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Puducherry

Puducherry known as Pondicherry, is one of the 8 union territories of India. It was formed out of four territories of former French India, namely Pondichéry, Mahé and Yanaon, excluding Chandernagore, it is named after Puducherry. Known as Pondicherry, the territory changed its official name to Puducherry on 20 September 2006; the Union Territory of Puducherry lies in the southern part of the Indian Peninsula. The areas of Puducherry district and Karaikal district are bound by the state of Tamil Nadu, while Yanam district and Mahé district are enclosed by the states of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala respectively. Puducherry is the 29th most populous and the third most densely populated of the states and union territories of India, it has a gross domestic product of ₹210 billion and ranks 25th in India. The earliest recorded history of the municipality of Puducherry can be traced to the second century AD; the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions a marketplace named Poduke. G. W. B. Huntingford suggested this might be a site about 2 miles from the modern Puducherry, the location of Arikamedu.

Huntingford noted that Roman pottery was found at Arikamedu in 1937. In addition, archaeological excavations between 1944 and 1949 showed that it was "a trading station to which goods of Roman manufacture were imported during the first half of the 1st century" Subsequent investigation by Vimala Begley from 1989 to 1992 modified this assessment, now place the period of occupation from the third or second century BC to the eighth century AD. In 1674, the municipality of Pondicherry became a French colony of the French colonial empire. Together with Chandernagor, Mahé, Yanam and Masulipatam, it formed the French colony of French India, under a single French governor in Pondicherry, although French rule over one or more of these enclaves was interrupted by British occupations; the territories of French India were transferred to the Republic of India de facto on 1 November 1954, de jure on 16 August 1962, when French India ceased to exist, becoming the present Indian constituent union territory of Pondicherry, combining four coastal enclaves.

The Union Territory of Puducherry consists of four small unconnected districts: Puducherry district, Karaikal district and Yanam district on the Bay of Bengal and Mahé district on the Laccadive Sea, covering a total area of 483 km2. Puducherry and Karaikal have the largest areas and population, are both enclaves of Tamil Nadu. Yanam and Mahé are enclaves of Andhra Kerala, respectively, its population, as per the 2011 Census, is 1,244,464. Some of Puducherry's regions are themselves amalgamations of non-contiguous enclaves called "pockets" in India; the Puducherry region is made of 11 such pockets, some of which are small and surrounded by the territory of Tamil Nadu. Mahé region is made up of three pockets; this unusual geography is a legacy of the colonial period with Puducherry retaining the borders of former French India. All four regions of Puducherry are located in the coastal region. Five rivers in Puducherry district, seven in Karaikal district, two in Mahé district and one in Yanam district drain into the sea, but none originates within the territory.

Puducherry district is an enclave of Tamil Nadu. Mahé district is an enclave of Kerala. Yanam district is an enclave of Andhra Pradesh. Karaikal district is an enclave of Tamil Nadu. Hinduism is the major religion with 87.3% of the population adhering to it. Other religions include Islam. Puducherry is a Union Territory of India rather than a state, which implies that governance and administration falls directly under federal authority. However, Puducherry is one of the three union territories in India, entitled by a special constitutional amendment to have an elected legislative assembly and a cabinet of ministers, thereby conveying partial statehood; the Centre is represented by the Lieutenant Governor, who resides at the Raj Nivas at the Park, the former palace of the French governor. The central government is more directly involved in the territory's financial well-being unlike states, which have a central grant that they administer. Puducherry has at various times, enjoyed lower taxes in the indirect category.

