Warez is a common computing and broader cultural term referring to pirated software, distributed via the Internet. Warez is used most as a noun, a plural form of ware, is intended to be pronounced like the word wares; the circumvention of copy protection is an essential step in generating warez, based on this common mechanism, the software-focused definition has been extended to include other copyright-protected materials, including movies and games. The global array of warez groups has been referred to as "The Scene," deriving from its earlier description as "the warez scene." Distribution and trade of copyrighted works without payment of fees or royalties violates national and international copyright laws and agreements. The term warez covers supported as well as unsupported items, legal prohibitions governing creation and distribution of warez cover both profit-driven and "enthusiast" generators and distributors of such items. Warez, its leetspeak form W4r3z, are plural representations of the word "ware", are terms used to refer to "irated software distributed over the Internet," that is, "oftware, illegally copied and made available" e.g. after having "protection codes de-activated".
"Cracking, or circumventing copy protection, is an essential part of the warez process," and via this commonality, the definition focused on computer software has been extended to include other forms of material under copyright protection movies. As Aaron Schwabach notes, the term covers both supported and unsupported materials, legal recourses aimed at stemming the creation and distribution of warez are designed to cover both profit-driven and "enthusiast" practitioners. Hence, the term refers to copyrighted works that are distributed without fees or royalties and so traded in general violation of copyright law; the term warez, intended to be pronounced like the word "wares", was coined in the 1990s. It is used most as a noun: "My neighbour downloaded 10 gigabytes of warez yesterday"; the global collection of warez groups has been referred to as "The Warez Scene," or more ambiguously "The Scene." While the term'piracy' is used to describe a significant range of activities, most of which are unlawful, the neutral meaning in this context is "...mak use of or reproduc the work of another without authorization".
Some groups object to the use of this and other words such as "theft" because they represent an attempt to create a particular impression in the reader:Publishers refer to prohibited copying as "piracy." In this way, they imply that illegal copying is ethically equivalent to attacking ships on the high seas and murdering the people on them. The FSF advocates the use of terms like "prohibited copying" or "unauthorized copying", or "sharing information with your neighbor." Hence, the term "software pirate" is controversial. Direct download sites are web locations that index links to locations where files can be directly downloaded to the user's computer. DDL sites do not directly host the material and can avoid the fees that accompany large file hosting; the production and/or distribution of warez is illegal in most countries due to the protections provided in the TRIPS Agreement. Software infringers exploit the international nature of the copyright issue to avoid law enforcement in specific countries.
Violations are overlooked in poorer third world countries, other countries with weak or non-existent protection for intellectual property. Additionally, some first world countries have loopholes in legislation that allow the warez to continue. There is a movement, exemplified by groups like The Pirate Party and scholars at The Mises Institute, that the idea of intellectual property is an anathema to free society; this is in contrast to some of the more traditional open source advocates such as Lawrence Lessig, who advocate for middle ground between freedom and intellectual property. There are four elements of criminal copyright infringement: the existence of a valid copyright, that copyright was infringed, the infringement was willful, the infringement was either substantial, or for commercial gain. Offering warez is understood to be a form of copyright infringement, punishable as either a civil wrong or a crime. Sites hosting torrent files claim that they are not breaking any laws because they are not offering the actual data, rather only a link to other places or peers that contain the infringing material.
However, many prosecution cases and convictions argue to the contrary. For instance, Dimitri Mader, the French national who operates a movie distribution warez site, Wawa-Mania, was fined 20,000 € and sentenced, in absentia, to a year in jail by a European court, for his role in managing the site. In the U. S. through 2004, more than 80 individuals had been prosecuted and convicted for trade in warez products (under the NET Act and other stat
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor is a general-purpose programming language designed for web development. It was created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994. PHP stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP code may be executed with a command line interface, embedded into HTML code, or it can be used in combination with various web template systems, web content management systems, web frameworks. PHP code is processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in a web server or as a Common Gateway Interface executable; the web server combines the results of the interpreted and executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images, with the generated web page. PHP can be used for many programming tasks outside of the web context, such as standalone graphical applications and robotic drone control; the standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP License. PHP has been ported and can be deployed on most web servers on every operating system and platform, free of charge.
The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard until 2014, with the original implementation acting as the de facto standard which other implementations aimed to follow. Since 2014, work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification. PHP development began in 1994 when Rasmus Lerdorf wrote several Common Gateway Interface programs in C, which he used to maintain his personal homepage, he extended them to work with web forms and to communicate with databases, called this implementation "Personal Home Page/Forms Interpreter" or PHP/FI. PHP/FI could be used to build dynamic web applications. To accelerate bug reporting and improve the code, Lerdorf announced the release of PHP/FI as "Personal Home Page Tools version 1.0" on the Usenet discussion group comp.infosystems.www.authoring.cgi on June 8, 1995. This release had the basic functionality that PHP has today; this included Perl-like variables, form handling, the ability to embed HTML. The syntax was simpler, more limited and less consistent.
Early PHP was not intended to be a new programming language, grew organically, with Lerdorf noting in retrospect: "I don't know how to stop it, there was never any intent to write a programming language I have no idea how to write a programming language, I just kept adding the next logical step on the way." A development team began to form and, after months of work and beta testing released PHP/FI 2 in November 1997. The fact that PHP was not designed, but instead was developed organically has led to inconsistent naming of functions and inconsistent ordering of their parameters. In some cases, the function names were chosen to match the lower-level libraries which PHP was "wrapping", while in some early versions of PHP the length of the function names was used internally as a hash function, so names were chosen to improve the distribution of hash values. Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans rewrote the parser in 1997 and formed the base of PHP 3, changing the language's name to the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.
