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Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, located between the Dominican Republic and the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million, more than 21 U. S. states. Spanish and English are the official languages of the executive branch of government, though Spanish predominates. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by the French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia.

In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain. Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. On September 23, 1868, Ramón Emeterio Betances unleashed a revolt against Spanish rule, declaring for the first time the idea of Puerto Ricans as a distinct people, with right to sovereignty; this revolt, known as El Grito de Lares, was put down by Spanish forces, but the movement continued. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Since Puerto Rico has remained an unincorporated territorial possession, making it the world's oldest colony. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, can move between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950.

However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner. As residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for the president or vice president of the United States, only some residents pay federal income tax. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U. S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens of the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time of an unemployment rate of 12.4%. The debt had been increasing during a decade-long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration.

On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, provoking the largest power outage in American history. Recovery efforts were slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland state of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico.

Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city. The island's name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898; the anglicized name was used by the U. S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them.

The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo

Frontier Marshal (1934 film)

Frontier Marshal is a 1934 American Pre-Code Western film directed by Lewis Seiler and starring George O'Brien. Produced by Fox Film and Sol M. Wurtzel, the film is the first based on Stuart N. Lake's enormously popular but fictitious "biography" of Wyatt Earp, Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal. A second version of the film produced by Wurtzel, was made in 1939, a third interpretation by John Ford entitled My Darling Clementine was released in 1946, he wrote the book with Earp's input,i and it portrays Earp as a fearless lawman. But before the first movie was released, his widow Josephine Earp sued 20th Century Fox for $50,000 in an attempt to keep them from making the film, she said. She succeeded in getting Earp's name excised from the movie, his character was renamed "Michael Wyatt," and the movie was released as Frontier Marshal. Wandering lawman Michael Wyatt rides into a lawless town and runs into conflict with the local boss, Doc Warren. George O'Brien as Michael Wyatt Irene Bentley as Mary Reid George E. Stone as David'Abe' Ruskin Alan Edwards as Doc Warren Ruth Gillette as Queenie LaVerne Berton Churchill as Ben'Hiram' Melton Frank Conroy as George'Oscar' Reid Ward Bond as Ben Murchison Edward LeSaint as Judge Walters Russell Simpson as Editor Pickett Actor Ward Bond appears in three films based on the Wyatt Earp story and Lake's spurious book: this film, the 1939 version and John Ford's My Darling Clementine, playing different roles in all three.

Frontier Marshal on IMDb Frontier Marshal at AllMovie

Castlethorpe

Castlethorpe is a village and civil parish with a population of about 1000 in the Borough of Milton Keynes, England. It is about 3 miles north-east of Stony Stratford, 4 miles north-west of Newport Pagnell and 7 miles north of Central Milton Keynes, it is separated from the county of Northamptonshire by the River Tove. The village is more recent than those around it, it started out in life as a castle belonging to the lord of the manor of nearby Hanslope. A settlement of servants and manual workers grew up around the castle and this became the village of Castlethorpe; the castle was damaged in 1215 in a feud between Foulkes de Brent –, sent by King John – and William Mauduit, the castle's owner. Mauduit was reputedly in rebellion against the King. Although Mauduit returned to claim his seat after the King's death, the castle was demolished shortly afterward. All, left today are the grassy mounds of the former Motte-and-Bailey castle. Church of St Simon and St Jude, the parish church, is dedicated to St Simon and St Jude, dates back to Anglo-Saxon times, though the present church is of Norman design.

The church at Castlethorpe was superior to that of Hanslope but Bishop Grosteste changed the precedence in about 1250. Castlethorpe has grown up around the church and some traditional old stone cottages at the centre of the village, designated a conservation area; the West Coast Main Line runs alongside the west side of Castlethorpe, the village had its own railway station until September 1964 when, to the outrage of the village, it was closed down. The Grand Union Canal runs by on the outskirts of the village, it is a short walk along the towpath to the neighbouring village of Cosgrove. Parish Website for the village of Castlethorpe in Milton Keynes Castlethorpe page at UK & Ireland Genealogy Castlethorpe Village Historical Records & Photographs