An espresso machine brews coffee by forcing pressurized water near boiling point through a "puck" of ground coffee and a filter in order to produce a thick, concentrated coffee called espresso. The first machine for making espresso was built and patented in 1884 by Angelo Moriondo of Turin, Italy. An improved design was patented on April 1903, by Luigi Bezzera; the founder of the La Pavoni company bought the patent and from 1905 produced espresso machines commercially on a small scale in Milan. Multiple machine designs have been created to produce espresso. Several machines share some common elements, such as a portafilter. An espresso machine may have a steam wand, used to steam and froth liquids for coffee drinks such as cappuccino and caffe latte. Espresso machines may be piston-driven, pump-driven, or air-pump-driven. Machines may be manual or automatic; the first machine for making espresso was built and patented by Angelo Moriondo of Turin, who demonstrated a working example at the Turin General Exposition of 1884.
He was granted patent no. 33/256 dated 16 May 1884. A certificate of industrial title was awarded to Mr. Moriondo Angelo, of Turin, for an invention called "New steam machinery for the economic and instantaneous confection of coffee beverage, method'A. Moriondo', Plate CXL". In 1901, Luigi Bezzera of Milan patented improvements to the machine. Bezzera was not a mechanic, he patented a number of improvements to the existing machine, the first of, applied for on the 19th of December 1901. It was titled "Innovations in the machinery to prepare and serve coffee beverage". In 1905 the patent was bought by Desiderio Pavoni who founded the La Pavoni company and began to produce the machine commercially in a small workshop in Via Parini in Milan. Multiple machine designs have been created to produce espresso. Several machines share some common elements. Varying the fineness of the grind, the amount of pressure used to tamp the grinds, or the pressure itself can be used to vary the taste of the espresso; some baristas pull espresso shots directly into a pre-heated demitasse cup or shot glass, to maintain a higher temperature of the espresso.
The piston-driven, or lever-driven, machine was developed in Italy in 1945 by Achille Gaggia, founder of espresso machine manufacturer Gaggia. The design generically uses a lever, pumped by the operator, to pressurize hot water and send it through the coffee grinds; the act of producing a shot of espresso is colloquially termed pulling a shot, because these lever-driven espresso machines required pulling a long handle to produce a shot. Lever-driven espresso machines are sometimes called manual espresso machines because of this. There are two types of lever machines. With the manual piston, the operator directly pushes the water through the grounds. In the spring piston design, the operator works to tension a spring, which delivers the pressure for the espresso. A steam-driven unit operates by forcing water through the coffee by using steam pressure; the first espresso machines were steam types, produced when a common boiler was piped to four group heads so that multiple types of coffee could be made at the same time.
This design is still used today in lower-cost consumer machines, as it does not need to contain moving parts. Steam-driven machines do not produce as high of a pressure for extraction compared to pump-driven; this results in a hallmark of an espresso, being of lower quality. A refinement of the piston machine is the pump-driven machine, introduced in the Faema E61 in 1961, has become the most popular design in commercial espresso bars. Instead of using manual force, a motor-driven pump provides the force necessary for espresso brewing. Espresso machines are made to accept water directly from a cold water line supply, common in commercial installations, or from a separate tank that must be filled with water by hand; the latter is more common with domestic espresso machines. Due to the required high pumping pressure and precision flow control needed, the particular type of electric pumps used are known as solenoid-piston pumps; these pumps are classified as a positive displacement type of pump. Four variants exist depending on how brew water and steam are boiled.
Single boiler These machines can brew only, not steam, requiring only a single boiler. They are uncommon, with steam wands being a simple and valued addition. Single boiler, dual use Some home pump espresso machines use a single chamber both to heat water to brewing temperature and to boil water for steaming milk. However, they can perform only one operation at a time, requiring a warm up period between the execution of espresso pull and the milk frothing process. Since the temperature for brewing is less than the temperature for creating steam the machine requires time to make the transition from one mode to the other. Moreover, after the brewing process, a single boiler will expel quantities of water through the steam wand that were left over from brewing, which can cause the steam heated milk to have a watered down taste. To avoid this, the leftover water needs to be collected from the steam wand before steaming of the milk should begin. SB/DUs are found within the lower tiers of enthusiast home models, with steam wands being a
Shaving soap is a hard soap, whipped into a lather using a shaving brush. The lather it produces is used to coat the face during shaving, providing protection and lubrication for the razor. Among cartridge razor users, shaving soap has been displaced by canned shaving foam or gel, but hard shaving soaps are still utilized by users of double-edge safety razors and straight razors. Hard shaving soaps in their modern form have existed since at least the early 19th century. Williams has been produced since 1840, a US patent for a shaving scuttle for use with a hard soap was granted in 1867. Shaving sticks have existed at least since the mid-19th century. Traditional shaving soap is sold as a round puck, either with a rounded bottom intended for use with a shaving scuttle or a flat bottom for use in a mug. High-end soaps may be sold with their own dishes made of either wood or ceramic, be formed to fit the dish with which the puck is sold. Shaving soap may be formed in a stick, sold either in a plastic tube or wrapped in foil or paper.
