Wagonways consisted of the horses and tracks used for hauling wagons, which preceded steam-powered railways. The terms plateway and dramway were used; the advantage of wagonways was. The earliest evidence is of the 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC. Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route; the Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD. Paved trackways were built in Roman Egypt; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way; the miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. Around 1568, German miners working in the Mines Royal near Keswick used such a system.
Archaeological work at the Mines Royal site at Caldbeck in the English Lake District confirmed the use of "hunds". In 1604, Huntingdon Beaumont completed the Wollaton Wagonway, built to transport coal from the mines at Strelley to Wollaton Lane End, just west of Nottingham, England. Wagonways have been discovered between Broseley and Jackfield in Shropshire from 1605, used by James Clifford to transport coal from his mines in Broseley to the Severn River, it has been suggested. The Middleton Railway in Leeds, built in 1758 as a wagonway became the world's first operational railway, albeit in an upgraded form. In 1764, the first railway in the America was built in New York as a wagonway. Wagonways improved coal transport by allowing one horse to deliver between 10 to 13 long tons of coal per run— an approximate fourfold increase. Wagonways were designed to carry the loaded wagons downhill to a canal or boat dock and return the empty wagons back to the mine; until the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, rails were made of wood, were a few inches wide and were fastened end to end, on logs of wood or "sleepers", placed crosswise at intervals of two or three feet.
In time, it became common to cover them with a thin flat sheathing or "plating" of iron, in order to add to their life and reduce friction. This caused more wear on the wooden rollers of the wagons and towards the middle of the 18th century, led to the introduction of iron wheels. However, the iron sheathing was not strong enough to resist buckling under the passage of the loaded wagons, so rails made wholly of iron were invented. In 1760 the Coalbrookdale Iron Works began to reinforce their wooden railed tramway with iron bars, which were found to facilitate passage and diminish expenses; as a result, in 1767, they began to make cast iron rails. These were 6 ft long, with four projecting ears or lugs 3 in by 3 3⁄4 in to enable them to be fixed to the sleepers; the rails were 3 3⁄4 in 1 1⁄4 in thick. Descriptions refer to rails 3 ft long and only 2 in wide. A system involved "L" shaped iron rails or plates, each 3 ft long and 4 in wide, having on the inner side an upright ledge or flange, 3 in high at the centre and tapering to 2 in at the ends, for the purpose of keeping the flat wheels on the track.
Subsequently, to increase strength, a similar flange might be added below the rail. Wooden sleepers continued to be used—the rails were secured by spikes passing through the extremities—but, circa 1793, stone blocks began to be used, an innovation associated with Benjamin Outram, although he was not the originator; this type of rail was known as the plate-rail, tramway-plate or way-plate, names that are preserved in the modern term "platelayer" applied to the workers who lay and maintain the permanent way. The wheels of flangeway wagons were plain, but they could not operate on ordinary roads as the narrow rims would dig into the surface. Another form of rail, the edge rail, was first used by William Jessop on a line, opened as part of the Charnwood Forest Canal between Loughborough and Nanpantan in Leicestershire in 1789; this line was designed as a plateway on the Outram system, but objections were laying raised to rails with upstanding ledges or flanges on the turnpike. This difficulty was overcome by paving or "causewaying" the road up to the level of the top of the flanges.
In 1790, Jessop and his partner Outram began to manufacture edge-rails. Another example of the edge rail application was the Lake Lock Rail Road used for coal transport; this was a public railway and opened for traffic in 1798, making it the world's oldest public railway. The route started at Lake Lock, Stanley, on the Aire & Calder Navigation, running from Wakefield to Outwood, a distance of 3 miles. Edge-rails were used on the nearby Middleton-Leeds rack railway; the wheels of an edgeway have flanges, like modern tramways. Causewaying is done on modern level crossings and tramways; these two systems of constructing iron railways continued to exist until the early 19th century. In most parts of England the plate-rail was preferred. Plate-rails were used from Wandsworth to West Croydon; the SIR was sanctioned by Parliament in 1801 and finished in 1803. Like the Lake Lock Rail Road, the SIR was available to
A shell or flued boiler is an early and simple form of boiler used to make steam for the purpose of driving a steam engine. The design marked a transitional stage in boiler development, between the early haystack boilers and the multi-tube fire-tube boilers. A flued boiler is characterized by a large cylindrical boiler shell forming a tank of water, traversed by one or more large flues containing the furnace; these boilers appeared around the start of the 19th century and some forms remain in service today. Although used for static steam plants, some were used in early steam vehicles, railway locomotives and ships. Flued boilers were developed in an attempt to improve engine efficiency. Early haystack designs of Watt's day were mechanically weak and presented an unsupported flat surface to the fire. Boiler explosions beginning with failure of this firebox plate, were common, it was known that an arched structure was stronger than a flat plate and so a large circular flue tube was placed inside the boiler shell.
