in order to profit from the European demand for spices. Investors in the VOC were issued paper certificates as proof of share ownership, were able to trade their shares on the original Amsterdam
Sustainability is the process of maintaining change in a balanced environment, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations. For many in the field, sustainability is defined through the following interconnected domains or pillars: environment and social, which according to Fritjof Capra is based on the principles of Systems Thinking. Sub-domains of sustainable development have been considered also: cultural and political. While sustainable development may be the organizing principle for sustainability for some, for others, the two terms are paradoxical. Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Brundtland Report for the World Commission on Environment and Development introduced the term of sustainable development.
Sustainability can be defined as a socio-ecological process characterized by the pursuit of a common ideal. An ideal is by definition unattainable in space. However, by persistently and dynamically approaching it, the process results in a sustainable system. Healthy ecosystems and environments are necessary to the survival of other organisms. Ways of reducing negative human impact are environmentally-friendly chemical engineering, environmental resources management and environmental protection. Information is gained from green computing, green chemistry, earth science, environmental science and conservation biology. Ecological economics studies the fields of academic research that aim to address human economies and natural ecosystems. Moving towards sustainability is a social challenge that entails international and national law, urban planning and transport, supply chain management and individual lifestyles and ethical consumerism. Ways of living more sustainably can take many forms from reorganizing living conditions, reappraising economic sectors, or work practices, using science to develop new technologies, or designing systems in a flexible and reversible manner, adjusting individual lifestyles that conserve natural resources."The term'sustainability' should be viewed as humanity's target goal of human-ecosystem equilibrium, while'sustainable development' refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the end point of sustainability."
Despite the increased popularity of the use of the term "sustainability", the possibility that human societies will achieve environmental sustainability has been, continues to be, questioned—in light of environmental degradation, climate change, population growth and societies' pursuit of unlimited economic growth in a closed system. The name sustainability is derived from the Latin sustinere. Sustain can mean "maintain", "support", or "endure". Since the 1980s sustainability has been used more in the sense of human sustainability on planet Earth and this has resulted in the most quoted definition of sustainability as a part of the concept sustainable development, that of the Brundtland Commission of the United Nations on March 20, 1987: "sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"; the 2005 World Summit on Social Development identified sustainable development goals, such as economic development, social development and environmental protection.
This view has been expressed as an illustration using three overlapping ellipses indicating that the three pillars of sustainability are not mutually exclusive and can be mutually reinforcing. In fact, the three pillars are interdependent, in the long run none can exist without the others; the three pillars have served as a common ground for numerous sustainability standards and certification systems in recent years, in particular in the food industry. Standards which today explicitly refer to the triple bottom line include Rainforest Alliance, Fairtrade and UTZ Certified; some sustainability experts and practitioners have illustrated four pillars of sustainability, or a quadruple bottom line. One such pillar is future generations, which emphasizes the long-term thinking associated with sustainability. There is an opinion that considers resource use and financial sustainability as two additional pillars of sustainability. Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global efforts to meet basic human needs without destroying or degrading the natural environment.
The question becomes how to represent the relationship between those needs and the environment. A study from 2005 pointed out. Ecological economist Herman Daly asked, "what use is a sawmill without a forest?" From this perspective, the economy is a subsystem of human society, itself a subsystem of the biosphere, a gain in one sector is a loss from another. This perspective led to the nested circles figure of'economics' inside'society' inside the'environment'; the simple definition that sustainability is something that improves "the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting eco-systems", though vague, conveys the idea of sustainability having quantifiable limits. But sustainability is a call to action, a task in progress or "journe
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations referred to as NGOs, are non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations that are active in humanitarian, health care, public policy, human rights and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives. They are thus a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens, but this is not how the term is used in the media or everyday language, as recorded by major dictionaries; the explanation of the term by NGO.org is ambivalent. It first says an NGO is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group, organized on a local, national or international level, but goes on to restrict the meaning in the sense used by most English speakers and the media: Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
NGOs are funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run by volunteers. NGOs are diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, take different forms in different parts of the world; some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation; the number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 10 million. Russia had about 277,000 NGOs in 2008. India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India. China is estimated to have 440,000 registered NGOs. About 1.5 million domestic and foreign NGOs operated in the United States in 2017. The term'NGO' is not always used consistently.
In some countries the term NGO is applied to an organization that in another country would be called an NPO, vice versa. Political parties and trade unions are considered NGOs only in some countries. There are many different classifications of NGO in use; the most common focus is on "orientation" and "level of operation". An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities; these activities might include human rights, improving health, or development work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, national, or international; the term "non-governmental organization" was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations was created. The UN, itself an intergovernmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non-state agencies — i.e. non-governmental organizations — to be awarded observer status at its assemblies and some of its meetings. The term became used more widely. Today, according to the UN, any kind of private organization, independent from government control can be termed an "NGO", provided it is not-for-profit, non-prevention, but not an opposition political party.
One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention, or a global ban on landmines. Public surveys reveal that NGOs enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful - but not always sufficient - proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. NGO/GRO types can be understood by their level of how they operate. Charitable orientation involves a top-down effort with little participation or input by beneficiaries, it includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the disadvantaged people groups. Service orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the service.
Participatory orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, land, labour etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. Empowering orientation aims to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social and economic factors affecting their lives, to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. There is maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators. Community-based organizations arise out of people's own initiatives, they can be responsible for raising the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services, providing such services. City-wide organizations include organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, coaliti