Shaving soap is more sold as rectangular bars. A hard shaving soap is used with a shaving brush to create lather for shaving. For soap in the form of a puck or bar, the brush is first soaked in water and swirled vigorously over the surface of the soap, causing moist soap to coat the brush's bristles; the brush is transferred either to a separate bowl or to the shaver's face to be lathered. Shaving sticks are used by rubbing the exposed end of the stick across the shaver's face, coating the face with soap; the soap is lathered with a moistened brush. Owing to their compact form and ease of use, shaving sticks are popular for use while traveling. Shaving soap is produced like a traditional soap with an ingredient selection oriented to producing a stable, slick lather, its manufacture differs from normal bath soap in that both potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide may be used as saponification agents. Sodium hydroxide creates a harder soap such as is used in pucks, where potassium hydroxide facilitates creation of a softer soap which loads on the brush more easily.
Tallow has been a popular ingredient in shaving soaps and is still in use in some traditional products. Palm oil is used as a substitute for tallow where animal fats are not desired. Other oils such as coconut oil are used. Component fatty acids such as stearic acid are used in shaving soaps for the properties which they contribute. Due to the controversy over parabens, many soap-makers have begun to advertise their soaps as paraben-free. Due to their lower moisture content, hard soaps do not require preservatives; the primary advantages of shaving soap over aerosol shaving creams is the additional hydration provided by shaving soaps. For optimal softening of whiskers, the natural oils on the face and whiskers must be removed. After oil is removed from the whiskers by the shaving soap and brush, water can more penetrate the whiskers; this results in whiskers being more cut than when using soapless creams and not brushing. Shaving soaps are approved by the Transportation Security Administration and other airport security agencies as permitted in carry-on luggage.
There is furthermore little risk of accidental discharge of the product during transport. The principal disadvantages of shaving soap is lack of space. Creating the lather and preparing the face is more time consuming than with other shaving creams. In addition, use of a shaving mug and optionally a lather bowl, consumes more space and takes more time than most shaving creams do. Shaving soaps cost more when the shaving mug and soap is purchased; these costs can be reduced by using mugs and bowls found in the kitchen, or purchased for a small amount at resale stores. Though shaving soaps may cost more when buying the soap and equipment, over a longer period of time, shaving soaps are comparable in cost, or cheaper than many shaving creams. Furthermore, shaving soaps have less ecological impact with respect to aerosol shaving creams. Aftershave Barber Bay rum Beard Burma-Shave Colognes Head shaving Leg shaving List of cleaning products Razors Saltwater soap Shaving cream Straight razor
Puck pinnata is a species of dreamer known only from the northwest Pacific Ocean. As with all other dreamers, it is a pelagic, deep-water fish, a member of the abyssal ecosystem. Froese and Pauly, eds.. "Puck pinnata" in FishBase. April 2012 version
Bay of Puck
The Bay of Puck or Puck Bay, is a shallow western branch of the Bay of Gdańsk in the southern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Gdańsk Pomerania, Poland. It is separated from the open sea by the Hel Peninsula; the bay has an average depth of 2 m to 6 m. There is a shallow sand-bank from Rewa to Kuźnica in the middle of Hel Peninsula; the bay also known as the Bay of Putzig, is available only for small fishing boats and yachts, which have to stick to the strict deeper routes. There are deposits of potassium salt below the Bay of Puck; the main ports are Puck and Hel. Location along Baltic Sea coast Bays of Poland Special Protection Areas in Poland Natura 2000 in Poland
Dota 2 is a multiplayer online battle arena video game developed and published by Valve Corporation. The game is a sequel to Defense of the Ancients, a community-created mod for Blizzard Entertainment's Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos and its expansion pack, The Frozen Throne. Dota 2 is played in matches between two teams of five players, with each team occupying and defending their own separate base on the map; each of the ten players independently controls a powerful character, known as a "hero", who all have unique abilities and differing styles of play. During a match, players collect experience points and items for their heroes to defeat the opposing team's heroes in player versus player combat. A team wins by being the first to destroy a large structure located in the opposing team's base, called the "Ancient". Development of Dota 2 began in 2009 when IceFrog, lead designer of the original Defense of the Ancients mod, was hired by Valve to create a modernized remake for them in the Source game engine.
