An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is defined as a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of 1,500 metres or more. There are approximately 1,524 such peaks on Earth, some peaks, such as the Matterhorn and Eiger, are not Ultras because they are connected to higher mountains by high cols and therefore do not achieve enough topographic prominence. The term Ultra is due to earth scientist Stephen Fry, from his studies of the prominence of peaks in Washington in the 1980s and his original term was ultra major mountain, referring to peaks with at least 5,000 ft of prominence. Currently,1,515 Ultras have been identified worldwide,637 in Asia,355 in North America,209 in South America,119 in Europe,84 in Africa,69 in Australasia and 39 in Antarctica. Many of the worlds largest mountains are Ultras, including Mount Everest, K2, Mont Blanc, on the other hand, others such as the Eiger and the Matterhorn are not Ultras because they do not have sufficient prominence. In British Columbia, some of the mountains listed do not even have generally recognized names, a number of Ultras have yet to be climbed, with Sauyr Zhotasy, Mount Siple, and Gangkar Puensum being the most likely candidates for the most prominent unclimbed mountain in the world.
All of the Seven Summits are Ultras by virtue of the fact that they are the points of large landmasses. Each has its key col at or near sea level, resulting in a value almost equal to its elevation. List of peaks by prominence gives the 125 most prominent peaks worldwide
A drainage divide, water divide, ridgeline, water parting, is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins. In hilly country, the divide lies along topographical ridges, and may be in the form of a range of hills or mountains. In flat country—especially where the ground is marshy—the divide may be harder to discern, a valley floor divide is a low drainage divide that runs across a valley, sometimes created by deposition or stream capture. Settlements are often built on valley-floor divides in the Alps, examples are Eben im Pongau, Kirchberg in Tirol and Waidring. Extremely low divides with heights of less than two metres are found on the North German Plain within the Urstromtäler, for example, between Havel and Finow in the Eberswalde Urstromtal. In marsh deltas such as the Okavango, the largest drainage area on earth, or in large areas, such as the Finnish Lakeland. Another case is bifurcation, where the watershed is effectively in the river bed, in pre-industrial times, water divides were crossed at portages.
Later, canals connected adjoining drainage basins, a key problem in such canals is ensuring a sufficient water supply, Drainage basins List of watershed topics European watershed Scottish watershed River source
Caichinque is a volcanic complex lying between Salar de Talar and Salar de Capur, in the high Andean plateau of the Antofagasta Region, in Chile. It is located southwest of the Salar de Atacama, directly S of Cerro Miñiques, route CH-23 is an approach road to the volcano area. List of volcanoes in Chile Cerro Miscanti Cerros de Incahuasi Caichinque
Aracar is a large conical stratovolcano in northwestern Argentina, just east of the Chilean border. It has a summit crater about 1–1.5 kilometres in diameter which sometimes contains crater lakes. The volcano has formed, starting during the Pliocene, on top of a lava platform, constructed on a base with an altitude of 4,100 metres, it covers a surface area of 192.4 square kilometres and has a volume of 148 cubic kilometres. Inca archeological sites are found on the volcano, Aracar is located in the Salta province, north of the Salar de Taca Taca and Arizaro and east of the Salar de Incahuasi and the Sierra de Taca Taca, close to the Chilean border. Volcanoes in the rise above the endorheic sinks and landscape. Cerro Arizaro is another volcano southeast of Aracar, the basement consists of Paleozoic granites. The Laguna de Aracar Formation north of Aracar was formed by Gondwana volcanism and has been dated by K-Ar methods to be 266±28 mya old, tertiary sedimentary rocks in the east and arenites in the south form the rest of the basement.
The height of the volcano over the terrain is between 1, 900–2,800 m from north to south. Aracar is a volcanic cone with a diametre of 13.5 km. Four lava domes extend southeast from the volcano, grey basaltic lava flows descend from its summit and form a gentle western flank and much steeper eastern and southern flanks. West of the summit a 1–1.5 km wide. Snowmelt occasionally forms small ephemeral lakes in the main crater, a 100 m shallow 10 m deep secondary crater is surmounted by a flat semilunar 15–20 m wide surface. Small southbound andesitic lava flows are associated with the main crater, some deep gorges cut into the volcano, and erosion has removed 1.8 km3 of rock. A lava field is found beneath Aracar volcano and it is constructed by lava flows that range in composition from basaltic andesite bordering on trachyandesite over dacite and smaller flows of partially silicic magma. Basal lava flows are heavily eroded and reach 14 km of length in the south and width decreasing from 4.5 km to 1.5 km and they have cancelled out the prior landscape.