According to the Treaty of Cession of 1956, the four territories of former French India territorial administration are permitted to make laws with respect to specific matters. In many cases, such legislation may require ratification from the federal government or the assent of the President of India. Article II of the Treaty states: The Establishments will keep the benefit of the special administrative status, in force prior to 1 November 1954. Any constitutional changes in this status which may be made subsequently shall be made after ascertaining the wishes of the people. French was the official language according to Article XXVIII of the Traité de Cession of 1956. According to the treaty, "the French language shall remain the official language of the Establishments so long as the elected representatives of the people shall not decide otherwise". After independence, the new official languages got recognized by The Pondicherry Official Language Act, 1965 which makes no

1979 New Zealand rugby league season

The 1979 New Zealand rugby league season was the 72nd season of rugby league, played in New Zealand. New Zealand lost a series to Great Britain 1-2. New Zealand included; the Lions match against Canterbury was cancelled due to flooded fields at the Addington Showgrounds and the need to get the ground prepared for the second Test. Auckland lost to Great Britain 10-18 in the Lions final match on tour in front of 12,500 fans at Carlaw Park. Auckland included Gary Kemble, James Leuluai, Olsen Filipaina, Ken Andersson, Toa Fepuleai, captain Fred Ah Kuoi, Shane Varley, Wayne Robertson, Murray Netzler, Doug Gailey, Alan McCarthy, Owen Wright and Gary Prohm; the Otahuhu Leopards defeated the New South Wales Rugby League's Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks 8-2 at Carlaw Park. The Auckland under 19 side toured New South Wales. Fred Ah Kuoi won the New Zealand Rugby League's player of the year award. Taranaki held the Rugby League Cup at the end of the season. Central Districts won the Inter-Districts competition, defeating Auckland 26-18, the South Island 21-16 and Northern Districts 22-12.

The South Island defeated Auckland 11-10 at Carlaw Park. Auckland defeated Northern Districts 22-12; the South Island defeated Northern Districts 42-8. Central Districts included Graeme West, Bruce Gall and Warren Collicoat. Auckland won the Rothmans trophy; the West Coast defeated Canterbury at Wingham Park. Fred Ah Kuoi, Olsen Filipaina, Shane Varley, Toa Fepuleai and Gary Kemble played for Auckland, who were coached by Don Hammond. Canterbury included Robin Alfeld, Lewis Hudson, Michael O'Donnell, Bob Jarvis, captain Wally Wilson, Alan Rushton, Wayne Wallace, Barry Edkins and Mark Broadhurst. Auckland failed to make the semi-finals of the Amco Cup after losing 5-12 to the Penrith Panthers, 3-12 to the Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs and 10-30 to the Cronulla Sharks. Canterbury 12 d Auckland 3 at Leichhardt Oval. Wednesday May 30, 1979. Crowd: 3,000. Referee – Gary Cook. Richmond won Stormont Shield, they defeated Otahuhu 16-15 in the Fox final. Otahuhu won the Rukutai Shield and Kiwi Shield while Glenora won the Roope Rooster, Northcote won the Sharman Cup and Glenora Corona won the Norton Cup.

Wayne Robertson won Fairest award. Paul Bridges won the Lipscombe Cup, Fred Ah Kuoi won the Rothville Trophy, Alan McCarthy and James Leuluai won the Bert Humphries Memorial, Olsen Filipaina won both the Tetley Trophy and Painter Rosebowl Trophy and Joe Gwynne won the Hyland Memorial Cup; the Mt Roskill Red Devils and the Blockhouse Bay Cougars started discussion in 1979 on amalgamation and in October 1979 the amalgamation papers were signed, forming the Bay Roskill Vikings. Richmond were coached by Joe Gwynne. Eastern United, a combined senior team from the Howick and Pakuranga, finished the season undefeated in the second division with only three draws; the team included Paul Matete. Upper Hutt won the Wellington Rugby League's Appleton Shield. Kevin Tamati played for Upper Hutt. Eastern Suburbs won the Canterbury Rugby League's Pat Smith Challenge Trophy. Halswell played its first season in premier grade; the Waitara Bears won the Taranaki Rugby League championship. Hawera were the runners upRunanga defeated Eastern Suburbs 10-6 in Greymouth to win the Thacker Shield.