The fire itself was on an iron grating placed across this flue, with a shallow ashpan beneath to collect the non-combustible residue. This had the additional advantage of wrapping the heating surface around the furnace, but, a secondary benefit. Although considered as low-pressure today, this was regarded as high pressure compared to its predecessors; this increase in pressure was a major factor in making locomotives such as Trevithick's into a practical proposition. The simplest boiler for locomotives had a single straight flue, it was used by many of the early locomotive makers, including Blenkinsop's locomotives for the Middleton railway and Stephenson's Locomotion. This type of boiler is simple to manufacture and strong enough to support "high pressure" steam with expansive working in the cylinders. There is good gas flow through the large flue, so that the fire receives sufficient draught from the action of a tall chimney alone; however it has little heating area, so is inefficient and burns a large amount of coal.
A simple flue must be long. In a short boiler shell, such as required for a steam locomotive, this may be done by using a U-shaped return flue that bends back on itself. Richard Trevithick had used a return flue with his first 1802 Pen-y-darren engine and 1803 Coalbrookdale locomotive design; these boilers were built of cast iron and flat-ended. His 1805 "Newcastle" locomotive began to show one characteristic feature of the return-flued boiler, a prominent dome shape to resist steam pressure in the solid end opposite both furnace and chimney. In this case, the boilermaking, now of wrought iron plates, must have been complicated by Trevithick's single long-travel horizontal cylinder which emerged through this domed end; this did make work easier for the fireman though, as he was no longer trying to reach a firedoor beneath the long crosshead of the piston. William Hedley used this pattern of boiler for his 1813 locomotives Wylam Dilly. Through the Wylam colliery and its owner Christopher Blackett, Hedley would have been familiar with Trevithick's engine.
Timothy Hackworth's 0-6-0 Royal George of 1827 used a return-flued boiler, although it is best known for its pioneering use of a deliberate blastpipe to encourage draught on the fire. His lighter weight 0-4-0 version for the Rainhill Trials, Sans Pareil was similar. Though they appeared antiquated as soon as the Trials were over, the Canadian Samson of this pattern was built in 1838 and still in service in 1883; the last return-flue boilers constructed are considered to be those built by the Huber Co. of Marion, Ohio for their "New Huber" traction engines, from 1885 to 1903. These were not, return-flue boilers in the sense used here, but rather return-tube boilers, they had a single large cylindrical furnace tube, a combustion chamber external to the boiler's pressure shell multiple, narrow fire-tubes returning to a horseshoe-shaped smokebox above and around the firedoor. The proximity of this smokebox to the fireman led to their nickname of "belly burners", their design thus has more in common with the horizontal launch-type boilers or the Scotch marine boiler than they do with the simple single-flue boiler.
By this time, the locomotive boiler had become ubiquitous for traction engines. Compared to this, the advantage of the Huber boiler was that the firetubes could be replaced more without needing to work from within an enclosed firebox; the simplest form of flued boiler was Richard Trevithick's "high-pressure" Cornish boiler, first installed at Dolcoath mine in 1812. This is a long horizontal cylinder with a single large flue containing the fire; as the furnace relied on natural draught, a tall chimney was required at the far end of the flue to encourage a good supply of air to the fire. For efficiency, Trevithick's innovation was to encase beneath the boiler with a brick-built chamber. Exhaust gases passed through the central flue and routed outside and around the iron boiler shell. To keep the chimney clear of the firing space, the brick flue passed first underneath the centre of the boiler to the front face back again along the sides and to the chimney. Cornish boilers had several advantages over the preceding wagon boilers: they were composed of curved surfaces, better to resist the pressure.