These lower lava flows reach the Salar de Taca Taca and extend south-southeast, the main andesitic cone is 900 m high and 5 km wide and formed on top of older dacitic lava flows. The dacite flows which form the bulk of the edifice are covered with debris and have flow fronts 20–40 m high, the lava field formed over a north-south slope. Lavas have gray-black porphyric and in some places vesicular textures, andesine-labradorite plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts are found in the lavas, which has a fine grained groundmass
Global Volcanism Program
The Smithsonian Institutions Global Volcanism Program documents Earths volcanoes and their eruptive history over the past 10,000 years. The GVP reports on current eruptions from around the world as well as maintaining a repository on active volcanoes. In this way, a context for the planets active volcanism is presented. Smithsonian reporting on current volcanic activity dates back to 1968, with the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, the GVP is housed in the Department of Mineral Sciences, part of the National Museum of Natural History, on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. During the early stages of an eruption, the GVP acts as a clearinghouse of reports, the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonians Global Volcanism Program and the United States Geological Surveys Volcano Hazards Program. Notices of volcanic activity posted on the Report website are preliminary, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network The GVP documents the last 10,000 years of Earths volcanism.
The historic activity can guide perspectives on future events and on volcanoes showing activity. GVPs volcano and eruption databases constitute a foundation for all statements concerning locations, frequencies. Two editions of Volcanoes of the World, a regional directory, and were published based on the GVP data and interpretations
For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are in use. In areas of Latin America the term used is Pre-Hispanic. Other civilizations were contemporary with the period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records, because many Christian Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heretical, men like Diego de Landa destroyed many texts in pyres, even while seeking to preserve native histories. Only a few documents have survived in their original languages, while others were transcribed or dictated into Spanish, giving modern historians glimpses of ancient culture. Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era, many of these peoples and their descendants continue traditional practices, while evolving and adapting new cultural practices and technologies into their lives. Now, the study of pre-Columbian cultures is most often based on scientific.
Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait, genetic evidence found in Amerindians maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia. Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout North and South America, exactly when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate. One of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago, older sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed. Some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago, the chronology of migration models is currently divided into two general approaches. The first is the short chronology theory with the first movement beyond Alaska into the New World occurring no earlier than 14, 000–17,000 years ago, followed by successive waves of immigrants. The second belief is the long chronology theory, which proposes that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at an earlier date, possibly 50.
In that case, the Eskimo peoples would have arrived separately and at a date, probably no more than 2,000 years ago. The North American climate was unstable as the ice age receded and it finally stabilized by about 10,000 years ago, climatic conditions were very similar to todays. Within this timeframe, roughly pertaining to the Archaic Period, numerous archaeological cultures have been identified, the unstable climate led to widespread migration, with early Paleo-Indians soon spreading throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes. The paleo-indians were hunter-gatherers, likely characterized by small, mobile bands consisting of approximately 20 to 50 members of an extended family and these groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought. During much of the Paleo-Indian period, bands are thought to have subsisted primarily through hunting now-extinct giant land animals such as mastodon, Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of tools
Salar de Atacama
Salar de Atacama is the largest salt flat in Chile. It is located 55 km south of San Pedro de Atacama, is surrounded by mountains, in the east it is enclosed by the main chain of the Andes, while to the west lies a secondary mountain range of the Andes called Cordillera de Domeyko. Large volcanoes dominate the landscape, including the Licancabur, Aguas Calientes, the last is one of the most active volcanoes in Chile. All of them are located along the side of the Salar de Atacama. The salt flat encompasses 3,000 km2, is about 100 km long and 80 km wide and its average elevation is about 2,300 m above sea level. Some areas of the flat form part of Los Flamencos National Reserve. The Laguna Cejar is a sink hole lake in the Salar de Atacama,18 km from San Pedro and it has a salt concentration that ranges from 5 to 28%, producing at the higher end of the range an effect of floating like the Dead Sea. At present the Salar de Atacama depression conforms a subsiding sedimentary basin, comparing with neighboring areas of the Andes the Salar de Atacama depression is a major topographical anomaly.
The Salar de Atacama depression is thought to be caused by a block that due to its high density has remained at lower position than the rest of the Andes. The high density would derive from the times the Salar de Atacama depression was a rift arm of the Salta Rift Basin located further east in Argentine territory. Salar de Atacama basin is bordered on the north by the Salado River basin, to the east, the drainage divide approximately coincides with the international border with Bolivia until the Portezuelo del Cajón. The dividing range includes the volcanoes Cerros de Tocorpuri, Curiquinca, going southward, the water divide runs along a chain of volcanoes that lie entirely in Chilean territory. To the west, the Cordillera Domeyko separates the Salar de Atacama basin from arheic areas and its main tributaries are the San Pedro and Vilama rivers, which originate to the north of the salt flat. Salar de Atacamas evaporation rate is the highest in the industry, followed by Puna de Atacama, Argentina.
