Roman mausoleum of Córdoba
The Roman mausoleum of Córdoba is an ancient structure in the Jardines de la Victoria, Córdoba, southern Spain. It is a funerary monument of cylinder-shaped that corresponded to a group of funerary monuments of the Republican era, built in the 1st century AD, it was discovered in 1993 during archaeological excavations. It includes the chamber tomb that housed the Urn, as well as remains of the basement and crenellated parapet. Unusual for such structures in Roman Iberia, it may have been designed by an Italian architect, due to similarities to other mausoleums in Rome and the rest of Italy, its size suggests that it belonged to a wealthy family. The mausoleum is located near the road that connected the ancient city with Hispalis, exited from the city by the western gate, or "Porta Principalis Sinistra"; the archaeological site includes remains of the pavement of the latter. Roman mausoleums of "Puerta Gallegos" in Córdoba
San Pedro (Córdoba)
San Pedro is a minor basilica in Córdoba, Spain. The church is located in the square of the barrio bearing its name; the building is believed to be located over a previous edifice housing the remains of the Córdoban martyrs Januarius and Faustus, dating to the 4th century AD. After the conquest of the city by king Ferdinand III of Castile, a church dedicated to St. Paul was built here in his program of construction to give a Christian appeal to the Muslim city. Construction was completed in the early 14th century; the edifice's current appearance date to restorations. Part of the bell tower and two of the medieval gates have survived, a new one having been added by architect Hernán Ruiz II in 1542. In 2006, the church was elevated to the status of minor basilica by Pope Benedict XVI, it is a Bien de Interés Cultural monument. San Pedro at Cordobapedia
Basílica del Juramento de San Rafael
Basílica del Juramento de San Rafael is a minor basilica in Córdoba, Spain. It stands on the site where it is believed that the Raphael the Archangel appeared to Father Roeles in 1578, vowing to guard the city. Financing to build the church occurred the late 18th century, with construction completed in 1806, it is a Bien de Interés Cultural monument. The structure combines a longitudinal space with a circular facade representing the latest neoclassical style of the city; the interior is divided by three naves with bent arches. The crossing is crowned with a barrel vault. On the main altar, a baldachin houses the titular image, which dates to 1735. There are works of the painter and Cordoban biographer Antonio Cordoba Acisclus Palomino which date to the 18th century. Media related to Iglesia del Juramento de San Rafael de Córdoba, Spain at Wikimedia Commons Page at Cordobapedia Page at Turismo de Córdoba
Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos
The Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos known as the Alcázar of Córdoba, is a medieval alcázar located in the historic centre of Córdoba, next to the Guadalquivir River and near the Grand Mosque. The Alcázar takes its name; the fortress served as one of the primary residences of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. It is a building of military character whose construction was ordered by the King Alfonso XI of Castile in the year 1328, on previous constructions; the architectural ensemble has a sober character in its exterior and splendid in its interior, with the magnificent gardens and courtyards that maintain a Mudéjar inspiration. The Alcázar has been declared a Cultural Interest Heritage since 1931, it forms part of the Historic Center of Córdoba, declared part of World Heritage by UNESCO in 1994. In early medieval times, the site was occupied by a Visigoth fortress; when the Visigoths fell to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, the emirs of the Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus rebuilt the structure.
The Umayyads fell to the Abbasid Caliphate and the surviving member of the Umayyad Dynasty, Abd ar-Rahman I, fled to Córdoba. Abd ar-Rahman I's successors established the independent Caliphate of Córdoba and used the Alcázar as their palace; the city subsequently flourished as a key political and cultural center, the Alcázar was expanded into a large and used area with baths and the largest library in the West. Watermills on the nearby Guadalquivir powered water lifting to irrigate the extensive gardens. In 1236, Christian forces took Córdoba during the Reconquista. In 1328, Alfonso XI of Castile began building the present day structure on part of the site for the old fortress. Other parts of the Moorish Alcázar had been given as spoils to the bishop and the Order of Calatrava. Alfonso's structure retained only part of the Moorish ruins but the structure appears Islamic due to Alfonso's use of the Mudéjar style; the Alcázar was involved in the civil war where Henry IV of Castile faced a rebellion that backed his teenage half-brother Alfonso.
