Lars Porsena was an Etruscan king known for his war against the city of Rome. He ruled over the city of Clusium. There are no established dates for his rule, but Roman sources place the war at around 508 BC. Lars Porsena came into conflict with Rome after the revolution that overthrew the monarchy there in 509 BC, resulting in the exile of the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus; the deposed monarch, whose family was of Etruscan origin and failed to retake the throne a number of times before appealing to Porsena for assistance. Lars Porsena agreed to help. At that time Clusium was said to be a powerful Etruscan city. At this point, the histories diverge. According to most mainstream Roman accounts, including Livy, Lars Porsena attacked and besieged Rome, but was sufficiently impressed by particular acts of Roman bravery in defending the city that he chose to make peace. Other accounts, suggest that Lars Porsena succeeded in subduing the city, that the Etruscans were only driven out some time afterwards.
None of the accounts, suggests that Tarquinius Superbus was returned to the throne. Thus, if Lars Porsena did indeed capture Rome, he may have done so with the intent of controlling it himself, not restoring the former dynasty. Accounts of the war include a number of matters directly concerning Porsena. One story tells that, during his siege of Rome, a Roman youth named Gaius Mucius sneaked into the Etruscan camp with the approval of the Senate, intent on assassinating Porsena. However, when Mucius came into the king's presence, he could not distinguish Porsena from his secretary, attired. Through misrecognition Mucius stabbed the secretary and tried to flee, he was captured by the Etruscans and brought before Porsena, whereupon Mucius bluntly declared his identity and his intent. He advised Porsena that he was the first of 300 Roman youths who would attempt such a deed, one after another until they succeeded. To prove his valour, Mucius thrust his right hand into a sacrificial fire, thereby earning for himself and his descendants the cognomen Scaevola.
Astonished and impressed by the young man's courage, Porsena gave Mucius his freedom and dismissed him from the camp. According to Livy, Porsena sought peace by treaty afterward. Another tale of the war concerns the Roman hostages taken by Porsena as part of the treaty. One of the hostages, a young woman named Cloelia, fled the Etruscan camp, leading away a group of Roman virgins. Porsena demanded that she be returned, the Romans consented. On her return, Porsena was so impressed by her bravery that he asked her to choose half the remaining hostages to be freed, she selected all the youngest Roman boys. Afterwards the Romans gave Cloelia the unusual honour of a statue at the top of the Via Sacra, showing Cloelia mounted on a horse—that is, as an eques. Livy recounts that during his own time, public auctions of goods at Rome were by tradition referred to as "selling the goods of king Porsena", that this somehow relates to the war with Clusium. Livy concludes most it is because, when Porsena departed Rome, he left behind as a gift for the Romans his stores of provisions.
In 507 BC, Porsena once again sent ambassadors to the Roman senate, requesting the restoration of Tarquinius to the throne. Legates were sent back to Porsena, to advise him that the Romans would never re-admit Tarquinius, that Porsena should out of respect for the Romans cease requesting Tarquinius' readmittance. Porsena agreed. Porsena restored to the Romans their hostages, the lands of Veii, taken from Rome by treaty. Livy records that, by these matters, a faithful peace between Rome was created. In 508 BC, after the siege of Rome, Porsena split his forces and sent part of the Clusian army with his son Aruns to besiege the Latin city of Aricia; the Clusians besieged Aricia. Porsena's tomb is described as having a 15 m high rectangular base with sides 90 m long, it was adorned by massive bells. Lars Porsena's tomb, together with the rest of the city of Clusium, was razed to the ground in 89 BC by the Roman general Cornelius Sulla; the story of Lars Porsenna and the Roman hostage Cloelia is the basis of the libretto Il trionfo di Clelia by Pietro Metastasio.
