click links in text for more info


Lavendulan is an uncommon copper arsenate mineral, known for its characteristic intense electric blue colour. It belongs to the lavendulan group, which has four members: Lavendulan NaCaCu54Cl.5H2O Lemanskiite NaCaCu54Cl.5H2O Sampleite NaCaCu54Cl.5H2O Zdenekite NaPbCu54Cl.5H2OLemanskiite and lavendulan are dimorphs. Lemanskiite is tetragonal. Lavendulan has the same structure as sampleite, the two minerals form a series, it is the calcium analogue of zdenĕkite, the arsenate analogue of sampleite. Lavendulan was named for the lavender color of the "type" specimen, which has since been determined to be a mixture with no relationship to modern lavendulan; the mineral, now called lavendulan is not a lavender blue color, has no relationship to the “type” material from Annaberg. It contains potassium and nickel as impurities. Although lavendulan is monoclinic, the angle β is close to 90°, making the mineral pseudo-orthorhombic. Most references describe the lavendulan unit cell as an orthorhombic cell containing 8 formula units but describes a monoclinic unit cell with the length of the c axis halved, only 4 formula units per unit cell and space group P21/n.

Unit cell parameters are reported as a=9.73 Å, b=41.0 Å, c=9.85 Å, Z=8 a = 9.815 Å, b = 40.394 Å, c = 9.99 Å, Z = 8 a = 9.73 Å, b = 41.0 Å, c = 9.85 Å, Z = 8 a = 10.011 Å, b = 19.478 Å, c = 10.056 Å, β = 90.37° Z=4 Lavendulan is a blue or greenish blue translucent mineral, with a vitreous to waxy luster, satiny in aggregates, a light blue streak. It occurs as thin botryoidal crusts of minute radiating fibers or as thin rectangular, pseudo-orthorhombic plates, with cleavage in three directions, nearly perfect perpendicular to the b crystal axis, distinct perpendicular to the a and c axes. Twinning is common; the mineral is brittle, with an uneven fracture. It is quite soft, with hardness 2.5, between gypsum and calcite, dense. It is soluble in hydrochloric acid; the refractive index varies with the direction of propagation of the light, varies between 1.64 and 1.75. This is quite high, between ruby. Lavendulan is biaxial, most sources quote values for three refractive indices, for light travelling parallel to the three crystal axes.

One source, gives lavendulan as nearly uniaxial, quotes only two refractive indices, for the ordinary and extraordinary rays. Nx = 1.645 Ny = 1.715 Nz = 1.725 Nx = 1.660 Ny = 1.715 Nz = 1.734 Nx = 1.66 Ny = 1.715 Nz = 1.734 Nω = 1.748 Nε = 1.645. Lavendulan is pleochroic, with O = pale blue to pale greenish E = blue to greenish blue. Lavendulan is a rare secondary mineral in the oxidised zone of some copper-arsenic deposits. A lavender blue mineral was discovered in 1837 by Johann F A Breithaupt in Annaberg in the Erzgebirge, a mountainous region spanning the Czech Republic and Germany; the mineral was named “lavendulan” after the color, Annaberg was the designated type locality. In 1853 Vogel found a specimen of lavendulan from Joachimstal in the Erzgebirge, similar in appearance and characteristics to the material from Annaberg. In 1877 Goldsmith examined some specimens of a turquoise blue arsenate of copper from the cobalt deposits of San Juan and announced that they were lavendulan. Nearly fifty years In 1924, William Foshag announced that the Chilean material was distinct from that from Joachimstal, he determined that it was a new mineral, gave it the name freirinite, from the locality, the Blanca Mine, Huasca Province, Atacama Region, Chile.

In 1957, Claude Guillemin found that lavendulan and freirinite from the type localities gave identical x-ray powder patterns, freirinite was discredited as a mineral species. Yet another fifty years passed, in 2007 Geister et al. Re-examined Breithaupt's type specimen and found that it was a mixture unrelated to modern lavendulan; the second locality where lavendulan was found is in the Czech Republic, so the type locality of the species was changed to there, namely St Joachimsthal, St Joachimsthal District, Karlovy Vary Region, Czech Republic. The type material is held at the Mining Academy, Germany, reference 20944. At the type locality, lavendulan occurs associated with erythrite and a cobalt molybdate called pateraite, but now discredited. At San Juan, Chile, it is associated with erythrite, cuprite and cobaltian wad. At the Cap Garonne Mine, Var, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, associated minerals are chalcophyllite, parnauite, olivenite, covellite, antlerite and geminite, it occurs at Tsumeb, associated with cuprian adamite, conichalcite, o’danielite, fahleite, quartz and gypsum.