Their flat ends were smaller than the flat sides of the wagon boiler and were stayed by the central furnace flue, sometimes by additional lo
Northumberland is a county in North East England. The northernmost county of England, it borders Cumbria to the west, County Durham and Tyne and Wear to the south and the Scottish Borders to the north. To the east is the North Sea coastline with a 64 miles path; the county town is Alnwick. The county of Northumberland included Newcastle upon Tyne until 1400, when the city became a county of itself. Northumberland expanded in the Tudor period, annexing Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482, Tynedale in 1495, Tynemouth in 1536, Redesdale around 1542 and Hexhamshire in 1572. Islandshire and Norhamshire were incorporated into Northumberland in 1844. Tynemouth and other settlements in North Tyneside were transferred to Tyne and Wear in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. Lying on the Anglo-Scottish border, Northumberland has been the site of a number of battles; the county is noted for its undeveloped landscape of high moorland, now protected as the Northumberland National Park. Northumberland is the least densely populated county in England, with only 62 people per square kilometre.
Northumberland meant'the land of the people living north of the River Humber'. The present county is the core of that former land, has long been a frontier zone between England and Scotland. During Roman occupation of Britain, most of the present county lay north of Hadrian's Wall, it was controlled by Rome only for the brief period of its extension of power north to the Antonine Wall. The Roman road Dere Street crosses the county from Corbridge over high moorland west of the Cheviot Hills into present Scotland to Trimontium; as evidence of its border position through medieval times, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England, including those at Alnwick, Dunstanburgh and Warkworth. Northumberland has a rich prehistory with many instances of rock art, hillforts such as Yeavering Bell, stone circles such as the Goatstones and Duddo Five Stones. Most of the area was occupied by the Brythonic-Celtic Votadini people, with another large tribe, the Brigantes, to the south; the region of present-day Northumberland formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, which united with Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century.
The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north. After the battle of Nechtansmere its influence north of the Tweed began to decline as the Picts reclaimed the land invaded by the Saxon kingdom. In 1018 its northern part, the region between the Tweed and the Forth, was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland. Northumberland is called the "cradle of Christianity" in England, because Christianity flourished on Lindisfarne—a tidal island north of Bamburgh called Holy Island—after King Oswald of Northumbria invited monks from Iona to come to convert the English. A monastery at Lindisfarne was the centre of production of the Lindisfarne Gospels, it became the home of St Cuthbert, buried in Durham Cathedral. Bamburgh is the historic capital of Northumberland, the royal castle from before the unification of the Kingdoms of England under the monarchs of the House of Wessex in the 10th century; the Earldom of Northumberland was held by the Scottish royal family by marriage between 1139–1157 and 1215–1217.
Scotland relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York. The Earls of Northumberland once wielded significant power in English affairs because, as powerful and militaristic Marcher Lords, they had the task of protecting England from Scottish retaliation for English invasions. Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North against Elizabeth I of England; these revolts were led by the Earls of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the Percys, the dashing Harry Hotspur, the hero of his Henry IV, Part 1; the Percys were aided in conflict by other powerful Northern families, such as the Nevilles and the Patchetts. The latter were stripped of all power and titles after the English Civil War of 1642–1651. After the Restoration of 1660, the county was a centre for Roman Catholicism in England, as well as a focus of Jacobite support. Northumberland was long a wild county, where Border Reivers hid from the law.
However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness subsided after the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England under King James I and VI in 1603. Northumberland played a key role in the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century on. Many coal mines operated in Northumberland until the widespread closures in the 1980s. Collieries operated at Ashington, Blyth, Netherton and Pegswood; the region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of Britain, the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Shipbuilding and armaments manufacture were other important industries before the deindustrialisation of the 1980s. Northumberland remains rural, is the least-densely populated county in England. In recent years the county has had considerable growth in tourism. Visitors are attracted both to its historical sites. Northumberland has a diverse physical geography, it is low and flat near the North Sea coast and mountainous toward the northwest.
The Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany, is the world's largest museum of science and technology, with about 28,000 exhibited objects from 50 fields of science and technology. It receives about 1.5 million visitors per year. The museum was founded on 28 June 1903, at a meeting of the Association of German Engineers as an initiative of Oskar von Miller, it is the largest museum in Munich. For a period of time the museum was used to host pop and rock concerts including The Who, Jimi Hendrix and Elton John; the main site of the Deutsches Museum is a small island in the Isar river, used for rafting wood since the Middle Ages. The island did not have any buildings before 1772 because it was flooded prior to the building of the Sylvensteinspeicher. In 1772 the Isar barracks were built on the island and, after the flooding of 1899, the buildings were rebuilt with flood protection. In 1903 the city council announced that they would donate the island for the newly built Deutsches Museum; the island known as Kohleninsel was renamed Museumsinsel.
In addition to the main site on the Museumsinsel, the museum has two branches in and near Munich and one in Bonn. The Flugwerft Schleißheim branch is located some 18 kilometres north of Munich's city centre close to Schleißheim Palace, it is based on the premises of one of the first military airbases in Germany founded just before World War I. It comprises the old air control and command centre as well as modern buildings added in the late 2000s after strong endorsement from Franz-Josef Strauss, the prime minister of the state of Bavaria, a passionate flyer; the Flugwerft Schleißheim displays various interesting airplanes for which there was insufficient room at the Museumsinsel site in downtown Munich. Among the more prominent exhibits is a Horten flying wing glider built in the 1940s, restored from the few surviving parts. A collection of the German constructions of VTOL planes developed in the 1950s and 1960s is unique. A range of Vietnam era fighter planes as well as Russian planes taken over from East Germany after the reunification are on display.
This outstation features a workshop dedicated to the restoration of all types of airplanes intended for static display. The latest branch opened in 2003 and is called the Deutsches Museum Verkehrszentrum, located at Theresienhöhe in Munich, focuses on transportation technology; the branch located in Bonn was opened in 1995 and focuses on German technology and research after 1945. Oskar von Miller studied electrical engineering and is otherwise known for building the first high voltage line from Miesbach to Munich in 1882 for the electrical technology exhibition at the Glaspalast in Munich. In 1883 he founded an engineering office in Munich; the Frankfurt electricity exhibition in 1891 and several power plants contributed to the reputation of Oskar von Miller. In the early years, the exhibition and the collection of the Deutsches Museum were influenced by Oskar von Miller. A few months before the 1903 meeting of the Society of German Engineers, Oskar von Miller gathered a small group who supported his desire to found a science and technology museum.
In a showing of support this group spontaneously donated 260,000 marks to the cause and elected a "Provisional Committee" to get the ball rolling. In June 1903, Prince Ludwig agreed to act as patron of the museum and the city of Munich donated Coal Island as a site for the project. In addition, exhibits began to arrive from Munich and abroad including collections from the Bavarian Academy; as no dedicated museum building existed, the exhibits were displayed in the National Museum. On 12 November 1906, the temporary exhibits at the National Museum were ceremonially opened to the public and on November 13 the foundation stone was laid for the permanent museum; the first name of the museum, the "German Museum for Masterpieces of Natural Science and Technology", was not meant to limit the museum to German advances in science and technology, but to express the importance of science and technology to the German people. Oskar von Miller opened the new museum on his 70th birthday, 2 May 1925, after a delay of ten years.
From the beginning, the museum displays are backed up by documents available in a public library and archives, which are open seven days a week to ensure access to the working public. Before and during World War II the museum was put on a shoestring budget by the Nazi party and many exhibits were allowed to get out of date with a few exceptions such as the new automobile room dedicated 7 May 1937. By the end of 1944 the museum was badly damaged by air bombings with 80% of the buildings and 20% of the exhibits damaged or destroyed; as Allied troops marched into Munich in April 1945, museum director, Karl Bässler managed to keep the last standing bridge to Museum Island from being blown up by retreating German troops. Following the war the museum had to be closed for repairs and temporary tenants, such as the College of Technology and the Post Office used museum space as their own buildings were being reconstructed; the Museum was home to the Central Committee of the Liberated Jews, representing Jewish displaced persons in the American Zone of Germany after the war.