The French writer Madeleine de Scudéry wrote Clélie in 1661. Lays of Ancient Rome by Thomas Babington Macaulay tells the legendary story of the Roman Horatius defending the bridge into Rome against Lars Porsena's oncoming Etruscan army. Evans, John Karl. Plebs Rustica; the Peasantry of Classical Italy I: the Peasantry in Modern Scholarship. Evans, John Karl. War and Children in Ancient Rome. Routledge
The Palatine Hill is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city and has been called "the first nucleus of the Roman Empire.". It stands 40 metres above the Roman Forum, looking down upon it on one side, upon the Circus Maximus on the other. From the time of Augustus Imperial palaces were built here; the hill is its cognates in other languages. The term palace, from Old French palais or paleis, stems from the proper name of Palatine Hill; the Palatine Hill is the etymological origin of "palatine", a 16th century English adjective that signified something pertaining to the Caesar's palace, or someone, invested with the king's authority. Its use shifted to a reference to the German Palatinate; the office of the German count palatine had its origins in the comes palatinus, an earlier office in Merovingian and Carolingian times. Another modern English word "paladin", came into usage to refer to any distinguished knight under Charlemagne in late renditions of Matter of France.
According to Livy the Palatine hill got its name from the Arcadian settlement of Pallantium. More it is derived from the noun palātum "palate". According to Roman mythology, the Palatine Hill was the location of the cave, known as the Lupercal, where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf Lupa that kept them alive. Another legend occurring on the Palatine is Hercules' defeat of Cacus after the monster had stolen some cattle. Hercules struck Cacus with his characteristic club so hard that it formed a cleft on the southeast corner of the hill, where a staircase bearing the name of Cacus was constructed. Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Excavations show that people have lived in the area since the 10th century BC. Excavations performed on the hill in 1907 and again in 1948 unearthed a collection of huts believed to have been used for funerary purposes between the 9th and 7th century BC approximating the time period when the city of Rome was founded. According to Livy, after the immigration of the Sabines and the Albans to Rome, the original Romans lived on the Palatine.
The Palatine Hill was the site of the ancient festival of the Lupercalia. Many affluent Romans of the Republican period had their residences there. From the start of the Empire Augustus built his palace there and the hill became the exclusive domain of emperors. Augustus built a temple to Apollo here; the great fire of 64 AD destroyed Nero's palace, but he replaced it by 69 AD with the larger Domus Aurea over, built Domitian's Palace The Palatine Hill is an archaeological site open to the public. The Palace of Domitian which dominates the site and looks out over the Circus Maximus was rebuilt during the reign of Domitian over earlier buildings of Nero. Emperors the Severans made significant additions to the buildings; the House of Livia, the wife of Augustus, is conventionally attributed to her based only on the generic name on a clay pipe and circumstantial factors such as proximity to the House of Augustus. The building is located near the Temple of Magna Mater at the western end of the hill, on a lower terrace from the temple.
It is notable for its beautiful frescoes. The House of Tiberius was built by Tiberius, but Tiberius spent much of his time in his palaces in Campania and Capri, it was incorporated into Nero's Domus Transitoria. Part of it is remains in the current Farnese Gardens. During Augustus' reign, an area of the Palatine Hill was roped off for a sort of archaeological expedition, which found fragments of Bronze Age pots and tools, he declared this site the "original town of Rome." Modern archaeology has identified evidence of Bronze Age settlement in the area which predates Rome's founding. There is a museum on the Palatine in which artifacts dating from before the official foundation of the City are displayed; the museum contains Roman statuary. An altar to an unknown deity, once thought to be Aius Locutius, was discovered here in 1820. In July 2006, archaeologists announced the discovery of the Palatine House, which they believe to be the birthplace of Rome's first Emperor, Augustus. Head archaeologist Clementina Panella uncovered a section of corridor and other fragments under Rome's Palatine Hill, which she described on July 20 as "a ancient aristocratic house."
The two story house appears to have been built around an atrium, with frescoed walls and mosaic flooring, is situated on the slope of the Palatine that overlooks the Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine. The Republican-era houses on the Palatine were overbuilt by palaces after the Great Fire of Rome, but this one was not. On the ground floor, three shops opened onto the Via Sacra; the location of the domus is important because of its potential proximity to the Curiae Veteres, the earliest shrine of the curies of Rome. In January 2007, Italian archeologist Irene Iacopi announced that she had found the legendary Lupercal cave beneath the remains of Augustus' residence, the Domus Livia on the Palatine. Archaeologists came across the 16-
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum. Each year, the citizens of Rome elected two consuls to serve jointly for a one-year term; the consuls alternated in holding imperium each month, a consul's imperium extended over Rome and the provinces. However, after the establishment of the Empire, the consuls became mere symbolic representatives of Rome's republican heritage and held little power and authority, with the Emperor acting as the supreme authority. After the legendary expulsion of the last Etruscan King, Tarquin the Proud, a harsh ruler at the end of the Roman Kingdom, most of the powers and authority of the king were ostensibly given to the newly instituted consulship; this change in leadership came about when the king's son, Sextus Tarquinius, raped the wife and daughter of powerful Roman nobles. A group of nobles led by Lucius Junius Brutus, with the support of the Roman Army, expelled Tarquinius and his family from Rome in 509 BC.