Eastern Suburbs were so upset with the refereeing that they relinquished the right to challenge in 1980

Elizabeth Somerset, Countess of Worcester (wife of the 2nd Earl)

Elizabeth Somerset, Countess of Worcester was a lady-in-waiting to Anne Boleyn and the main informant against her. She may have been a mistress of King Henry VIII. Elizabeth was born in 1502 and lived in Bechworth, England, she was the daughter of Sir Anthony Browne, a trusted courtier at the court of Henry VIII, his wife Lady Lucy Neville, a daughter of John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu and Isobel Ingaldesthorpe. She was the stepsister of Sir William Fitzwilliam, 1st Earl of Southampton, treasurer of the household and a man who became active in the Boleyn inquiries led by her accusations against Queen Anne. In her mother's will, dated 1531, Elizabeth was left a pair of "bedys of gold with tenne gawdies."About 1508, Elizabeth's sister, Anne Browne, married Sir Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk. By that union, Elizabeth was aunt to Lady Anne Brandon, her younger sister, Lady Mary Brandon, she was the second wife of Henry Somerset, 2nd earl of Worcester, the son of Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester, Elizabeth Somerset, Baroness Herbert.

Henry's first wife, Lady Margaret, had died without issue. Elizabeth married Henry before 1527 and was deemed the Countess of Worcester on 15 April 1526. Elizabeth was close to her. After Anne's coronation, a large feast was held. To the queen's right stood the countess of Oxford and to her left, Elizabeth Somerset; as her lady-in-waiting, Elizabeth's "duties included on several occasions during the dinner holding a fine cloth before the queen’s face when she wanted to spit." There is documentation that Elizabeth secretly borrowed £100 from Anne, suggesting the two were close. She had not repaid. There is record of a payment made on 4 February 1530 by the king's personal purse to a midwife for the countess of Worcester, most Anne's doing; this closeness lent credibility to her accusations against the queen. G. W. Bernard, author of Anne Boleyn: Fatal Attractions explains that as Anne's lady in waiting, "she would have been aware of it, indeed might have been complicit" with any adulterous acts. In 1536, she testified against Anne Boleyn, claiming she engaged in numerous adulterous acts with a handful of men including Henry Norris, Mark Smeaton, George Boleyn, 2nd Viscount Rochford, the queen's brother.

Her accusations are described in Lancelot de Carle's poem A letter containing the criminal charges laid against Queen Anne Boleyn of England. It exposes conflict between one of the king's privy councilors and his sister whom he observes engaging in adulterous behavior and "the sister of one of the most strait-laced of the king’s counselors" whom he observes engaging in adulterous behavior. Once her brother warns her against appearing promiscuous, the sister of the councilor announced she is not the worst sinner in regards to promiscuous behavior. "But you see a small fault in me, while overlooking a much higher fault, much more damaging," the translated poem reads. She accuses Queen Anne of adultery and tells her brother to look to Mark Smeaton and the queen's own brother, George Boleyn, she claims, "I must not forget to tell you what seems to me to be the worst thing, that her brother has carnal knowledge of her in bed." This accusation formed the basis of charges leading to Anne's demise, although many historical accounts concur that the charges involving incest between Anne and George are trumped-up.

Elizabeth Somerset was identified as the privy councilor's sister referenced in the poem after John Hussee, agent of the Lord Deputy of Calais and factotum of Lord Lisle declared "as to the queen’s accusers, my lady of Worcester is said to be the principal." He acknowledged there were a few other accusers—"Nan Cobham, with one maid more"—but referred to Elizabeth as "the first ground" when it came to raising charges against Anne. Elizabeth was expecting another child in the spring of 1536 during the events of Anne's investigation. Queen Anne became concerned about her former lady-in-waiting's difficulties during pregnancy as she remained locked up in the Tower, she "much lamented my lady of Worcester… because that her child did not stir in her body." Elizabeth birthed a daughter that year as Anne Boleyn languished in captivity and named her Anne in memory of her queen. Elizabeth died in 1565, between 20 April when her will was dated and 23 October when her will was probated, she is buried in Chepstow, Wales.

