Siege of Petersburg
The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, fought from June 15, 1864, to April 2, 1865, during the American Civil War. Although it is more popularly known as the Siege of Petersburg, it was not a classic military siege, in which a city is surrounded and all supply lines are cut off, nor was it limited to actions against Petersburg; the campaign consisted of nine months of trench warfare in which Union forces commanded by Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant assaulted Petersburg unsuccessfully and constructed trench lines that extended over 30 miles from the eastern outskirts of Richmond, Virginia, to around the eastern and southern outskirts of Petersburg. Petersburg was crucial to the supply of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's army and the Confederate capital of Richmond. Numerous raids were conducted and battles fought in attempts to cut off the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad. Many of these battles caused the lengthening of the trench lines. Lee gave in to the pressure and abandoned both cities in April 1865, leading to his retreat and surrender at Appomattox Court House.
The Siege of Petersburg foreshadowed the trench warfare, common in World War I, earning it a prominent position in military history. It featured the war's largest concentration of African-American troops, who suffered heavy casualties at such engagements as the Battle of the Crater and Chaffin's Farm. In March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to lieutenant general and was given command of the Union Army, he devised a coordinated strategy to apply pressure on the Confederacy from many points, something President Abraham Lincoln had urged his generals to do from the beginning of the war. Grant put Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman in immediate command of all forces in the West and moved his own headquarters to be with the Army of the Potomac in Virginia, where he intended to maneuver Lee's army to a decisive battle, his coordinated strategy called for Grant and Meade to attack Lee from the north, while Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler drove toward Richmond from the southeast. Gens. George Crook and William W. Averell to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia.
Banks to capture Alabama. Most of these initiatives failed because of the assignment of generals to Grant for political rather than military reasons. Butler's Army of the James bogged down against inferior forces under Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard before Richmond in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign. Sigel was soundly defeated at the Battle of New Market in May and soon afterward he was replaced by Maj. Gen. David Hunter. Banks was failed to move on Mobile; however and Averell were able to cut the last railway linking Virginia and Tennessee, Sherman's Atlanta Campaign was a success, although it dragged on through the fall. On May 4, Grant and Meade's Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River and entered the area known as the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, beginning the six-week Overland Campaign. At the bloody but tactically inconclusive Battle of the Wilderness and Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Grant failed to destroy Lee's army but, unlike his predecessors, did not retreat after the battles. Grant spent the remainder of May maneuvering and fighting minor battles with the Confederate army as he attempted to turn Lee's flank and lure him into the open.
Grant knew that his larger army and base of manpower in the North could sustain a war of attrition better than Lee and the Confederacy could. This theory was tested at the Battle of Cold Harbor when Grant's army once again came into contact with Lee's near Mechanicsville, he chose to engage Lee's army directly, by ordering a frontal assault on the Confederate fortified positions on June 3. This attack was repulsed with heavy losses. Cold Harbor was a battle that Grant regretted more than any other and Northern newspapers thereafter referred to him as a "butcher". Although Grant suffered high losses during the campaign—approximately 50,000 casualties, or 41%—Lee lost higher percentages of his men—approximately 32,000, or 46%—losses that could not be replaced. On the night of June 12, Grant again advanced by his left flank, he planned to cross to the south bank of the river, bypassing Richmond, isolate Richmond by seizing the railroad junction of Petersburg to the south. While Lee remained unaware of Grant's intentions, the Union army constructed a pontoon bridge 2,100 feet long and crossed the James River on June 14–18.
What Lee had feared most of all—that Grant would force him into a siege of Richmond—was poised to occur. Petersburg, a prosperous city of 18,000, was a supply center for Richmond, given its strategic location just south of Richmond, its site on the Appomattox River that provided navigable access to the James River, its role as a major crossroads and junction for five railroads. Since Petersburg was the main supply base and rail depot for the entire region, including Richmond, the taking of Petersburg by Union forces would make it impossible for Lee to continue defending Richmond; this represented a change of strategy from that of the preceding Overland Campaign, in which confronting and defeating Lee's
Anne, Queen of Great Britain
Anne was the Queen of England and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain, she continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1714. Anne was born in the reign of her uncle Charles II, her father, Charles's younger brother James, was thus heir presumptive to the throne. His suspected Roman Catholicism was unpopular in England, on Charles's instructions Anne and her elder sister, were raised as Anglicans. On Charles's death in 1685, James succeeded to the throne, but just three years he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Mary and her husband, the Dutch Protestant William III of Orange, became joint monarchs. Although the sisters had been close, disagreements over Anne's finances and choice of acquaintances arose shortly after Mary's accession and they became estranged. William and Mary had no children.