Consuls were called praetors, referring to their duties as the chief military commanders. By at least 300 BC the title of Consul became used. Ancient writers derive the title consul from the Latin verb consulere, "to take counsel", but this is most a gloss of the term, which derives—in view of the joint nature of the office—from con- and sal-, "get together" or from con- and sell-/sedl-, "sit down together with" or "next to". In Greek, the title was rendered as στρατηγὸς ὕπατος, strategos hypatos, simply as ὕπατος; the consul was believed by the Romans to date back to the traditional establishment of the Republic in 509 BC, but the succession of consuls was not continuous in the 5th century BC. During the 440s, the office was quite replaced with the establishment of the Consular Tribunes, who were elected whenever the military needs of the state were significant enough to warrant the election of more than the two usual consuls; these remained in place until the office was abolished in 367/366 BC and the consulship was reintroduced.
Consuls had extensive powers in peacetime, in wartime held the highest military command. Additional religious duties included certain rites which, as a sign of their formal importance, could only be carried out by the highest state officials. Consuls read auguries, an essential step before leading armies into the field. Two consuls were elected each year, serving together, each with veto power over the other's actions, a normal principle for magistracies, it is thought that only patricians were eligible for the consulship. Consuls were elected by the Comitia Centuriata, which had an aristocratic bias in its voting structure which only increased over the years from its foundation. However, they formally assumed powers only after the ratification of their election in the older Comitia Curiata, which granted the consuls their imperium by enacting a law, the "lex curiata de imperio". If a consul died during his term or was removed from office, another would be elected by the Comitia Centuriata to serve the remainder of the term as consul suffectus.
A consul elected to start the year - called a consul ordinarius - held more prestige than a suffect consul because the year would be named for ordinary consuls. According to tradition, the consulship was reserved for patricians and only in 367 BC did plebeians win the right to stand for this supreme office, when the Lex Licinia Sextia provided that at least one consul each year should be plebeian; the first plebeian consul, Lucius Sextius, was elected the following year. The office remained in the hands of a few families as, according to Gelzer, only fifteen novi homines - "new men" with no consular background - were elected to the consulship until the election of Cicero in 63 BC. Modern historians have questioned the traditional account of plebeian emancipation during the early Republic, noting for instance that about thirty percent of the consuls prior to Sextius had plebeian, not patrician, names, it is possible that only the chronology has been distorted, but it seems that one of the first consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, came from a plebeian family.
Another possible explanation is that during the 5th century social struggles, the office of consul was monopolized by a patrician elite. During times of war, the primary qualification for consul was military skill and reputation, but at all times the selection was politically charged. With the passage of time, the consulship became the normal endpoint of the cursus honorum, the sequence of offices pursued by the ambitious Roman who chose to pursue political power and influence; when Lucius Cornelius Sulla regulated the cursus by law, the minimum age of election to consul became, in effect, 41 years of age. Beginning in the late Republic, after finishing a consular year, a former consul would serve a lucrative term as a proconsul, the Roman Governor of one of the provinces; the most chosen province for the proconsulship was Cisalpine Gaul. Although throughout the early years of the Principate, the consuls were still formally elected by the Comitia Centuriata, they were in fact nominated by the princeps.