It was released for Microsoft Windows, OS X, Linux-based personal computers via the digital distribution platform Steam in July 2013, following a Windows-only open beta phase that began two years prior. As the game is free-to-play with no heroes needing to be bought or otherwise unlocked, revenue is instead made from microtransactions such as loot boxes, a battle pass subscription system called Dota Plus, which all only offer non-gameplay altering virtual goods, such as hero cosmetics and voice-line packs, in return; the game has been updated with various other features since release, such as a transition to the Source 2 engine in 2015 and support for virtual reality. Dota 2 has a large esports scene, with teams from across the world playing professionally in various leagues and tournaments. Premium tournaments of the game have prize pools totaling millions of U. S. dollars, the highest of any esport. The largest of them is known as The International, produced annually by Valve and most held at the KeyArena in Seattle.
Valve manages an event format known as the Dota Pro Circuit, which are a series of tournaments held prior to Internationals that award qualification points based on results for getting directly invited to them. For most tournaments, media coverage is done by a selection of on-site staff who provide commentary and analysis for the ongoing matches, similar to traditional sporting events. Broadcasts of professional Dota 2 matches are streamed live over the internet, sometimes simulcast on television networks, with peak viewership numbers in the millions; the game has been used in machine learning experiments, with a team of bots known as the OpenAI Five showing the ability to compete against, sometimes defeat, professional players. Despite some criticism going towards its steep learning curve and overall complexity, Dota 2 was praised for its rewarding gameplay, production quality, faithfulness to its predecessor, with multiple gaming publications considering it to be one of the greatest video games of all time.
Since its release, it has been one of the most played games on Steam, with over a million concurrent players at its peak. The popularity of the game has led to official merchandise for it being produced, including apparel and toys, as well as promotional tie-ins to other games and media; the game allows for the community to create their own game modes and cosmetics, which are uploaded to the Steam Workshop and curated by Valve. A digital collectible card game featuring the characters and setting of Dota 2 known as Artifact was released in November 2018. Dota 2 is a multiplayer online battle arena video game in which two teams of five players compete to collectively destroy a large structure defended by the opposing team known as the "Ancient", whilst defending their own; as in Defense of the Ancients, the game is controlled using standard real-time strategy controls, is presented on a single map in a three-dimensional isometric perspective. Ten players each control one of the game's 117 playable characters, known as "heroes", with each having their own design and weaknesses.
Heroes are divided into two primary roles, known as the "carry" and "support". Carries, which are called "cores", begin each match as weak and vulnerable, but are able to become more powerful in the game, thus becoming able to "carry" their team to victory. Supports lack abilities that deal heavy damage, instead having ones with more functionality and utility that provide assistance for their carries, such as providing healing and other buffs. Players select their hero during a pre-game drafting phase, where they can discuss potential strategies and hero matchups with their teammates. Heroes can not be switched mid-game, once one is selected, they are removed from the drafting pool and become unavailable for all other players. All heroes have a basic damage-dealing attack, in addition to powerful abilities; each hero has at least four abilities, all of which are unique, which are the primary method of fighting. Heroes begin each game with an experience level of one, only having access to one of their abilities, but are able to level up and become more powerful during the course of the game, up to a maximum level of 25.
Whenever a hero gains an experience level, the player is able to unlock another of their abilities or improve one learned. The most powerful ability for each hero is known as their "ultimate", which requires them to have an experience level of six in order to use. In order to prevent abilities from being used without consequence, a magic system in the game exists. Activating an ability costs a hero some of their "mana points", which regenerates over time. Using an ability will als
La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein
La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein is an opéra bouffe, in three acts and four tableaux by Jacques Offenbach to an original French libretto by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy. The story is a satirical critique of unthinking militarism and concerns a spoiled and tyrannical young Grand Duchess who learns that she cannot always get her way; the opera starred Hortense Schneider in the title role. Thereafter, it was heard in New York and elsewhere, it is still performed and recorded. Offenbach's career was at its height in the 1860s with the premieres of some of his most popular and enduring works, such as La belle Hélène and La Vie parisienne. With the original production of the latter still running and his librettists hurried to prepare a new opera, La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein, to play during the Paris Exposition of 1867. Offenbach assisted Halévy in shaping the libretto, they were eager to ensure a hit, so they engaged the immensely popular Hortense Schneider, who had created the title role in La Belle Hélène, among other Offenbach roles, paying her the extraordinarily rich monthly sum of 4,500 francs.