In November 1945, the library was able to reopen, followed by the congress hall in January 1946. A special exhibit on fifty years of the Diesel engine opened in October 1947 and the regular exhibits began reopening in May 1948. Not until 1965, more than twenty years after the end of the war in Germany, did the exhibit area match (and e
Light music is a generic term applied to "light" orchestral music, which originated in the 18th and 19th centuries and continues until the present day. Its heyday occurred during the mid‑20th century; the style is a less "serious" form of Western classical music, featuring through-composed shorter orchestral pieces and suites designed to appeal to a wider context and audience than more sophisticated forms of music such as concertos and operas. The form was popular during the formative years of radio broadcasting, with stations such as the BBC Light Programme featuring a playlist consisting of light compositions. Known as mood music or concert music, light music is grouped with the easy listening genre. Light music was popular in the United Kingdom, the United States and in continental Europe, many compositions in the genre are still familiar through their use as film and television themes. Before Late Romantic orchestral trends of length and scope separated the trajectory of lighter orchestral works from the Western Classical canon, classical composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart or Joseph Haydn won as much fame for writing lighter pieces such as Eine Kleine Nachtmusik as for their symphonies and operas.
Examples of early European light music include the operettas of composers such as Franz von Suppé or Sir Arthur Sullivan. The Straussian waltz became a common light music composition; these influenced the foundation of a "lighter" tradition of classical music in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In the UK, the light-music genre has its origin in the seaside and theatrical orchestras that flourished in Britain during the 19th and early 20th century; these played a wide repertoire of music, from classical music to arrangements of popular songs and ballads of the time. From this tradition came many specially written shorter orchestral pieces designed to appeal to a wider audience. Composers such as Sir Edward Elgar wrote a number of popular works in this medium, such as the "Salut d'Amour", the Nursery Suite, Chanson de Matin; the conductor Sir Thomas Beecham became famous for concluding his otherwise serious orchestral concerts with what he termed "lollipops", meaning less serious, short or amusing works chosen as a crowd-pleasing encore.
Influenced by the earlier "promenade concerts" held in London pleasure gardens, a similar spirit embued many of Henry Wood's early Queen's Hall Proms concerts the "Last Night". With the introduction of radio broadcasting by the BBC in the 1920s the style found an ideal outlet; this increased after the launch of the BBC Light Programme in 1945, featuring programmes such as Friday Night is Music Night and Music While You Work. In the United States, "pops orchestra" such as the famous Boston Pops Orchestra began to emerge in the 19th century; the Boston Pops was founded in 1885 as a second, popular identity of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, founded four years earlier. They commissioned light pieces by composers such as Leroy Anderson, Ferde Grofé and George Gershwin to write original works, along with theatre music, film music and arrangements of popular music and show tunes; the British light music composer Ernest Tomlinson stated that the main distinction of light music is its emphasis on melody.
This is a major feature of the genre, although the creation of distinctive musical textures in scoring is another aim, for example the close harmony of Robert Farnon or Ronald Binge's "cascading string" effect, which became associated with the "sustained hum of Mantovani's reverberated violins". Lyndon Jenkins describes the genre as "original orchestral pieces descriptive but in many cases three or four minutes of music with an arresting main theme and a contrasting middle section."David Ades suggests that "it is agreed that it occupies a position between classical and popular music, yet its boundaries are blurred". He goes on to cite broadcaster Denis Norden who said that light music was "not just tuneful round the outside, but tuneful right through."The genre is associated with the easy listening orchestral arrangements of Mantovani, Percy Faith and Henry Mancini, although with the exception of Mancini these composers are better known for their arrangements rather than through-composed original compositions.
As a result of this association, the music is sometimes linked to the lounge music, Exotica or beautiful music genres, but light music does not feature vocals, synthesisers or popular music instruments. The pieces represent a mood, person or object, for example Farnon's "Portrait of a Flirt", Albert Ketèlbey's In a Monastery Garden or Edward White's "Runaway Rocking Horse"; the genre's other popular title "mood music" is a reference to pieces such as Charles Williams' A Quiet Stroll, written at an andante pace and has a jaunty, cheery feel. Light music pieces are presented individually or as movements within a suite, are given individual descriptive titles; these titles can sometimes be unusual or idiosyncratic, such as Frederic Curzon's "Dance of the Ostracised Imp". In keeping with this tradition of levity, pieces can feature musical jokes at the expense of more "serious" works, such as Eric Fenby's overture Rossini on Ilkla Moor or Arthur Wilkinson's Beatlecracker Suite, which arranges songs by The Beatles in the style of Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker.
