Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but dense and large settlements, as well as vast populated regions, its 4.5 billion people constitute 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean; the border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity.
The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce and colonialism; the accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties and government systems, it has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal; this makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was defined by European academics; the Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.
The major geographical theorist of the empire was a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced; the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century; the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north; the border between Asia and the region of Oceania is placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago.
The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception; the chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between
The Pasig River is a river in the Philippines that connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay. Stretching for 25 kilometres, it bisects the Philippine capital of Manila and its surrounding urban area into northern and southern halves, its major tributaries are San Juan River. The total drainage basin of Pasig River, including the basin of Laguna de Bay, covers 4,678 square kilometres; the Pasig River is technically a tidal estuary, as the flow direction depends upon the water level difference between Manila Bay and Laguna de Bay. During the dry season, the water level in Laguna de Bay is low with the river's flow direction dependent on the tides. During the wet season, when the water level of Laguna de Bay is high, the flow is reversed towards Manila Bay; the Pasig River used to be an important transport source of water for Spanish Manila. Due to negligence and industrial development, the river has become polluted and is considered biologically dead by ecologists; the Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission, established to oversee rehabilitation efforts for the river, is supported by private sector organisations such as the Clean and Green Foundation, Inc. that introduced the Piso para sa Pasig campaign in the 1990s.
The Pasig River winds north-westward for some 25 kilometres from the Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines, to Manila Bay, in the southern part of the island of Luzon. From the lake, the river runs between Taguig and Taytay, before entering Pasig; this portion of the Pasig River, to the confluence with the Marikina River tributary, is known as the Napindan River or Napindan Channel. From there, the Pasig forms flows through Pasig until its confluence with the Taguig River, From here, it forms the border between Mandaluyong to the north and Makati to the south.. The river sharply turns northeast, where it has become the border between Mandaluyong and Manila before turning again westward, joining its other major tributary, the San Juan River, following a sinuous path through the center of Manila before emptying into the bay; the whole river and most portions of its tributaries lie within Metro Manila, the metropolitan region of the capital. Isla de Convalecencia, the only island dividing the Pasig River, can be found in Manila and it is where the Hospicio de San Jose is located.
One major river that drains Laguna de Bay is the Taguig River, which enters into Taguig before becoming the Pateros River. Pateros River enters the confluence where the Napindan Channel and Marikina River meet; the Marikina River is the larger of the two major tributaries of the Pasig River, it flows southward from the mountains of Rizal and cuts through the Marikina Valley. The San Juan River drains the plateau. Within the city of Manila, various esteros criss-cross through the city and connect with the Tullahan River in the north and the Parañaque River to the west. A total of 19 bridges cross the Pasig; the first bridge from the source at Laguna de Bay is the Napindan Bridge, followed by the Arsenio Jimenez Bridge to its west. Crossing the Napindan Channel in Pasig is the Bambang Bridge; the newest bridge, opened in February 2015, is the Buting-Sumilang Bridge that connects barangays Buting and Sumilang in Pasig. The next bridge downstream is the C-5 Road Bridge connecting the cities of Pasig.
Under construction is the Sta. Monica–Lawton Bridge, which will connect Lawton Avenue in Makati to Sta. Monica Street in Kapitolyo, Pasig as part of the Bonifacio Global City–Ortigas Link Road project approved in 2015; the Guadalupe Bridge between Makati and Mandaluyong carries Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, the major artery of Metro Manila, as well as the MRT-3 line from Guadalupe Station to Boni Station. The Estrella–Pantaleon and Makati-Mandaluyong Bridges connect the two cities downstream, with the latter forming the end of Makati Avenue; the easternmost crossing in the City of Manila is Lambingan Bridge in the district of Santa Ana, followed by the Padre Zamora Bridge connecting Pandacan and Santa Mesa districts, carries the southern line of the Philippine National Railways. The Mabini Bridge provides a crossing for Nagtahan Avenue, part of C-2 Road. Ayala Bridge carries Ayala Boulevard, connects the Isla de Convalecencia to both banks of the Pasig. Further downstream are the Quezon Bridge from Quiapo to Ermita, the LRT-1 bridge from Central Terminal Station to Carriedo Station, MacArthur Bridge from Santa Cruz to Ermita, the Jones Bridge from Binondo to Ermita.