During the war, the Alcázar's defenses were upgraded to deal with the advent of gunpowder. At the same time, the Alcázar's main tower, now known as the "Tower of the Inquisition" was constructed. Henry's successor and her husband, used the Alcázar for one of the first permanent tribunals of the Spanish Inquisition and as a headquarters for their campaign against the Nasrid dynasty in Granada, the last remaining Moorish kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula; the Inquisition began using the Alcázar as one of its headquarters in 1482, converting much of it, including the Arab baths, into torture and interrogation chambers. The Inquisition maintained a tribunal here for three centuries. Boabdil was held prisoner here in 1483; when Boabdil refused to surrender his kingdom in 1489, the Christians launched an attack. Isabella and Ferdinand's campaign against Granada succeeded in 1492; the same year, the monarchs met Christopher Columbus in the Alcázar as he prepared to take his first voyage to the Americas.
The Alcázar served as a garrison for Napoleon Bonaparte's troops in 1810. In 1821, the Alcázar became a prison; the Spanish government made the Alcázar a tourist attraction and national monument in the 1950s. The outdoor area of the Alcázar is situated within the walls of the four towers, this creating an square shape to the building. Tower of Homage, of octagonal shape, is situated in the Northeast corner; the tower was known as ‘The Clock Tower’, owing its name to the clock, house within. Tower of the Lions, of square shape, is situated in the Northwest corner; the door to the base of this tower is used as the visitor entrance to the Alcázar. It is the longest standing tower, dating back to the 13th Century, is named after gargoyles in the shape of lions which are found on the uppermost section of the tower. Within the tower there are two floors. Tower of the inquisition, of circular shape, is situated in the Southwest corner, it receives its name from the fact that, for centuries, it housed the archives of the Tribunal of the Holy Inquisition.
It was known as the ‘Tower of the Gardens’. Tower of the Dove, of square shape, is situated in the Southeast corner; the original tower was demolished in the mid-19th century, the current tower being a reconstruction which dates back to the second half of the 20th century. It was known as ‘The Watch Tower’; the main hall of the building, constructed in the 18th Century, is referred to as the “Hall of Mosaics”, given the impressive Mosaics that can be found within the hall. The mosaics on show were discovered at the Corredera Square towards the end of the 1950s and formed part of the Roman Circus, as well as a sarcophagus from the 3rd Century; the hall is a sought after civil marriage location by many Cordoban citizens. Beneath the current floor of the hall, it is still possible to discover the remains of which are believed to be from the Royal Baths which were used by high dignitaries during the Muslim era; the courtyard of
Palacio de la Merced
The Palacio de la Merced is a historical building in Córdoba, southern Spain. Once home to the convent of La Merced Calzada, it is now home to the Provincial Government of Córdoba, a sovra-municipal services institution of the province of Córdoba. Excavations in the site have revealed the presence of ancient Roman ashlars. Findings include medieval remains of a baptistery and of a crypt, identified with the Palaeo-Christian or Visigothic basilica of St. Eulalia, assigned by some scholars to the reign of king Reccared I; the foundation of the palace is traditionally connected to Peter Nolasco, whom king Ferdinand III of Castile had donated the Basilica of St. Eulalia after the conquest of the city in the early 13th century. There are few traces of the 13th convent, however; the current edifice dates to the 18th century, the church dating to 1716-1745. The has a Latin cross plan, with a nave, two aisles and a transept; the cloister, with a rectangular plan and round arches, was finished in 1752.