After Mary's death in 1694, William reigned alone until his own death in 1702, when Anne succeeded him. During her reign, Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more to share her Anglican religious views than their opponents, the Whigs; the Whigs grew more powerful during the course of the War of the Spanish Succession, until 1710 when Anne dismissed many of them from office. Her close friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, turned sour as the result of political differences; the Duchess took revenge in an unflattering description of the Queen in her memoirs, accepted by historians until Anne was re-assessed in the late 20th century. Anne was plagued by ill health throughout her life, from her thirties, she grew ill and obese. Despite seventeen pregnancies by her husband, Prince George of Denmark, she died without surviving issue and was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. Under the Act of Settlement 1701, which excluded all Catholics, she was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover.
Anne was born at 11:39 p.m. on 6 February 1665 at St James's Palace, the fourth child and second daughter of the Duke of York, his first wife, Anne Hyde. Her father was the younger brother of King Charles II, who ruled the three kingdoms of England and Ireland, her mother was the daughter of Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. At her Anglican baptism in the Chapel Royal at St James's, her older sister, was one of her godparents, along with the Duchess of Monmouth and the Archbishop of Canterbury, Gilbert Sheldon; the Duke and Duchess of York had eight children, but Anne and Mary were the only ones to survive into adulthood. As a child, Anne suffered from an eye condition, which manifested as excessive watering known as "defluxion". For medical treatment, she was sent to France, where she lived with her paternal grandmother, Henrietta Maria of France, at the Château de Colombes near Paris. Following her grandmother's death in 1669, Anne lived with an aunt, Henrietta Anne, Duchess of Orléans.
On the sudden death of her aunt in 1670, Anne returned to England. Her mother died the following year; as was traditional in the royal family and her sister were brought up separated from their father in their own establishment at Richmond, London. On the instructions of Charles II, they were raised as Protestants. Placed in the care of Colonel Edward and Lady Frances Villiers, their education was focused on the teachings of the Anglican church. Henry Compton, Bishop of London, was appointed as Anne's preceptor. Around 1671, Anne first made the acquaintance of Sarah Jennings, who became her close friend and one of her most influential advisors. Jennings married John Churchill in about 1678, his sister, Arabella Churchill, was the Duke of York's mistress, he was to be Anne's most important general. In 1673, the Duke of York's conversion to Catholicism became public, he married a Catholic princess, Mary of Modena, only six and a half years older than Anne. Charles II had no legitimate children, so the Duke of York was next in the line of succession, followed by his two surviving daughters from his first marriage and Anne—as long as he had no son.
Over the next ten years, the new Duchess of York had ten children, but all were either stillborn or died in infancy, leaving Mary and Anne second and third in the line of succession after their father. There is every indication that, throughout Anne's early life and her stepmother got on well together, the Duke of York was a conscientious and loving father. In November 1677, Anne's elder sister, married their Dutch first cousin, William III of Orange, at St James's Palace, but Anne could not attend the wedding because she was confined to her room with smallpox. By the time she recovered, Mary had left for her new life in the Netherlands. Lady Frances Villiers contracted the disease, died. Anne's aunt Lady Henrietta Hyde was appointed as her new governess. A year Anne and her stepmother visited Mary in Holland for two weeks. Anne's father and stepmother retired to Brussels in March 1679 in the wake of anti-Catholic hysteria fed by the Popish Plot, Anne visited them from the end of August. In October, they returned to the Duke and Duchess to Scotland and Anne to England.