The last bridge near the mouth of the Pasig is the Roxas Bridge from Tondo to the Port Area. The Metro Manila Skyway Stage 3 will serve as a connection road from North Luzon Expressway in Balintawak, Quezon City to South Luzon Expressway in Buendia, Makati City; the expressway bridge will be built within the city of Manila near the mouth of San Juan River where most parts of Skyway Stage 3 will be built and another bridge parallel to Pandacan and PNR bridges that will merge with NLEX Connector, will serve as a solution to heavy traffic along EDSA. The project is expected to be finish by 2020; the growth of Manila along the banks of the Pasig River has made it a focal point for development and historical events. The foremost landmark on the banks of the river is the walled district of Intramuros, located near the mouth of the river on its southern bank, it was built by the Spanish colonial government in the 16th century
A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. The first modern examples of this type of bridge were built in the early 1800s. Simple suspension bridges, which lack vertical suspenders, have a long history in many mountainous parts of the world; this type of bridge has cables suspended between towers, plus vertical suspender cables that carry the weight of the deck below, upon which traffic crosses. This arrangement allows the deck to arc upward for additional clearance. Like other suspension bridge types, this type is constructed without falsework; the suspension cables must be anchored at each end of the bridge, since any load applied to the bridge is transformed into a tension in these main cables. The main cables continue beyond the pillars to deck-level supports, further continue to connections with anchors in the ground; the roadway is supported by called hangers. In some circumstances, the towers may sit on a bluff or canyon edge where the road may proceed directly to the main span, otherwise the bridge will have two smaller spans, running between either pair of pillars and the highway, which may be supported by suspender cables or may use a truss bridge to make this connection.
In the latter case there will be little arc in the outboard main cables. The earliest suspension bridges were ropes slung across a chasm, with a deck at the same level or hung below the ropes such that the rope had a catenary shape; the Tibetan saint and bridge-builder Thangtong Gyalpo originated the use of iron chains in his version of simple suspension bridges. In 1433, Gyalpo built eight bridges in eastern Bhutan; the last surviving chain-linked bridge of Gyalpo's was the Thangtong Gyalpo Bridge in Duksum en route to Trashi Yangtse, washed away in 2004. Gyalpo's iron chain bridges did not include a suspended deck bridge, the standard on all modern suspension bridges today. Instead, both the railing and the walking layer of Gyalpo's bridges used wires; the stress points. Before the use of iron chains it is thought that Gyalpo used ropes from twisted willows or yak skins, he may have used bound cloth. The first iron chain suspension bridge in the Western world was the Jacob's Creek Bridge in Westmoreland County, designed by inventor James Finley.
Finley's bridge was the first to incorporate all of the necessary components of a modern suspension bridge, including a suspended deck which hung by trusses. Finley patented his design in 1808, published it in the Philadelphia journal, The Port Folio, in 1810. Early British chain bridges included the Dryburgh Abbey Bridge and 137 m Union Bridge, with spans increasing to 176 m with the Menai Bridge, "the first important modern suspension bridge"; the first chain bridge on the German speaking territories was the Chain Bridge in Nuremberg. The Clifton Suspension Bridge is one of the longest of the parabolic arc chain type; the current Marlow suspension bridge was designed by William Tierney Clark and was built between 1829 and 1832, replacing a wooden bridge further downstream which collapsed in 1828. It is the only suspension bridge across the non-tidal Thames; the Széchenyi Chain Bridge, spanning the River Danube in Budapest, was designed by William Clark and it is a larger scale version of Marlow bridge.