Some renovations occurred in 1850, when it became a hospital, 1960, when it became the seat of the Provincial Deputy. In 1978 the church suffered a fire that destroyed other artworks. Media related to Palacio de la Merced, Córdoba at Wikimedia Commons Page at Cordobapedia
Roman walls of Córdoba
The Roman Walls which once surrounded Córdoba, were built after the Romans captured the city in 206 BC, making it part of the Roman Republic. The walls now form part of the historic centre of a UNESCO World Heritage site. Built as fortifications soon after the Romans captured Córdoba, the walls stretched some 2,650 m surrounding the city, they consisted of cut stone with an outer wall of up to 3 m high and a 1.2 m inner wall flanking a gap 6 m wide filled with rubble. There were several semicircular towers along the walls; when the city received the status of Colonia Patricia under Augustus, the southern wall was demolished in order to extend the city limits to the river. Vestiges remain in the Alcázar, near the Roman bridge, flanking the Avenida de la Ribera; the walls next to Calle San Fernando and Calle Cairuán have a base from this period. A section of the Roman wall can be seen from the street next to the Roman temple Roman gates included the Porta Principalis Sinistra on the west side not far from the Roman mausoleum.
The arches next to the Puerta de Sevilla to the east are part of a Roman aqueduct
Historic centre of Córdoba
The historic centre of Córdoba, Spain is one of the largest of its kind in Europe. In 1984, UNESCO registered the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba as a World Heritage Site. A decade it expanded the inscription to include much of the old town; the historic centre has a wealth of monuments preserving large traces of Roman and Christian times. First a Carthaginian township, Córdoba was captured by the Romans in 206 BC, soon becoming the capital of Hispania Citerior with fine buildings and imposing fortifications. In the 6th century, with the crumbling of the Roman Empire, the city fell to the Visigoths until the beginning of the 8th century when it was conquered by the Moors. In 716, Córdoba became a provincial capital and, in 766, capital of the Muslim emirate of al-Andalus. By the 10th century, as the Caliphate of Córdoba it had become one of the most advanced cities in the world, recognized for its culture and religious tolerance, it addition to a huge library, the city enclosed over 300 mosques and a multitude of palaces and administrative buildings.
In 1236, King Ferdinand III took the city, built new defences and converted the Grand Mosque into a cathedral. The Christian city grew up around the cathedral with palaces, a fortress. Although the city lost its political significance under Christian rule, it continued to play an important role in commerce thanks to the nearby Sierra Morena copper mines; the historic centre as defined by UNESCO comprises the buildings and narrow winding streets around the cathedral. It is bordered on the south by the River Guadalquivir so as to include the Roman Bridge and the Calahorra Tower, on the east by the Calle San Fernando, on the north by the commercial centre. To the west, it includes the San Basilio district. Evidence of the Roman period can be seen in the 16-span bridge over the Guadalquivir, the mosaics in the Alcázar, the columns of the Roman temple, the remains of the Roman walls. In addition to the Caliphal Baths, the Moorish influence in the city's design is evident in the Alcázar gardens adjacent to the former Grand Mosque.
Minarets from the period survive in the churches of Santiago, San Lorenzo, San Juan and the Santa Clara Hermitage. The Jewish presence during Muslim rule can be seen in the La Judería district in which the synagogue was used until 1492; the Alcázar a Moorish castle, was adapted to serve as a residence for the Christian kings in the 14th century while the Calahorra Tower, built by the Almohads, was comprehensively reworked by King Henry II in 1369. The little Chapel of San Bartolomé was completed in the Gothic-Mudéjar style in 1410. A church, the former San Sebastián Hospital, now the Congress Centre, was completed in 1516 in a combination of Gothic, Mudéjar and Renaissance styles. Other churches from the period include San Nicolás and San Francisco. There are a number of important 16th-century buildings including the San Pelagio Seminary, the Puerta del Puente, the Palacio del Marqués de la Fuensanta del Valle designed by Hernán Ruiz. Of note is the 18th-century Hospital del Cardenal Salazar with its Baroque facade.
Other historic monuments in the old town include the Episcopal Palace built on the remains of the former Visigoth palace and now the Diocesan Fine Arts Museum, the Royal Stables built by King Philip II in 1570 as part of the Alcázar