In the 1950s and'60s many light composers wrote Production Library music for use in film and television, as a result, many light music compositions are familiar as theme music, an ex
Timothy Hackworth was an English steam locomotive engineer who lived in Shildon, County Durham and was the first locomotive superintendent of the Stockton and Darlington Railway. Timothy Hackworth was born in Wylam in 1786, five years after his fellow railway pioneer George Stephenson had been born in the same village. Hackworth was the eldest son of John Hackworth who occupied the position of foreman blacksmith at Wylam Colliery until his death in 1804. At the end of his apprenticeship in 1807 Timothy took over his father's position. Since 1804, the mine owner, Christopher Blackett had been investigating the possibilities of working the mine's short 5-mile colliery tramroad by steam traction. Blackett set up a four-man working group including William Hedley, the viewer; the first step in 1808 was the relaying of the Wylam tramway with cast iron plates, until a simple timber-way. In 1811, the four-man team began investigating the adhesive properties of smooth wheels using a manually operated carriage propelled by a maximum of four men, in the same year a single-cylinder locomotive devised by one Waters on the Richard Trevithick model, was built and tried for a few months with erratic results.
In the meantime a new dilly, was put in hand and set to work in the autumn of 1812. However Blackett's new cast iron plateway was found inadequate to sustain the weight of a dilly and the subsequent one built in 1813 was carried on two four-wheeled "power bogies" and it is understood that the first one was rebuilt. On the relaying, around 1830, of the Wylam line with wrought iron edge rails, the two locomotives were reverted to the 4-wheel arrangement, continuing to work until the closing of the line in 1862. What is considered to be the earlier of the two engines, now known as Puffing Billy is conserved at the Science Museum in London. Although William Hedley is credited with the "design" of the locomotives, there is strong evidence that these issued from the aforementioned joint collaboration in which Christopher Blackett was the driving force with Timothy Hackworth playing a preponderant engineering role. Furthermore, it subsequently fell to Hackworth to maintain the locomotives in running order and improve performance.
As time went on, Blackett became occupied by other outside interests and was absent, leaving Hedley in charge of the mine. He was not long in finding other employment at Walbottle Colliery where he took up the same position of foreman blacksmith. In 1824, Hackworth occupied a temporary position as a "borrowed man" or relief manager at the Forth Street factory of Robert Stephenson and Company, whilst Robert was away in South America and George was occupied with the surveying of new railways, notably the Liverpool and Manchester. Hackworth only stayed until the end of that year, following which, he returned to Walbottle occupying his time with contract work until, upon the recommendation of George Stephenson, he was appointed on 13 May 1825 to the position of locomotive superintendent of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, a post he was to occupy until May 1840. Hackworth is believed to have been influential in the development of the first Stephenson locomotive intended for the Stockton and Darlington Railway during his time at the Forth Street factory.
That locomotive named Active, now known as Locomotion No 1, was delivered to the railway just before the opening ceremony on 27 September 1825. Three more of the same type were delivered in the following months and difficulties in getting them into operating order were such as to risk compromising the use of steam locomotives for years to come, had it not been for Hackworth's persistence; this persistence resulted in his developing the first adequate locomotive adapted to the rigours of everyday road service. The outcome was the Royal George of 1827, an early 0-6-0 Locomotive, that among many new key features notably incorporated a aligned steam blastpipe. Hackworth is acknowledged as the inventor of this concept. From 1830 onwards the blastpipe was employed by the Stephensons for their updated Rocket and all subsequent new types. Recent letters acquired by the National Railway Museum would appear to confirm Hackworth as the inventor of the device. Since Trevithick's time, it had long been common practice to turn the exhaust steam from the cylinders into the chimney using "eductor pipes" for convenience and noise reduction, its effect on the fire had been noticed.