As the years progressed, the distinction between the Comitia Centuriata and the Comitia Tributa appears to have disappeared, so for the purposes of the consular
Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus
Lucius Tarquinius Ar. f. Ar. n. Collatinus was one of the first two consuls of the Roman Republic in 509 BC, together with Lucius Junius Brutus; the two men had led the revolution. He was forced to resign his office and go into exile as a result of the hatred he had helped engender in the people against the former ruling house. Collatinus was the son of Arruns Tarquinius, better known as Egerius, a nephew of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth King of Rome. Through an accident, Arruns had been born into poverty, but when his uncle subdued the Latin town of Collatia, he was placed in command of the Roman garrison there; the surname Collatinus was derived from this town. Collatinus married daughter of Spurius Lucretius Tricipitinus. According to legend, while Collatinus was away from home, his cousin, Sextus Tarquinius, son of the king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, came to his house by night. Forcing himself upon Lucretia, Sextus threatened to kill her, together with a slave, tell her husband that he had caught her in the act of adultery with the slave, unless she should accede to his desire.
After his departure, Lucretia sent for her husband and father, recounted the events to them. Despite their entreaties and protests of her innocence, Lucretia plunged a dagger into her breast in expiation of her shame. Enraged by his cousin's deed and his father-in-law brought news of the crime before the people, they were supported by Brutus, the king's nephew, others who had suffered various cruelties at the hands of the king and his sons. While the king was away on a campaign, the conspirators barred the gates of Rome and established a republican government, headed by two consuls, so that one man should not be master of Rome. Brutus and Collatinus were the first consuls, set about the defense of the city. Collatinus' ascendency was short-lived. Collatinus was dumbstruck when Brutus, his colleague and cousin, called upon him to resign, but resisted until his father-in-law, added his voice to the chorus. Fearing what might become of him should he refuse the popular demand, Collatinus laid down the consulship and went into exile at Lanuvium.
Brutus, who as the king's nephew was closer to the royal house, was spared the same indignity, as a part of the Junia gens. Publius Valerius Poplicola was appointed consul suffectus in the place of Collatinus, the elderly Spurius Lucretius in place of Brutus.
King of Rome
The King of Rome was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. According to legend, the first king of Rome was Romulus, who founded the city in 753 BC upon the Palatine Hill. Seven legendary kings are said to have ruled Rome until 509 BC; these kings ruled for an average of 35 years. The kings after Romulus were not known to be dynasts and no reference is made to the hereditary principle until after the fifth king Tarquinius Priscus; some have assumed that the Tarquins and their attempt to institute a hereditary monarchy over this conjectured earlier elective monarchy resulted in the formation of the republic. Early Rome was not self-governing, was ruled by the king; the king possessed absolute power over the people. The senate was a weak oligarchy, capable of exercising only minor administrative powers, so that Rome was ruled by its king, in effect an absolute monarch; the senate's main function was to administer the wishes of the king. After Romulus, Rome's first legendary king, Roman kings were elected by the people of Rome, sitting as a Curiate Assembly, who voted on the candidate, nominated by a chosen member of the senate called an interrex.
Candidates for the throne could be chosen from any source. For example, one such candidate, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus was a citizen and migrant from a neighboring Etruscan city-state; the people of Rome, sitting as the Curiate Assembly, could either accept or reject the nominated candidate-king. The insignia of the king was twelve lictors wielding the fasces, a throne of a Curule chair, the purple Toga Picta, red shoes, a white diadem around the head. Only the king could wear a purple toga; the supreme power of the state was vested in the rex, whose position gave the following powers: Beyond his religious authority, the king was invested with the supreme military and judicial authority through the use of imperium. The imperium of the king was held for life and protected him from being brought to trial for his actions; as being the sole owner of imperium in Rome at the time, the king possessed ultimate executive power and unchecked military authority as the commander-in-chief of all Rome's legions.
His executive power and his sole imperium allowed him to issue decrees with the force of law. The laws that kept citizens safe from the misuse of magistrates owning imperium did not exist during the times of the king. Another power of the king was the power to either nominate all officials to offices; the king would appoint a tribunus celerum to serve as both the tribune of Ramnes tribe in Rome but as the commander of the king's personal bodyguard, the Celeres. The king was required to appoint the tribune upon entering office and the tribune left office upon the king's death; the tribune was second in rank to the king and possessed the power to convene the Curiate Assembly and lay legislation before it. Another officer appointed by the king was the praefectus urbi, which acted as the warden of the city; when the king was absent from the city, the prefect held all of the king's powers and abilities to the point of being bestowed with imperium while inside the city. The king received the right to be the sole person to appoint patricians to the Senate.