She joined her father and stepmother at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh from July 1681 until May 1682. It was her last journey outside England. Anne's second cousin George of Hanover visited London for three months from December 1680, sparking rumours of a potential marriage between them. H
Intellectual Property Office (United Kingdom)
The Intellectual Property Office of the United Kingdom is, since 2 April 2007, the operating name of The Patent Office. It is the official government body responsible for intellectual property rights in the UK and is an executive agency of the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy; some work on copyright policy is shared with the Department of Culture and Sport and plant breeders' rights are administered by the Plant Variety Rights Office, an agency of the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs. The IPO has direct administrative responsibility for examining and issuing or rejecting patents, maintaining registers of intellectual property including patents and trade marks in the UK; as in most countries, there is no statutory register of copyright and the IPO does not conduct any direct administration in copyright matters. The IPO is led by the Comptroller General of Patents and Trade Marks, Registrar of Trade Marks, Registrar of Designs and Chief Executive of the IPO. Since 1 May 2017 the Comptroller has been Tim Moss, following the resignation of John Alty, Comptroller General since 2010.
The Comptroller General before Alty was Ian Fletcher, who had taken over after the retirement of Ron Marchant on 30 March 2007. The previous Comptroller General was Alison Brimelow; the existence of the Patent Office and the post of Comptroller General are required by the Patents and Designs Act 1907, but the substantive duties of the IPO are set out in other legislation, including: The Registered Designs Act 1949 The Patents Act 1977 The Copyright and Patents Act 1988 The Trade Marks Act 1994Each of these Acts of Parliament has been extensively amended since it was first passed. The Patent Office was established by the Patents Law Amendment Act 1852 and opened on 1 October that year. Patents had been awarded prior to this date – indeed Britain has a continuous history of patent regulation dating back at least as far as the fifteenth century; this Act consolidated patent scrutiny and awards into a single office serving the whole of the United Kingdom. People applying for a patent used to submit a detailed model of their submission.
Despite having been established for the administration of patent law, in time the Patent Office took on other responsibilities, including registered designs in 1875 and registered trade marks in 1876. More having acquired responsibility for copyright regulation, the Patent Office has become known as the Intellectual Property Office. On 1 October 2008, the position of the Company Names Adjudicator was introduced under the Companies Act 2006; the Company Names Adjudicator's powers are enforced through the Company Names Tribunal which forms part of the Intellectual Property Office. From its early days, the Patent Office was based in the Chancery Lane area of London, where it spread to fill the area between Furnival Street and Southampton Buildings; the principal entrance was at 25 Southampton Buildings, where a purpose-built headquarters was constructed in 1899–1902. The principal interior space was the Library, a "harsh but spectacular space 140ft long, lit from skylights and a clerestory, with two tiers of steel-framed, fireproofed galleries on cast iron Corinthian columns".
Designed to allow members of the public to consult patent records, it contained a extensive collection of technical and scientific publications, which in 1967 was transferred to the British Library. In 1991, having outgrown its original premises, the Patent Office moved to Newport, South East Wales, where the IPO headquarters remains to this day. A small branch office in London has been maintained for the benefit of the large professional community based there and for communication with central government. Copyright law of the United Kingdom Departments of the United Kingdom Government Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys Intellectual Property Regulation Board IP Federation Patents County Court Patent office Software patents under United Kingdom patent law Company Names Tribunal Police Intellectual Property Crime Unit – Funded by the Intellectual Property Office Official website UK Patents Act 1977 and Rules
A revolver cannon is a type of autocannon used as an aircraft gun. It uses a cylinder with multiple chambers, like those of a revolver handgun, to speed up the loading-firing-ejection cycle; some examples are power-driven, to further speed the loading process. Unlike a rotary cannon, a revolver cannon has only a single barrel, thus its spun weight is lower. Automatic revolver cannon have been produced by many different manufacturers. An early precursor was the Puckle gun of a large flintlock revolver gun, manually operated; the design idea was impractical, far ahead of. During the 19th century, Elisha Collier and Samuel Colt used the revolver action to revolutionize handguns; the Confederate States of America used a single 2-inch, 5-shot revolver cannon with manually rotated chambers during the Siege of Petersburg. The gun was captured in Danville, VA by Union forces on April 27, 1865. In 1905, C. M. Clarke patented the first automatic, gas-operated rotary chamber gun, but his design was ignored at the time.