Whatever the case, Hackworth was the first engineer in history to take into account the role of the blast in automatically realising the "perfect equilibrium between steam production and usage" in a locomotive when fitted with a firetube boiler, to consider the blastpipe as a distinct device, paying close attention to its proportions, nozzle size and precise alignment. In 1829 the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the world's first "Inter-City" railway, was under construction. There was a large potential for both passenger and goods traffic. However, all locomotives built to date, including those for the Stockton and Darlington, had been intended for slow freight, with any passenger service handled by single horse-drawn coaches, it was therefore clear that any future locomotives would have to be m
5 ft and 1520 mm gauge railways
Railways with a railway track gauge of 5 ft were first constructed in the United Kingdom and the United States. This gauge is commonly called Russian gauge because this gauge was chosen as the common track gauge for the Russian Empire and its neighbouring countries; the gauge was redefined by Soviet Railways to be 1,520 mm. The primary region where Russian gauge is used is the former Soviet Union and Finland, with about 225,000 km of track. Russian gauge is the second most common gauge in the world, after 1,435 mm standard gauge. In 1748, the Wylam waggonway was built to a 5 ft gauge for the shipment of coal from Wylam to Lemington down the River Tyne. In 1839, the Eastern Counties Railway was constructed. In 1844, both lines were converted to 1,435 mm standard gauge. In 1903, the East Hill Cliff Railway, a funicular, was opened. In 1827, Horatio Allen, the chief engineer of the South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company, prescribed the usage of 5 ft gauge and many other railroads in Southern United States adopted this gauge.
The presence of several distinct gauges was a major disadvantage to the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. In 1886, when around 11,500 miles of 5 ft gauge track existed in the United States all of the railroads using that gauge were converted to 4 ft 9 in; the first railway built in Russia was built in 1837 to 6 ft gauge for a 17 km long "experimental" line connecting the Imperial Palaces at Tsarskoye Selo and Pavlovsk. While of no practical importance the railway did demonstrate that this gauge was viable; the second railway in the Russian Empire was the Warsaw–Vienna railway, built to 1,435 mm and commenced construction in 1840. For the building of Russia's first major railway, the Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway, engineer Pavel Melnikov hired as consultant George Washington Whistler, a prominent American railway engineer. Whistler recommended 5 ft on the basis that it was cheaper to construct than 6 ft while still offering the same advantages over 1,435 mm and that there was no need to worry about a break-of-gauge since it would never be connected to the Western European railways.
Colonel P. P. Melnikov, of the Construction Commission overseeing the railway, recommended 6 ft following the example of the first railway and his study of US Railways. Following a report sent by Whistler the head of the Main Administration of Transport and Buildings recommended 5 ft and it was approved for the railway by Tsar Nicholas I on February 14, 1843; the next lines built were approved with this gauge but it was not until March 1860 that a Government decree stated all major railways in Russia would be 5 ft gauge. It is and incorrectly believed that Imperial Russia chose a gauge broader than standard gauge for military reasons, namely to prevent potential invaders from using the rail system. In 1841 a Russian army engineer wrote a paper stating that such a danger did not exist since railways could be made dysfunctional by retreating or diverting forces; the construction of the Warsaw–Vienna railway in 1,435 mm was so it could be connected to the Western European network, in that case to reduce Poland's dependence on Prussia for transport.
For the Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway, which became the benchmark, the choice of track gauge was between 5 ft and the wider 6 ft, not standard gauge 1,435 mm. However, it was just not selected with that in mind; when a railway has wooden sleepers, it is easy to make the gauge narrower by removing the nails and placing them back at a narrower position, something Germany did during WWII. Destroying river bridges had a larger effect; the 5-foot gauge became the standard in the whole Russian Empire, its successor Soviet Union. That includes the Baltic states, Belarus, the Caucasian and Central Asian republics, in the once Soviet-influenced Mongolia. Russian engineers used it on the Chinese Eastern Railway, built in the closing years of the 19th century across the Northeastern China entry to provide a shortcut for the Transsiberian Railway to Vladivostok; the railway's southern branch, from Harbin via Changchun to Lüshun, used the Russian gauge, but as a result of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 its southernmost section was lost to the Japanese, who promptly regauged it to standard gauge.
This formed a break of gauge between Changchun and Kuancheng, until the rest of the former Chinese Eastern Railway was converted to standard gauge, too. Unlike in South Manchuria, the Soviet Union's reconquest of southern Sakhalin from Japan did not result in regauging of the railway system. Southern Sakhalin has continued with the original Japanese 1,067 mm gauge with the Russian gauge railway, constructed in the northern part of the island in 1930-1932; the railway has no fixed connection with the mainland, rail cars coming from the mainland port of Vanino on the Vanino-Kholmsk train ferry have their bogies changed in the Sakhalin port of Kholmsk. In 2004 and 2008 plans were put forward to convert it to Ru