An interesting variation is Thornewill and Warham's Ferry Bridge in Burton-on-Trent, where the chains are not attached to abutments as is usual, but instead are attached to the main girders, which are thus in compression. Here, the chains are made from flat wrought iron plates, eight inches wide by an inch and a half thick, rivetted together; the first wire-cable suspension bridge was the Spider Bridge at Falls of Schuylkill, a modest and temporary footbridge built following the collapse of James Finley's nearby Chain Bridge at Falls of Schuylkill. The footbridge's span was 124 m. Development of wire-cable suspension bridges dates to the temporary simple suspension bridge at Annonay built by Marc Seguin and his brothers in 1822, it spanned only 18 m. The first permanent wire cable suspension bridge was Guillaume Henri Dufour's Saint Antoine Bridge in Geneva of 1823, with two 40 m spans; the first with cables assembled in mid-air in the modern method was Joseph Chaley's Grand Pont Suspendu in Fribourg, in 1834.
In the United States, the first major wire-cable suspension bridge was the Wire Bridge at Fairmount in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Designed by Charles Ellet, Jr. and completed in 1842, it had a span of 109 m. Ellet's Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge was abandoned before completion, it was used as scaffolding for John A. Roebling's double decker railroad and carriage bridge; the Otto Beit Bridge was the first modern suspension bridge outside the United States built with parallel wire cables. The main forces in a suspension bridge of any type are tension in the cables and compression in the pillars. Since all the force on the pillars is vertically downwards and they are stabilized by the main cables, the pillars can be made quite slender, as on the Severn Bridge, on the Wales-England border. In a suspended deck bridge, cables suspended via towers hold up the road deck; the weight is transferred by the cables to the towers, which in turn transfer the weight to the ground. Assuming a negligible weight as compared to the weight of the deck and vehicles being supported, the main cables of a suspension bridge will form a parabola (very similar
Intramuros is the 0.67 square kilometres historic walled area within the modern city of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration, created through the Presidential Decree No. 1616 signed on April 10, 1979. IA is tasked to rebuild, redevelop and preserve the remaining pre-war buildings and fortifications of Intramuros. Intramuros is called the Walled City, at the time of the Spanish Colonial Period was synonymous to the City of Manila. Other towns and arrabales located beyond the walls are referred to as "extramuros", the Spanish for "outside the walls", it was the seat of government and political power when the Philippines was a component realm of the Spanish Empire. It was the center of religion and economy; the standard way of life in Intramuros became the standard way of life throughout the Philippines. The Manila Galleons which sailed the Pacific for 250 years, carried goods to and from Intramuros and Acapulco, Mexico. Construction of the defensive walls was started by the Spanish colonial government in the late 16th century to protect the city from foreign invasions.
The Walled City was located along the shores of the Manila Bay, south of the entrance to Pasig River. Guarding the old city is Fort Santiago, its citadel located at the mouth of the river. Land reclamations during the early 20th century subsequently obscured the walls and fort from the bay; the Battle of Manila in 1945 devastated Intramuros. It is the place where the occupying Japanese Imperial Army made their last stand against Allied soldiers and Filipino guerillas; the battle destroyed its churches, universities and government buildings, most of which dated back to the Spanish Colonial Period. Intramuros the Fort Santiago, was designated as a National Historical Landmark in 1951; the fortifications of Intramuros, collectively called "Fortifications of Manila", were declared as National Cultural Treasures, by the National Museum of the Philippines, owing to its architectural and archaeological significance. San Agustin Church, a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the Baroque Churches of the Philippines, is located within Intramuros.