Schneider, in addition to her vocal gifts, was well able to portray the commanding and saucy character of the Grand Duchess, which parodied Catherine the Great. The April 1867 premiere was an immediate hit, a parade of European royalty, drawn to Paris by the Exposition, attended performances of the operetta. Among those attending were French emperor Napoleon III. Of the military satire in the piece, Bismarck remarked, "C'est tout-a-fait ça!" Three years the Franco-Prussian War broke out, the operetta was banned in France, because of its antimilitarism, after the French defeat. It was first performed at the Théâtre des Variétés in Paris on 12 April 1867 and starred Hortense Schneider as the Duchess, successful in the title role. A Viennese production soon opened; the piece was first heard in New York City, in French, in September 1867 at the Théâtre Français, where it ran for six months. In November 1867, the opera appeared at Covent Garden, in an English translation by Charles Kenney, a subsequent tour of that production starred Emily Soldene.
The operetta was produced in English in New York City at the New York Theatre in 1868, at Wood's Museum and Metropolitan beginning November 14, 1870, at the Union Square Theatre beginning July 3, 1872. In 1869, the work was revived with Zulma Bouffar in the lead; the opera was heard in Australia in 1873, starring Alice May, who took the title role at the Gaiety Theatre, London in 1876. Another English adaptation was presented at the Savoy Theatre in London by the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company in 1897–98 with a new translation by Charles Brookfield and lyrics by Adrian Ross, starring Florence St. John, Florence Perry, Walter Passmore and Henry Lytton; the production ran for 99 performances and was reviewed as vivacious, but sanitized and "prudish". Productions during the 20th century included one at Daly's Theatre in London in 1937. In the U. S. there were several presentations by the Santa Fe Opera in 1971, which were repeated in 1972, 1974, 1979 and 2013. The singers for Santa Fe included Huguette Tourangeau in the title role in 1972, Donald Gramm and Richard Stilwell in both 1971 and 1972.
Emmanuel Villaume conducted with Susan Graham in the title role. A 1978 production was given at the Collegiate Theatre in London, produced by Park Lane Opera, starring Patricia Routledge and David Hillman, conducted by Vilem Tausky. A French production starring Régine Crespin was televised in 1980, New York City Opera mounted the piece in 1982. A production staged by Laurent Pelly in 2004 at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris, it starred Felicity Lott, Sandrine Piau and Yann Beuron. Minkowski restored several numbers cut after the first production. A CD and a DVD of the production were made, it was televised in France in 2004. Opera Philadelphia mounted a production in 2004, starring Stephanie Blythe. Los Angeles Opera produced the piece in 2005, conducted by Emmanuel Villaume and starring Frederica von Stade, in a new version adapted and directed by Garry Marshall. Theater Basel had a production under Hervé Niquet with Anne Sofie von Otter in the title role in 2009. In 2011, both Opera Boston and the Comic Opera Guild, near Detroit, Michigan presented the work.
Place: The fictional duchy of Gérolstein Time: 1720 The 20-year-old Grand Duchess, brought up by her tutor and court chamberlain Baron Puck to have her own way, is charming, though a veritable tyrant. She has been betrothed to the foppish Prince Paul but does not find him to her liking and, owing to her being in an unhappy state of mind over the affair, the Baron generates a war to amuse her, she decides to review her troops. There is a roll of drums, the cry is started that the enemy is advancing, but it turns out to be her Highness; this visit proves fateful, for she falls in love with the manly, handsome soldier Fritz, whose main passions in life are his love for the pretty Wanda and his hatred of General Boum. The Duchess makes Fritz a corporal, as she grows more and more delighted with him, he is promoted to sergeant and captain. To spite the General, she makes him commander-in-chief and sends him to conquer the enemy. F
In English folklore, sometimes known as Robin Goodfellow, is a domestic and nature sprite, demon, or fairy. The etymology of puck is uncertain; the modern English word is attested in Old English as puca. Similar words are attested in Old Norse but in the Celtic languages. Most commentators think that the word was borrowed from one of these neighbouring north-west European languages into the others, but it is not certain in what direction the borrowing went, all vectors have been proposed by scholars; the Oxford English Dictionary favoured a Scandinavian origin, but the most recent scholarly study argues for an Irish origin, on the basis that the word is distributed in Irish place-names, whereas puck-place-names in English are rare and late in the areas showing Old Norse influence, seem rather to radiate outwards from the south-west of England, which arguably had Irish influence during the early medieval period. The term pixie is in origin a diminutive of puck. Puck may be called "Robin Goodfellow" or "Hobgoblin", in which "Hob" may substitute for "Rob" or may refer to the "goblin of the hearth" or hob.