The king's imperium granted him both military powers as well as qualified him to pronounce legal judgment in all cases as the chief justice of Rome. Although he could assign pontiffs to act as minor judges in some cases, he had supreme authority in all cases brought before him, both civil and criminal; this made the king supreme in times of both peace. While some writers believed there was no appeal from the king's decisions, others believed that a proposal for appeal could be brought before the king by any patrician during a meeting of the Curiate Assembly. To assist the king, a council advised the king during all trials, but this council had no power to control the king's decisions. Two criminal detectives were appointed by him as well as a two-man criminal court which oversaw for cases of treason. Under the kings, the Senate and Curiate Assembly had little power and authority, they could only be called together by the king and could only discuss the matters the king laid before them. While the Curiate Assembly did have the power to pass laws, submitted by the king, the Senate was an honorable council.
It could advise the king on his action but, by no means, could prevent him from acting. The only thing that the king could not do without the approval of the Senate and Curiate Assembly was to declare war against a foreign nation; these issues allowed the King to more or less rule by decree with the exception of the above-mentioned affairs. Whenever a Roman king died, Rome entered a period of interregnum. Supreme power in the state would be devolved to the Senate, which had the task of finding a new king; the Senate would assemble and appoint one of its own members as the interrex to serve for a period of five days with the sole purpose of nominating the next king of Rome. After the five-day period, the interrex would appoint another Senator for another five-day term; this process would continue until the election of a new king. Once the interrex found a suitable nominee for the kingship, he would bring the nominee before the Senate and the Senate would examine him. If the Senate confirmed the nomination, the interrex would convene the Curiate Assembly and preside as its chairman during the election of the King.
Once a candidate was proposed to the Curi
Silvanus was a Roman tutelary deity of woods and fields. As protector of the forest, he presided over plantations and delighted in trees growing wild, he is described as a god watching over the fields and husbandmen, protecting in particular the boundaries of fields. The named Etruscan deity Selvans may be a borrowing of Silvanus, or not related in origin. Silvanus is described as the divinity protecting the flocks of cattle, warding off wolves, promoting their fertility. Dolabella, a rural engineer of whom only a few pages are known, states that Silvanus was the first to set up stones to mark the limits of fields, that every estate had three Silvani: a Silvanus domesticus a Silvanus agrestis, worshipped by shepherds, a Silvanus orientalis, that is, the god presiding over the point at which an estate begins. Hence Silvani were referred to in the plural. Like other gods of woods and flocks, Silvanus is described as fond of music. Speculators identified Silvanus with Pan, Faunus and Aegipan, he must have been associated with the Italian Mars.
In the provinces outside of Italy, Silvanus was identified with numerous native gods: Sucellos, Poeninus and Tettus in Gaul and Germany Callirius and Vinotonus in Britain. A Romano-Celtic Temple containing several plaques dedicated to Silvanus Callirius has been found at Camulodunum. Calaedicus in Spain the Mogiae in Pannonia Selvans in Etruria Silenus, a Greek God, merged with Silvanus in Latin Literature. Pan, in Greco-Roman mythology; the Slavic god Porewit has similarities with Silvanus. The sacrifices offered to Silvanus consisted of grapes, ears of grain, meat and pigs. In Cato's De Agricultura an offering to Mars Silvanus is described. Virgil relates that in the earliest times the Tyrrhenian Pelasgians had dedicated a grove and a festival to Silvanus. In works of Latin poetry and art, Silvanus always appears as an old man, but as cheerful and in love with Pomona. Virgil represents him as carrying the trunk of a cypress. Silvanus – or Apollo according to other versions – was in love with Cyparissus, once by accident killed a pet hind belonging to Cyparissus.