The strategic location of Manila along the bay and at the mouth of Pasig River made it an ideal location for the Tagalog and Kapampangan tribes and kingdoms to trade with merchants from what would be today's China, India and Indonesia. Before the first arrival of Europeans on Luzon island, the island was part of the Hindu Majapahit empire around the 14th century, according to the epic eulogy poem Nagarakretagama which described its conquest by Mahārāja Hayam Wuruk; the region became a part of the Sultanate of Brunei. The site of Intramuros became a part of the Islamic Kingdom of Maynila a Bruneian puppet-state ruled by Rajah Sulayman, a Muslim Rajah who swore fealty to the Sultan of Brunei. In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi sailed from New Spain, arrived on the island of Cebu on February 13, 1565, establishing the first Spanish colony in the Philippines. Having heard from the natives about the rich resources in Manila, Legazpi dispatched two of his lieutenant-commanders, Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo, to explore the island of Luzon.
The Spaniards arrived on the island of Luzon in 1570. After quarrels and misunderstandings between the Muslim natives and the Spaniards, they fought for control of the land and settlements. After several months of warfare the natives were defeated, the Spaniards made a peace pact with the councils of Rajah Sulaiman III, Lakan Dula, Rajah Matanda who handed over Manila to the Spaniards. Legazpi declared the area of Manila as the new capital of the Spanish colony on June 24, 1571, because of its strategic location and rich resources, he proclaimed the sovereignty of the Monarchy of Spain over the whole archipelago. King Philip II of Spain delighted at the new conquest achieved by Legazpi and his men, awarding the city a coat of arms and declaring it as: Ciudad Insigne y Siempre Leal, it was settled and became the political and religious center of the Spanish Empire in Asia. The city was in constant danger of natural and man-made disasters and worse, attacks from foreign invaders. In 1574, a fleet of Chinese pirates led by Limahong attacked the city and destroyed it before the Spaniards drove them away.
The colony had to be rebuilt again by the survivors. These attacks prompted the construction of the wall; the city of stone began during the rule of Governor-General Santiago de Vera. The city was planned and executed by Jesuit Priest Antonio Sedeno in accordance to the Laws of the Indies, was approved by King Philip II's Royal Ordinance, issued in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain; the succeeding governor-general, Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas brought with him from Spain the royal instructions to carry into effect the said decree stating that "to enclose the city with stone and erect a suitable fort at the junction of the sea and river". Leonardo Iturriano, a Spanish military engineer specializing in fortifications, headed the project. Chinese and Filipino workers built the walls. Fort Santiago was rebuilt and a circular fort, known as Nuestra Senora de Guia, was erected to defend the land and sea on the southwestern side of the city. Funds came from a monopoly on playing fines imposed on its excessive play.
Chinese goods were taxed for two years. Designed by Geronimo Tongco and Pedro Jusepe, construction of the walls began on 1590 and continued under many governor-generals until 1872. By the middle of 1592, Dasmarinas wrote the King about the satisf
Ermita is a district in Manila, Philippines. It is a significant center of finance, education and commerce. Ermita serves as the civic center of the city, bearing the seat of city government and a large portion of the area's employment and entertainment activities. Private and government offices and university thrive in Ermita, it is the home to famous tourist attractions and landmarks, among them is the Rizal Park, the premier national park of the Philippines. Ermita was founded in the late 16th century, its name was taken from La Hermita, the Spanish word for "hermitage", after the fact that a Mexican hermit resided in the area and on this site was built a hermitage housing an image of the Virgin Mary known as the Nuestra Señora de Guia. The hermitage has since evolved into Ermita Church, rebuilt several times since the early 17th century. Ermita gained renewed prominence during the American colonial period, it became known as the university district, containing the campuses and dormitories of the Philippine Normal University, University of the Philippines, the Ateneo de Manila, Adamson University, the Assumption College and St. Paul College.
The residential portion of Ermita was populated by American residents, who set up such establishments as the Army and Navy Club, the University Club. During the early half of the 20th century, the Ermita district as well as its adjacent district, Malate became known for the gilded mansions built by the upper classes; the richest people lived in the two neighborhoods who are both facing the Manila Bay. In February 1945, during the 1945 Battle of Manila, Ermita was the scene of some of the most horrific massacres that occurred during the Second World War; the wife and four children of future President Elpidio Quirino were murdered in Ermita, as was Supreme Court Associate Justice Anacleto Diaz. Between 68% to 85% of Ermita was destroyed during the Battle of Manila, with an estimated total of 100,000 Filipino civilians killed in the city itself. After the war, the district transformed from a residential area into a commercial area as the upper classes moved to other cities such as Quezon City and Makati City.