The name Robin is Middle English in origin, deriving from Old French Robin, the pet form for the name Robert. The earliest reference to "Robin Goodfellow" cited by the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1531. Anthony Munday mentions Robin Goodfellow in his play The Two Italian Gentlemen, 1584, he appears in Skialtheia, or a Shadowe of Truth in 1598. William Shakespeare may have had access to the manuscript of Lewes Lewkenor's translation of The Spanish Mandevile of Miracles, or, The Garden of Curious Flowers a translation of Antonio de Torquemada's, Jardin Flores Curiosas; the following passage from The Spanish Mandeville discusses the mischievous spirits: Luduvico: I pray you let me somewhat understand your opinion as concerning Robingoodfellowes and Hobgoblins, which are said to be so common, that there is scarcely any man but will tell you one tale or other of them, of which for my own part, I believe none, but do make reckoning that every man forgeth herein, what pleaseth him. Antonio: Many of them without doubt are forged, many true, for these kinds of Spirits are more familiar and domestical than the others, for some causes to us unknown, abide in one place, more than in another, so that some never depart from some particular houses, as though they were their proper mansions, making in them sundry noises, mockeries and jests, without doing any harm at all: and though I am not myself witness thereof, yet I have heard many persons of credit affirm that they have heard them play as it were on Gyterns & Jews Harps, ring Bells, that they answer to those that call them, speak with certain signs and merry gestures, so that those of the house come at last to be so familiar and well acquainted with them that they fear them not at all.
But in truth, as I said before, if they had free power to put in practice their malicious desire, we should find these pranks of theirs, not to be jests, but earnest indeed, tending to the destruction of both our body and soul, but as I told you before, this power of theirs is so restrained and tied, that they can pass no farther than to jests and gawdes: and if they do any harm or hurt at all, it is certain little, as by experience we daily see. After Meyerbeer's successful opera Robert le Diable, neo-medievalists and occultists began to apply the name Robin Goodfellow to the Devil, with appropriately extravagant imagery. If you had the knack, Puck might do minor housework for you, quick fine needlework or butter-churning, which could be undone in a moment by his knavish tricks if you displeased him, he may do work for you if you leave him small gifts, such as a glass of milk or other such treats, otherwise he may do the opposite by "make the drink to bear no barm" and other such fiendish acts.
Pucks are known to be inherently lonely creatures, share the goal of acquiring friends. "Those that Hob-goblin call you, sweet Puck, / You do their work, they shall have good luck" said one of William Shakespeare's fairies. Shakespeare's characterization of "shrewd and knavish" Puck in A Midsummer Night's Dream may have revived flagging interest in Puck. According to Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable: "drudging fiend", merry domestic fairy, famous for mischievous pranks and practical jokes. At night-time he will sometimes do little services for the family; the Scots call this domestic spirit a brownie. Scandinavians called it Nissë God-dreng. Puck, the jester of Fairy-court, is the same. Puck, referred to as Robin Goodfellow and Hobgoblin, appears as a vassal of the Fairy King Oberon in William Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream, is responsible for the mischief that occurs; as Robin Goodfellow, Puck appears in a contemporaneous play, Grim the Collier of Croydon. It is unknown. An early 17th century broadside ballad, "The Mad Merry Pranks of Robin Goodfellow" describes Puck/Robin Goodfellow as the emissary of Oberon, the Fairy King of the Night, inspiring night-terrors in old women but carding their wool while they sleep, leading travellers astray, taking the shape of animals, blowing out the candles to kiss the girls in the darkness, twitching off their bedclothes, or making them fall out of bed on the cold floor, tattling se