Jmol: Lavendulan photo gallery at

Moon Banerrjee

Moon Banerrjee is an Indian television actress who rose to fame with Balaji Telefilms' Kasautii Zindagii Kay as Sampada. She played the role of Asha Bose in Kuch Rang Pyar Ke Aise Bhi and Damayanti in Ek Tha Raja Ek Thi Rani. Moon Banerrjee was born in Kolkata, was raised in Jamshedpur and Mumbai, her first brush with the industry was. A photographer approached her for a calendar shoot. After doing a few shows she took a break to focus on her studies. After completing her studies, she did a Bangladeshi film, thereafter started working with TV again. Moon has done over a 100 TV commercials including the well acclaimed Sunsilk ad by Ram Madhvani, her claim to fame was with Balaji Telefilms mega drama Kasautii Zindagi Kay. Post that, she has done a number of well known shows including Kkusum, she has done a Telugu film called Yagnam. Moon Banerrjee is married to producer Neeraj Sharma and they have a 4 year old son Rumeer. Moon Banerrjee on IMDb

Minase Yashiro

Minase Yashiro is a Japanese gravure idol, actress and TV personality. Minase Yashiro was born on February 1985 in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, she debuted as a gravure model in 2006, releasing her first DVD MINASE Minakuru! February 17, 2006 just after her 21st birthday, by mid-2009 she had issued 10 solo DVDs. Yashiro has appeared on several TV programs including Sports eye ESPN on SkyPerfecTV, Idol Star on ENTA!371, Pao Pao on BS NHK, Sabadol! on TV Tokyo and Ranking Kingdom from TBS. More she was on the TBS show Beach Angels filmed in Okinawa. In addition, she has been featured in such magazines as Weekly Young Jump, Flash Exciting, Monthly Gon and Weekly Asahi Geinō. In 2007 Yashiro was selected as one of the three winners of the Sanyo Image Girl "Marin-chan o Sagase!" contest. The three models are the third generation of the "Miss Marine-Chan" character used for advertising for the Sanyo Bussan company which makes "pachinko" and slot machines, they are featured in a photo book Miss Marine-chan Umi Monogatari.

Yashiro made her film debut in Noboru Iguchi's gore-fest The Machine Girl in 2008 playing the lead role of Ami, the girl who goes on a revenge spree with a machine gun for a left arm. The movie was released theatrically and on DVD in the United States. According to the Nippon Cinema reviewer, "she plays Ami with 100% conviction - and that helps sell some of the funny lines she has to deliver with a snarl". In 2010, Yashiro appeared in Kamen Rider Double Forever: A to Z/The Gaia Memories of Fate as one of the antagonists, Reika Hanehara the Heat Dopant, she reprised her role as Reika Hanehara in the 2011 V-Cinema spinoff Kamen Rider W Returns: Kamen Rider Eternal. In 2018, Yashiro appeared in Kamen Rider Zi-O as Kaoru Kinoshita. DVD listing sources: MINASE Minakuru! February 2006 Positive May 2006 Shangrila August 2006 Afternoon Breeze December 2006 Doushitemo... May 2007 Idol One: Shi, a, wa, se! July 2007 Minan Chu October 2007 Minasa Biyori February 2008 With January 2009 Pavilion June 2009 "Minase Yashiro at IMdB".

"Official Blog". Archived from the original on 2013-06-02. "八代みなせ". "八代みなせ". "八代みなせ(女優・タレント・モデル) (Minase Yashiro at Yahoo! Japan". Official website

Consilience (book)

Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge is a 1998 book by the biologist E. O. Wilson, in which the author discusses methods that have been used to unite the sciences and might in the future unite them with the humanities. Wilson uses the term consilience to describe the synthesis of knowledge from different specialized fields of human endeavor; this book defines consilience as "Literally a'jumping together' of knowledge by the linking of facts and fact-based theory across disciplines to create a common groundwork of explanation." The "New Synthesis". Unification of Darwin's theory of evolution with genetics. Gerald Holton's "Ionian Enchantment"; the conviction can be explained by natural laws. Theory that water is fundamental. Thales of Miletus proposed. Cited as the first materialistic theory of a unified view of nature. Unification of forces in modern physics. Einstein's work. For example, unification of Brownian motion with atomic theory. Unity of purpose for science and religion. To explain the universe and understand our role in the universe.