Afterwards, public testing of PHP 3 began, the official launch came in June 1998. Suraski and Gutmans started a new rewrite of PHP's core, producing the Zend Engine in 1999, they founded Zend Technologies in Ramat Gan, Israel. On May 22, 2000, PHP 4, powered by the Zend Engine 1.0, was released. As of August 2008 this branch reached version 4.4.9. PHP 4 will any security updates be released. On July 14, 2004, PHP 5 was released, powered by the new Zend Engine II. PHP 5 included new features such as improved support for object-oriented programming, the PHP Data Objects extension, numerous performance enhancements. In 2008, PHP 5 became the only stable version under development. Late static binding had been missing from PHP and was added in version 5.3. Many high-profile open-source projects ceased to support PHP 4 in new code as of February 5, 2008, because of the GoPHP5 initiative, provided by a consortium of PHP developers promoting the transition from PHP 4 to PHP 5. Over time, PHP interpreters became available on most existing 32-bit and 64-bit operating systems, either by building them from the PHP source code, or by using pre-built binaries.
For PHP versions 5.3 and 5.4, the only available Microsoft Windows binary distributions were 32-bit x86 builds, requiring Windows 32-bit compatibility mode while using Internet Information Services on a 64-bit Windows platform. PHP version 5.5 made. Official security support for PHP 5.6 ended on 31 December 2018, but Debian 8.0 Jessie will extend support until June 2020. PHP received mixed reviews due to lacking native Unicode support at the core language level. In 2005, a project headed by Andrei Zmievski was initiated to bring native Unicode support throughout PHP, by embedding the International Components for Unicode library, representing text strings as UTF-16 internally. Since this would cause major changes both to the internals of the language and to user code, it was planned to release this as version 6.0 of the language, along with other major features in development. However, a shortage of developers who understood the necessary changes, performance problems arising from conversion to and from UTF-16, used in a web context, led to delays in the project.
As a result, a PHP 5.3 release was created in 2009, with many non-Unicode f
Cybercrime, or computer-oriented crime, is a crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime. Cybercrimes can be defined as: "Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm, or loss, to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet and mobile phones". Cybercrime may threaten a nation's security and financial health. Issues surrounding these types of crimes have become high-profile those surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, unwarranted mass-surveillance, child pornography, child grooming. There are problems of privacy when confidential information is intercepted or disclosed, lawfully or otherwise. Debarati Halder and K. Jaishankar further define cybercrime from the perspective of gender and defined'cybercrime against women' as "Crimes targeted against women with a motive to intentionally harm the victim psychologically and physically, using modern telecommunication networks such as internet and mobile phones".
Internationally, both governmental and non-state actors engage in cybercrimes, including espionage, financial theft, other cross-border crimes. Cybercrimes crossing international borders and involving the actions of at least one nation state is sometimes referred to as cyberwarfare. A report, published in 2014, estimated that the annual damage to the global economy was $445 billion. $1.5 billion was lost in 2012 to online credit and debit card fraud in the US. In 2018, a study by Center for Strategic and International Studies, in partnership with McAfee, concludes that close to $600 billion, nearly one percent of global GDP, is lost to cybercrime each year. Computer crime encompasses a broad range of activities. Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss. In this context, the fraud will result in obtaining a benefit by: Altering in an unauthorized way; this requires little technical expertise and is common form of theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data, or by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes.
This is difficult to detect. These types of crime result in the loss of private information or monetary information. Government officials and information technology security specialists have documented a significant increase in Internet problems and server scans since early 2001, but there is a growing concern among government agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigations and the Central Intelligence Agency that such intrusions are part of an organized effort by cyberterrorists, foreign intelligence services, or other groups to map potential security holes in critical systems. A cyberterrorist is someone who intimidates or coerces a government or an organization to advance his or her political or social objectives by launching a computer-based attack against computers, networks, or the information stored on them. Cyberterrorism in general can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources; as such, a simple propaganda piece in the Internet that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyberterrorism.
There are hacking activities directed towards individuals, organized by groups within networks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collecting information relevant for ruining peoples' lives, blackmailing etc. Cyberextortion occurs when a website, e-mail server, or computer system is subjected to or threatened with repeated denial of service or other attacks by malicious hackers; these hackers demand money in return for promising to stop the attacks and to offer "protection". According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, cybercrime extortionists are attacking corporate websites and networks, crippling their ability to operate and demanding payments to restore their service. More than 20 cases are reported each month to the FBI and many go unreported in order to keep the victim's name out of the public domain. Perpetrators use a distributed denial-of-service attack. However, other cyberextortion techniques exist such as doxing bug poaching. An example of cyberextortion was the attack on Sony Pictures of 2014.
The U. S. Department of Defense notes that the cyberspace has emerged as a national-level concern through several recent events of geostrategic significance. Among those are included, the attack on Estonia's infrastructure in 2007 by Russian hackers. "In August 2008, Russia again conducted cyberattacks, this time in a coordinated and synchronized kinetic and non-kinetic campaign against the country of Georgia. The December 2015 Ukraine power grid cyberattack has been attributed to Russia and is considered the first successful cyberattack on a power grid. Fearing that such attacks may become the norm in future warfare among nation-states, the concept of cyberspace operations impacts and will be adapted by warfighting military commanders in the future; these crimes are committed by a selected group of criminals. Unlike crimes using the computer as a tool, these crimes require t