The latter died of grief, was metamorphosed into a cypress. In Edmund Spenser's epic poem The Faerie Queene, Silvanus appears in Canto VI of Book I. His'wyld woodgods' save the lost and frightened Lady Una from being molested by Sans loy and take her to him, they treat her as a Queen because of her great beauty. Spenser writes in Stanza 14: So towards old Syluanus they did her bring; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Silvanus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Cato's De Agricultura: an offering to Mars Silvanus
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding to Tuscany, south of the Arno river, western Umbria and central Lazio, with offshoots to the north in the Po Valley, in the current Emilia-Romagna, south-eastern Lombardy and southern Veneto, to the south, in some areas of Campania. As distinguished by its unique language, this civilization endured from before the time of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions until its assimilation into the Roman Republic, beginning in the late 4th century BC with the Roman–Etruscan Wars. Culture, identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 900 BC with the Iron Age Villanovan culture, regarded as the oldest phase of Etruscan civilization; the latter gave way in the 7th century BCE to a culture, influenced by Ancient Greek culture, during the Archaic and the Hellenistic period. At its maximum extent, during the foundational period of Rome and the Roman Kingdom, Etruscan civilization flourished in three confederacies of cities: of Etruria, of the Po Valley with the eastern Alps, of Campania.
The league in northern Italy is mentioned in Livy. The decline was gradual, but by 500 BCE the political destiny of Italy had passed out of Etruscan hands; the last Etruscan cities were formally absorbed by Rome around 100 BCE. Although the Etruscans developed a system of writing, the Etruscan language remains only understood, only a handful of texts of any length survive, making modern understanding of their society and culture dependent on much and disapproving Roman and Greek sources. Politics was based on the small city and the family unit. In their heyday, the Etruscan elite grew rich through trade with the Celtic world to the north and the Greeks to the south and filled their large family tombs with imported luxuries. Archaic Greece had a huge influence on their art and architecture, Greek mythology was evidently familiar to them; the Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, syncopated to Rasna or Raśna, while the ancient Romans referred to the Etruscans as the Tuscī or Etruscī. Their Roman name is the origin of the terms "Toscana", which refers to their heartland, "Etruria", which can refer to their wider region.
In Attic Greek, the Etruscans were known as Tyrrhenians, from which the Romans derived the names Tyrrhēnī, Tyrrhēnia, Mare Tyrrhēnum, prompting some to associate them with the Teresh. The origins of the Etruscans are lost in prehistory, although Greek historians as early as the 5th century BC associated the Tyrrhenians with Pelasgians, which could both be broad descriptive terms. Strabo and the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus make mention of the Tyrrhenians as pirates. Thucydides and Strabo all denote Lemnos as settled by Pelasgians, whom Thucydides identifies as "belonging to the Tyrrhenians". Although both Strabo and Herodotus agree that Tyrrhenus / Tyrsenos, son of Atys, king of Lydia, led the migration, Strabo specifies that it was the Pelasgians of Lemnos and Imbros who followed Tyrrhenus to the Italian Peninsula. A link between Lemnos and the Tyrrhenians was further manifested by the discovery of the Lemnos Stele, whose inscriptions were written in a language which shows strong structural resemblances to the language of the Etruscans.
This has led to the suggestion of a "Tyrrhenian language group" comprising Etruscan and the Raetic spoken in the Alps. Hellanicus of Lesbos records a Pelasgian migration from Thessaly to the Italian peninsula, noting that "the Pelasgi made themselves masters of some of the lands belonging to the Umbri". By contrast, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a Greek writer living in Rome, dismisses many of the ancient theories of the other Greek historians and postulates that the Etruscans were indigenous people who had always lived in Etruria. For this reason, therefore, I am persuaded that the Pelasgians are a different people from the Tyrrhenians, and I do not believe, that the Tyrrhenians were a colony of the Lydians. For they neither worship the same gods as the Lydians nor make use of similar laws or institutions, but in these respects they differ more from the Lydians than from the Pelasgians. Indeed, those come nearest to the truth who declare that the nation migrated from nowhere else, but was native to the country, since it is found to be a ancient nation and to agree with no other either in its language or in its manner of living.
Furthermore, Dionysius of Halicarnassus is the first ancient writer who reports the endonym of the Etruscans: Rasenna. The Romans, give them other names: from the country they once inhabited, named Etruria, they call them Etruscans, from their knowledge of the ceremonies relating to divine worship, in which they excel others, they now call them, rather inaccurately, but with the same accuracy as the Greeks, they called them Thyoscoï, their own name for themselves, however, is the same as that of one of Rasenna. Livy in his Ab Urbe Condita Libri says the Rhaetians were Etruscans driven into the mountains by the invading Gauls, asserts that the inhabitants of Raetia were of Etruscan origin; the Alpine tribes have no doubt, the same origin the Raetians.