Clarke's patent came as reciprocating-action automatic weapons like the Maxim gun and the Browning gun were peaking in popularity. In 1932, the Soviet ShKAS machine gun, 7.62 mm calibre aircraft ordnance used a twelve-round capacity, revolver-style feed mechanism with a single barrel and single chamber, to achieve firing rates of well over 1800 rounds per minute, as high as 3,000 rounds per minute in special test versions in 1939, all operating from internal gas-operated reloading. Some 150,000 ShKAS weapons were produced for arming Soviet military aircraft through 1945. Around 1935, Silin and Morozenko worked on a 6000 rpm 7.62 mm aircraft machine gun using revolver design, called SIBEMAS, but this was abandoned. It was not until the mid-1940s; the archetypal revolver cannon is the Mauser MK 213, from which all current weapons are derived. In the immediate post-war era, Mauser engineers spread out from Germany and developed similar weapons around the world. Both the British and French made outright copies of the 30 mm versions of the MK 213, as the ADEN and DEFA, respectively.
Switzerland produced the Oerlikon KCA. The American M39 cannon used the 20 mm version, re-chambered for a longer 102 mm cartridge, intermediate between the 213's 82 mm and Hispano-Suiza HS.404's 110 mm. Several generations of the basic ADEN/DEFA weapons followed, remaining unchanged into the 1970s. Around that time, a new generation of weapons developed, based on the proposed NATO 25 mm caliber standard and the Mauser 27 mm round. A leading example is the Mauser BK-27. In the 1980s, the French developed a newer generation power-driven revolver cannon; the Rheinmetall RMK30 modifies the GIAT system further, by venting the gas to the rear to eliminate recoil. Larger experimental weapons have been developed for anti-aircraft use, like the Anglo-Swiss twin barrel but single chamber 42 mm Oerlikon RK 421 given the code name "Red King" and the related single-barrel "Red Queen" - all of which were cancelled during development; the largest to see service is the Rheinmetall Millennium 35 mm Naval Gun System.
Soviet revolver cannon are less common than Western ones on aircraft. A mechanism for a Soviet revolver-based machine gun was patented in 1944; the unknown Rikhter R-23 was fitted only to some Tu-22 models, but abandoned in favor of the two-barrel, Gast gun Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23 in the Tu-22M. The Rikhter R-23 does have the distinction of being fired from the space station Salyut 3; the Soviet navy has adopted a revolver design, the NN-30 in a dual mount in the AK-230 turret. With a single barrel mated to a cylinder with multiple chambers, this type of autocannon uses the revolver principle to accelerate the cycle of loading and ejecting multiple rounds of ammunition, achieving a high rate of fire compared to conventional cannon of the same calibre. Automatic revolver cannon have a lower maximum sustained rate of fire than Gatling guns, as all the rounds are fired through a single barrel, which suffers from much higher heating loads; some cannon caliber Gatling guns have a rate of fire of up to 10,000 rounds per minute, while revolver cannon have a rate of fire no more than 2,000 rounds per minute.
On the other hand, revolver cannon are able to be made much lighter than gatling guns, requiring less support and mounting hardware. Gatling type guns spin the whole multiple barrel and breech assembly, which in equal caliber versions can weigh hundreds of kilograms more; the firing rate of a Gatling-type gun is directly related to the rotational speed of the barrel cluster. The need to accelerate this cluster requires a large external power-supply and means that the maximum attainable rate of fire is not instantaneously available. Revolver cannon do not suffer from these limitations. Another difference is found in the inherent greater accuracy of the revolver cannon over the Gatling-type guns, caused by the dispersion of multiple barrels rotating at a varying speed of the latter. Gatling-type guns are most effective against a large group of infantry, while revolver cannons, with bigger caliber rounds deal with enemy armor such as a Tank or a BTR. ADEN cannon DEFA cannon GIAT 30 M39 cannon Mauser BK-27 Mauser MK 213 Oerlikon KCA Rheinmetall RMK30 Rikhter R-23 MANTIS - The German Army's new short range protection system ShVAK cannon ShKAS machine gun Skyshield George M. Chinn.
The Machine Gun: Design Analysis of Automatic Firing Mechanisms and R
Elisha Haydon Collier of Boston, USA, invented a flintlock revolver around 1814. His weapon is one of the earliest true revolvers, in contrast to the earlier pepperboxes which were multi-barreled guns. Collier's revolver was not self rotating but it was self-priming: a compartment automatically released gunpowder into the pan when the hammer was cocked, it was patented in 1818, produced from 1819 by John Evans & Son of London, used in quantity by the British forces in India. Over 10,000 of value in English pounds was to be made and contracted for India according to Elisha H. Collier's testimony in the 1851 Colt vs. Massachusetts Arms Company patent infringement trial of 1851 but further on in testimony was diminished by Mr. Collier suggesting that this number was only anticipated, it is known that there are but 225 Collier pistols and long guns were made between 1819 and 1824 according to known serial numbers between the three types. A single barrel allowed a faster reload time while reducing unnecessary weight.