Elizabeth and Henry left behind four sons and four daughters on record who grew to adulthood, although it is rumored they had two more children who survived past infancy, bringing the total to ten: Lady Anne Somerset, married Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland William Somerset, 3rd Earl of Worcester Lady Lucy Somerset, married John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer Lady Eleanor Somerset, married 1) Sir Roger Vaughan and 2) Henry Johns Thomas Somerset Charles Somerset Francis Somerset Lady Joan or "Jane" Somerset, married Sir Edward Mansel Mary Somerset

Ohrdruf

Ohrdruf is a small town in the district of Gotha in the German state of Thuringia. It lies some 30 km southwest of Erfurt at the foot of the northern slope of the Thuringian Forest; the former municipalities Crawinkel, Gräfenhain and Wölfis were merged into Ohrdruf in January 2019. Ohrdruf was founded in 724–726 by Saint Boniface, as the site of the first monastery in Thuringia, dedicated to Saint Michael, it was the first of several religious foundations in the town, the latest of, the Carmelite monastery Karmel St. Elija. In 1550, under Georg II von Gleichen work began on Schloss Ehrenstein at the site of the former 8th century monastery. During the 17th century, the Schloss fell to the Grafen von Hohenlohe who after 1760 made alterations to it in Baroque style. In 1695, the orphaned Johann Sebastian Bach came to live and attend school at Ohrdruf, under the care of his older brother Johann Christoph Bach, who had come here in 1690 as organist at the St. Michaelis Kirche and as a teacher at the Lyceum.

Johann Sebastian lived in Ohrdruf from the ages of 10 to 15. In the 19th century, the town became a centre of toy manufacturing; the Kewpie doll was produced here from 1913. There are still some old molds embedded in the facades of Ohrdruf buildings. In 1869, the Hohenlohe family sold the Grafschaft Gleichen including the castle and town of Ohrdruf to the Duchy of Saxe-Gotha; the nearby Truppenübungsplatz Ohrdruf served as a POW camp during World War I, housing around 20,000 prisoners. It was used by the Wehrmacht and in the fall of 1944 a section of it became the Ohrdruf concentration camp; the prisoners were used to construct roads and tunnels. The latter were to include a temporary headquarters for the Nazi leadership following the evacuation of Berlin. According to German historian Rainer Karlsch, the facility built at nearby Jonastal was one of two locations where Kurt Diebner's team tested its nuclear energy project. During this process, according to Karlsch, prisoners of war were killed under the supervision of the SS.

Ohrdruf is believed to be the place where the historical Compiègne Wagon was blown up in an air attack in 1944. Ohrdruf was the first Nazi concentration camp to be liberated by the US Army, on 4 April 1945. Shortly thereafter, Generals Eisenhower and Bradley came here to look at the piles of dead bodies left behind by the SS; the military training area of Truppenübungsplatz Ohrdruf was taken over in July 1945 by the Red Army, since Thuringia became part of the Soviet occupation zone. The Nordlager -part of the concentration camp was razed. Two memorials to the dead were erected at around this time. In 1991, ownership was transferred to the German Defence Ministry. Since 1993, the Bundeswehr has been in charge of the area; the Soviet troops used Schloss Ehrenstein from 1956 until 1971, leaving it in a desolate condition. Schloss Ehrenstein: A Renaissance castle with Baroque alterations, the restoration of Schloss Ehrenstein was completed in the fall of 2013 and a new exhibition on local history opened in the east wing.

However, on 26 November 2013 a fire destroyed many of the new exhibits. It was started inadvertently by workmen putting finishing touches to the south eastern corner of the castle. Sparks caused a smouldering fire. Despite the efforts of hundreds of fire fighters from all over the region, supported by Bundeswehr and Technisches Hilfswerk, large parts could not be saved. Small fires were still burning five days later; the town library and museum were damaged. St. Michaelis Kirche: Previous churches at the site go back to the 8th century. Associated with the Bach family, who worked there as organists, the church burned down in 1753 and 1808 when fires raged through the town, but was rebuilt each time; the church was again destroyed by Allied bombing in 1945, only the roofless 15th century tower remaining. This was covered by a concrete roof until 1998/99. Today, the tower houses an exhibition on the church's history. List of towns in Thuringia Ohrdruf concentration camp Town website