Gerardo Díaz del Río, Ramiro Bonilla Parra, Fernando Peralta Toro, geología de superficie, sub-superficie y geoquímica del Salar de Atacama. Bottled Lightning, Electric Cars, and the New Lithium Economy, geoquímica del Salar de Atacama, parte 1, origen de los componentes y balance salino. Ortiz, J. F. Muñoz, P. Adkins and land surface energy budget at the Salar de Atacama, Northern Chile
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system, Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The earliest recorded presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century, Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century, Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and it is the country with the second highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of very high. Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, the description of the country by the word Argentina has to be found on a Venice map in 1536. In English the name Argentina probably comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, Argentina means in Italian of silver, silver coloured, probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine of silver > silver coloured already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the form of argentin and derives of argent silver with the suffix -in.
The Italian naming Argentina for the country implies Argentina Terra land of silver or Argentina costa coast of silver, in Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said lArgentina. The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venitian and Genoese navigators, in Spanish and Portuguese, the words for silver are respectively plata and prata and of silver is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region, the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name Argentine Republic in legal documents. The name Argentine Confederation was used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the name as Argentine Republic
In climbing, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with risks, challenges. The person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist, the details of the first ascents of even many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown, sometimes the only evidence of prior summiting is a cairn, artifacts, or inscriptions at the top. Today, first ascents are generally recorded and usually mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a first ascent is a one, especially in places such as Africa. There may be little or no evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents, particularly for difficult routes, involved a mix of free, as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only.
Some other first ascents could be recorded for particular mountains or routes, one is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name easily suggests, the first ascent made during winter season. This is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route, in the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. Also in the Himalayan area, although Nepal and Chinas winter season permits start on December 1, another is the First Solo Ascent, which is the first ascent made by a single climber. This is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or even when climbing without any protection at all, another type of ascent, known as FFA is the first female ascent. The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has changed to such an extent – often because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists.
It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb that is so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent partys ordeal. List of first ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimers First Ascent, Issue 17
A stratovolcano, known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava, tephra and volcanic ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a profile and periodic explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far due to high viscosity, the magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km, stratovolcanoes are sometimes called composite volcanoes because of their composite layered structure built up from sequential outpourings of eruptive materials. They are among the most common types of volcanoes, in contrast to the less common shield volcanoes, two famous stratovolcanoes are Krakatoa, best known for its catastrophic eruption in 1883 and Vesuvius, famous for its destruction of the towns Pompeii and Herculaneum in 79 CE.
Both eruptions claimed thousands of lives, in modern times, Mount Saint Helens and Mount Pinatubo have erupted catastrophically. Existence of stratovolcanoes has not been proved on other bodies of the solar system with one exception. Their existence was suggested for some isolated massifs on Mars, e. g. Zephyria Tholus, stratovolcanoes are common at subduction zones, forming chains along plate tectonic boundaries where oceanic crust is drawn under continental crust or another oceanic plate. The release of water from hydrated minerals is termed dewatering, and occurs at pressures and temperatures for each mineral. The magma rises through the crust, incorporating silica-rich crustal rock, when the magma nears the top surface, it pools in a magma chamber under or within the volcano. There, the low pressure allows water and other volatiles dissolved in the magma to escape from solution, as occurs when a bottle of carbonated water is opened. Once a critical volume of magma and gas accumulates, the obstacle of the cone is overcome.
In recorded history, explosive eruptions at subduction zone volcanoes have posed the greatest hazard to civilizations. Subduction-zone stratovolcanoes, such as Mount St. Helens, Mount Etna and Mount Pinatubo, typically erupt with explosive force, as a consequence, the tremendous internal pressures of the trapped volcanic gases remain in the pasty magma. Following the breaching of the chamber, the magma degasses explosively. The gases and water out with speed and force. Since 1600 CE, nearly 300,000 people have killed by volcanic eruptions. Most deaths were caused by flows and mudflows, deadly hazards that often accompany explosive eruptions of subduction-zone stratovolcanoes
American Alpine Journal
The American Alpine Journal is an annual magazine published by the American Alpine Club. Its mission is to document and communicate mountain exploration, the headquarters is in Golden, Colorado. Some general articles about mountaineering, mountain medicine, the mountain environment, each issue includes book reviews, memorials of deceased members, and club activities. The journal was established in 1929, in 1957 and 1958, the editor was Francis P. Farquhar. From 1960 to 1995, the editor was H. Adams Carter, from 1996 to 2001, the editor was Christian Beckwith. Since 2002, the editor has been John Harlin III, the overall format of the journal has changed little since at least the 1970s, but current plans include more complete worldwide coverage and electronic/online access. All of these magazines are used by climbers planning expeditions. Entries in these journals concerning major Himalayan peaks are indexed in the Himalayan Index, in March 2007, the American Alpine Journal inaugurated free, searchable online access for its issues dating back to 1966.
All earlier issues will eventually be added, a complete index is available for free download. A complete set of the journal on DVD may eventually be available for purchase, official website Searchable online access Himalayan Index National Geographic Adventure Outside