Ermita was rebuilt after the devastation of the war. University life remained vibrant therein. However, as decades passed, Ermita started earning a reputation as the red-light district of Manila. During the first term of Mayor Alfredo Lim, 1992-1998, an effort was made to "clean up" Ermita's image and reputation. However, a local city ordinance prohibiting the establishment of motels, lodging houses and other similar establishments, was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court; as a result of the clean-up efforts, nightlife in the area dwindled though it picked up with the help of the emergence of the nearby Malate district and the Roxas Boulevard revitalization efforts along Manila Bay. The district can be directly accessed by the main roads like the Roxas Boulevard, Padre Burgos Street, Taft Avenue and United Nations Avenue; the "Park N Ride" Lawton Bus Station, the city's main public transport hub, is located in the district along Padre Burgos Street. The Manila Light Rail Transit System follows Taft Avenue and stops at three stations located in Ermita, Central Terminal Station, United Nations Station and Pedro Gil Station.
Ermita is known as the civic center of Manila. The city government is housed in the Manila City Hall along Padre Burgos Street; the offices of the judicial department of the Philippine government is located in the district along Taft Avenue and Padre Faura Street. The Supreme Court of the Philippines, the Court of Appeals, the National Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Justice, the Boy Scouts of the Philippines are headquartered in this area. Ermita is home of the country's major maritime and travel companies which can be found along Kalaw and UN Avenues. Philam Life Insurance Company is headquartered in its building along United Nations Avenue; the Daily Tribune has its publishing house in the area along Kalaw Avenue. Moldex Realty Inc. the largest real estate developer in the city, is headquartered in 1322 Golden Empire Tower, the tallest building in the City of Manila, along Roxas Boulevard. The Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation is headquartered along Roxas Boulevard. Ermita is a shopping destination for Manila's upper and middle-class families and for students studying in the University Belt.
Robinsons Place Manila, Manila's largest shopping mall, is located in the district's tourist belt along Pedro Gil and Adriatico Streets. SM City Manila, on the other hand, is located in the district's civic center along Mayor Antonio Villegas Road, it is home of the city's hotels and night clubs. And it is part of Manila's tourist belt along Roxas Boulevard with Malate. Rizal Park,the widest open urban public park in the country and location of the monument to the national hero José Rizal, is a prominent feature of Ermita; this was the original site for capitol building. Other sites of interest in Ermita include: National Museum of Fine Arts National Museum of Anthropology National Museum of Natural History National Library of the Philippines National Archives of the Philippines Quirino Grandstand Manila Ocean Park Liwasang Bonifacio Arroceros Forest Park Metropolitan Theater Manila Hotel The Masonic Temple of Ermita Philippine Independent Church San Vicente de Paul Church Ermita Church Philippine General Hospital, the country's largest hospital A number of educational institutions are found in Ermita, including: University of the Philippines, Manila Adamson University Emilio Aguinaldo College Santa Isabel College Manila Philippine Normal University Technological University of the Philippines Universidad de Manila (fo
Nicomedes "Nick" Márquez Joaquín was a Filipino writer and journalist best known for his short stories and novels in the English language. He wrote using the pen name Quijano de Manila. Joaquín was conferred the title of National Artist of the Philippines for Literature, he has been considered one of the most important Filipino writers, along with José Rizal and Claro M. Recto. Unlike Rizal and Recto, whose works were written in Spanish, Joaquin's major works were written in English despite being a native Spanish speaker. Before becoming one of the leading practitioners of Philippine literature in English, he was a seminarian in Hong Kong – who realized that he could better serve God and humanity by being a writer; this is reflected in the content and style of his works, as he emphasizes the need to restore national consciousness through important elements in Catholic Spanish Heritage. In his self-confessed mission as a writer, he is a sort of "cultural apostle", whose purpose is to revive interest in Philippine national life through literature – and provide the necessary drive and inspiration for a fuller comprehension of their cultural background.