Wang Maoshe

Wang Maoshe is a former Chinese politician who served as the Communist Party Secretary of Yuncheng, a city in Shanxi province, between 2013 and 2014, prior to that, party chief of Shuozhou. He was investigated for corruption and was expelled from the Communist Party of China in 2015. Wang was raised in the town of Hechuan of Anze County, Shanxi Province, he graduated from Shanxi Agricultural University. Wang joined the workforce in July 1975, joined the Communist Party of China in April 1982. In December 2007, Wang was appointed the Deputy Party Secretary and Vice-Mayor of Jincheng, he was promoted to become the Mayor of Jincheng in April 2008. In February 2011, Wang was transferred to Shuozhou as the CPC Party Chief, a position he held until February 2013, when he was transferred laterally to become the party chief of Yuncheng. On June 4, 2014, it was announced that Wang was as being investigated by the Party's internal disciplinary body for "serious violations of laws and regulations". After Wang was sacked, the party chief position in the city of Yuncheng, one of the "corruption disaster zones", was not filled for over a year, the longest such vacancy for any municipal party chief since the anti-corruption campaign began in 2012.

He was succeeded by Henan native Wang Yuyan in August 2015. In the same month, Wang was expelled from the Communist Party, he was accused of "vote-buying", taking bribes, "continuing to take bribes after the 18th Party Congress". Wang was a member of the 11th National People's Congress. Chinese media reported that Wang had close relations with two officials: Ling Zhengce and Du Shanxue

Solar Striker

Solar Striker is a vertical scrolling shooter video game developed by Nintendo R&D1 with Minakuchi Engineering for the Nintendo Game Boy. It was first published in Japan on January 26, 1990 released in North America in February, in Europe on September 28. "The year is 2159. The Earth Federal Government was established, linking the people with a common government against other species; as part of this new addition and to defend the human race's peace and safety, the Earth Federal Army was created." "The army went on the offensive, attacked a star known as'Turin.' However, the Earth Federal Army was no match for the overwhelming combat power of Turin, Earth's fate seemed sealed. As Earth's last chance, a top-secret mobile unit developed a advanced space fighter in Earth's last fortification. Flying with the mothership,'Mother Atena', it arrived at Turin's solar system as the last chance for a violent and final attack on the Turin forces; this advanced spacecraft, Earth's last hope for survival, is code-named'Solar Striker'."

The player controls code-named Solar Striker. There are six levels of play against enemies known as the forces of Reticulon; these enemies appear from the top of the screen. The player can amass power-ups by shooting special ships. One power-up doubles the player's firepower, three power-ups triples the player's firepower, five power-ups causes shots to explode on impact with enemies aiding combat against tough enemies and bosses that take many hits to destroy. There are a variety of enemies as well as sub-bosses in levels; when the player completes all six levels for the first time and after the credits roll, the player will be able to play Hard Mode by pressing Select instead of Start from the title screen. Solar Striker was designed by Gunpei Yokoi and Keisuke Terasaki, developed by Nintendo in co-operation with the external company Minakuchi Engineering, it was first published in Japan on January 26, 1990 released in North America in February, in Europe on September 28. As such, it is one of the few scrolling shooters developed by Nintendo.

Solar Striker has been met with favorable reviews. It earned an overall score of 75% at GameRankings. Mean Machines described Solar Striker as "adequate", but noted there was a lack of material to keep players interested, giving the game a score of 69%. Allgame rated it 2.5/5, describing it as a "decent shooter but nothing great", citing its difficulty as a deterrent to enjoying it. Games Are Fun gave it a 7 out of 10. German magazine Power Play praised the title for its variety in terms of enemies and levels, though noted the underlying simplicity of the game as well, giving it a score of 70%. Author Jeff Rovin in the book How to Win at Game Boy Games described the title as "one of the oldest kinds of Nintendo games", comparing it to SNK's Alpha Mission but added there were too few instances of innovation or surprises, the powerups were "unsatisfying"; the background music for Level 1 and Level 2 was used in the beginning of the Captain N: The Game Master episode, "The Trouble With Tetris", in a altered form.

A space craft seen in the same part of the episode resembles the Solar Striker on the Japanese box art of the game. The Level 1 background music was used in season 2 episodes of Captain N: The Game Master. Official Japanese website Official Japanese instructions in PDF format Solar Striker at MobyGames Solar Striker at NinDB