However, its flintlock action was a serious drawback: flints were unreliable and had to be changed while inferior quality powder risked a misfire. Samuel Colt saw weapons of this type while serving as a cabin boy aboard the brig Corvo in 1832. Following his return from the Far East he was inspired to create his own caplock revolver: the Colt Paterson. In addition to handguns, Collier produced revolving carbines in the 1820s. Only 150 of these now rare guns were made. In the 1830s Collier invented a new boiler for steam ships, he wrote a book on the subject, published in 1836. In 1839 Collier designed a machine for mass-producing nails for the Globe Dock Factory, Surrey. Collier lived in England from 1818 until 1850, when he returned to Massachusetts. By this time Colt's cheaper mass-produced revolvers had supplanted his earlier, hand made designs. Collier is listed as having lived at 88 Eliot Street in an 1850 census, where he died on January 23, 1856
James Puckle was an English inventor and writer from London chiefly remembered for his invention of the Defence Gun, better known as the Puckle gun, a multi-shot gun mounted on a stand capable of firing up to nine rounds per minute. The Puckle gun is one of the first weapons referred to as a machine gun and resembles a large revolver. Puckle's best-known literary work was a moral dialogue between a father and son. In 1718, Puckle patented his new invention, the Defence Gun — a tripod-mounted, single-barreled flintlock weapon fitted with a multishot revolving cylinder, designed for shipboard use to prevent boarding; the barrel was 3 feet long with a bore of 1.25 inches and a pre-loaded cylinder which held 6-11 charges and could fire 63 shots in seven minutes—this at a time when the standard soldier's musket could at best be loaded and fired five times per minute. Puckle demonstrated two versions of the basic design: one, intended for use against Christian enemies, fired conventional round bullets, while the second variant, designed to be used against the Muslim Turks, fired square bullets which were considered to be more damaging and would, according to its patent, convince the Turks of the "benefits of Christian civilization."The Puckle Gun drew few investors and never achieved mass production or sales to the British armed forces.
One leaflet of the period sarcastically observed, following the business venture's failure, that the gun has "only wounded those who hold shares therein." According to the Patent Office of the United Kingdom, "In the reign of Queen Anne, the law officers of the Crown established as a condition of patent that the inventor must in writing describe the invention and the manner in which it works." James Puckle's 1718 patent, number 418, was one of the first to provide such a description. John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, Master-General of the Ordnance, purchased at least two for an ill-fated expedition in 1722 to capture St Lucia and St Vincent. One remains on display at another at Beaulieu Palace. There is a replica of a Puckle Gun at Bucklers Hard Maritime Museum in Hampshire. Blackmore's British Military Firearms 1650–1850 lists "Puckle’s brass gun in the Tower of London" as illustration 77: This appears to have been one of the Montagu guns on loan to the Tower at the time; the Interest of England considered in an essay upon wool, our woolen manufactures, the improvement of trade: with some remarks upon the conceptions of Sir Josiah Child.
England's interest, or, A brief discourse of the royal fishery in a letter to a friend A new dialogue between a burgermaster and an English gentleman England's way wealth and honour in a dialogue between and English-man and a Dutch-man. The club. A dialogue between a father and son. Puckle's 1718 patent Works by or about James Puckle in libraries
A crew-served weapon is any weapon system that requires a crew of two or more individuals performing the same or separate tasks to run at maximum operational efficiency, as opposed to an individual-service weapon, which only requires one person to run at maximum operational efficiently. The weight and bulk of the system also necessitates multiple personnel for transportation. Crew-served weapons operated by infantry include high-precision/special application rifles, anti-materiel rifles, medium machine guns, heavy machine guns, automatic grenade launchers, anti-tank guns, anti-aircraft guns, recoilless rifles, shoulder-launched missile weapons, static anti-tank and anti-aircraft missiles. Heavy weapons platoonPersonal weapon and Small arms for weapons used by individuals List of crew-served weapons of the U. S. Armed Forces Jane's Infantry Weapons