His awareness of the significance of the past to the present is part of a concerted effort to preserve the spiritual tradition and the orthodox faith of the Catholic past – which he perceives as the only solution to our modern ills. Nicomedes “Nick” Joaquín y Márquez, fondly called “Onching” by close family and friends was born on May 4, 1917 in Pacó, Manila. There are varying accounts on the date of his birth, some cite it as September 15, 1917; this could stem from how Joaquín himself refrained from revealing his date of birth because he disliked the fuss of people coming over and celebrating his birthday. Joaquín was the fifth out of the ten children of Don Leocadio Salomé Márquez. Don Leocadio fought in the Philippine Revolution by the side of his friend General Emilio Aguinaldo, reached the position of Colonel, he retired after he was wounded in action and moved on to a prolific career as a lawyer in Manila and the southern province of Laguna. Salomé Márquez was a well-educated woman, she was trained by Americans in English to teach at the public schools when the United States colonized the Philippines.
The Joaquín family lived in a two-story residential and commercial building uncommon at that time, on Herran Street in Pacó, Manila. Joaquín was said to have had an happy childhood; the Joaquín children were tutored in Spanish & piano, the children were encouraged to have an interest in the arts. The Joaquín home heard mass regularly. Joaquín continued being so his whole life; the Joaquíns had lived a handsome life until Don Leocadio lost the family fortune in a failed investment on an oil exploration project in the late 1920s. The family moved out into a rented house in Pasay. Don Leocadio passed not long after; the young Joaquín was only twelve years old and this signalled a big change in their family. Nick Joaquín went to Mapa High School for secondary education. However, in his third year informed his mother that he wanted to drop out because he felt that the classroom was too confined for him and that he learned more outside of it, his mother Salomé, a former teacher, still allowed him to do so.
After leaving school, Joaquín worked as an apprentice in a bakery in Pasay and on in the publishing company TVT This allowed him a small taste of an industry he would spend most of his life in. An avid reader, Joaquín, used this time to pursue his passion for it, he was described as a having a “rabid and insane love for books” by his sister-in-law Sarah K. Joaquín, his parents had encouraged his interest in books early on. He had a borrower's card at the National Library when he was ten, he loved the bookstores in downtown Manila. He read voraciously and intently, he read everything that had caught his eye, he enjoyed the “poetry of Edna St. Vincent Millay and Vachel Lindsay to the stories of Anton Chekhov, to the novels of Dostoyevsky, D. H. Lawrence, Willa Cather, he read American magazines and discovered the fiction of Booth Tarkington, Somerset Maugham, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway.” Early on, Joaquín was exploring his literary voice. At age 17, he published his first English poem about Don Quixote, in the literary section of the pre-World War II Tribune, where he worked as a proofreader.
It was accepted by editor Serafín Lanot. Joaquín had felt a strong connection with the story of Don Quixote. In life, he used a similar iteration of Quixote in his various pen names, Quijano de Pacó and Quijano de Manila. A little in 1937 he published his first short story in the Sunday Tribune Magazine, “The Sorrows of Vaudeville” telling the story of the vaudevilles in Manila—a city he was endlessly enamored by, it was accepted by editor Serafín Lanot. After Joaquín won a nationwide essay competition to honor La Naval de Manila, sponsored by the Dominican Order, the University of Santo Tomas awarded him an honorary Associate in Arts and a scholarship to St. Albert's Convent, the Dominican monastery in Hong Kong. There he was once again close to his family's original goal for him to enter the seminary. Joaquín and his family were devoutly Christian, he notably was fond of praying the Holy Rosary. He only stayed in Hong Kong for two years before returning to Mani