Environmental protection. The need to link together knowledge from government regulators, social science and physical sciences like chemistry. Unity of purpose for philosophy and science. Philosophers and scientists can work together at the borders between biology, social science and the humanities. Liberal arts education. Recognition of the unity of knowledge as a way to revitalize education. Government policy; the need to assemble unified knowledge from across specialized disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. The Enlightenment. In the context of scientific knowledge applied to human rights and social progress. Marquis de Condorcet. Condorcet's systematic application of mathematics in the social sciences. Francis Bacon. Early advocate of data collection and its analysis as the basis of sound knowledge in fields that include social science and the humanities. René Descartes. Believed that the universe is rational and united and that interconnected truths run from physics to biology to moral reasoning.

Descartes unified geometry and algebra. Isaac Newton. Unified the laws of falling bodies with the laws of planetary motion. Origin of social science; the roles of Adolphe Quetelet and Auguste Comte in developing the idea of studying behavior with scientific methods. Unity of purpose for Postmodernism and Science. Wilson argues that humanity is driven forward by the tension between those who upon viewing order create disorder and those who upon viewing disorder create order; the Greek Atomists. Greeks such as Leucippus and Democritus are credited with the reductionistic idea that matter has fundamental components. Scientific investigation of this idea has resulted in unification across the natural sciences. Example: the molecular structure of DNA accounts for genetic storage in living cells. Experimental Epistemology. A modern attempt to unify neuroscience and epistemology. Discussed as a method for clarifying the Evolutionary basis of mismatches between physical reality and our mental models of reality.

Positivism. A method for comparing and unifying knowledge from different disciplines. Pragmatism. A method for comparing and unifying knowledge from different disciplines. Reduction vs. synthesis. Many examples comparing consilience by consilience by synthesis. One specific example is Wilson's own work on the chemical signals that regulate insect social behavior. Magician to Atom. An example of consilience by reduction in which Wilson tries to account for the prevalence of serpent symbols in human cultures. Incorporates the "activation-synthesis model" of dreaming. Consilience between biology disciplines. Discussion of successes but points to the remaining problem of dealing with complex systems as in neuroscience and ecology. Statistical mechanics. A classical example in which the behavior of volumes of gas is explained in terms of the molecules of the gas. Quantum chemistry. Prediction of chemical properties by quantum mechanical calculations. Explaining consciousness and emotion in terms of brain activity.

Wilson describes the neurobiological approach to accounting for consciousness and emotion in terms of brain physiology and how this effort is guided by collaboration between biologists and philosophers. Neurobiology of aesthetics. Wilson proposes that it will be possible to construct a neurobiological understanding of subjective experiences that are shared and explored by art. Common neural patterns of activity will be found to correspond to fundamental aesthetic experiences. Artificial emotion. Wilson proposes that human-like artificial intelligence will require the engineering of a computational apparatus for processing an array of rich sensory inputs and the capacity to learn from those inputs in the way that children can learn. Requires consilience between biology and computer science; the relationship between genes and culture. Wilson posits; when a meme exists in a brain it has the form of a neuronal network that allows the meme to function within semantic memory. The link from genes to culture is that our genes shape our brains

Arita Porcelain Park

The Arita Porcelain Park is a small theme park located in Arita town, Saga Prefecture, Japan. The Porcelain Park is a recreation of a traditional German village, is located just on the outskirts of Arita on the road to Hasami. Most stunning is the reproduction of the “Zwinger,” a famous palace in the German city of Dresden. Inside the palace are impressive permanent exhibition of both European porcelain in one wing and Arita-yaki in the other. Behind the palace lies a European style garden. There is a large ancient kiln which can be visited; the theme park houses various stores selling both traditional Japanese and European-style products. Arita On-Line: /> ANA's Destination Guide: web link