Salom Italia was an Italian copper engraver who worked in Amsterdam. He became known for his illustrations for the Book of Esther, which merged ideas about the Jewish diaspora with those of Dutch liberation after the Eighty Years' War. Salom Italia was born ca. 1619 in Mantua, where his father Mordechai operated a printing house. Earlier suggestions, that he had been born in Castel Branco, were denied by Narkiss in 1957. Narkiss argues that he left Mantua after the Austrians invaded, left for the Republic of Venice, settled in Amsterdam at the latest in 1641, where he began work as an artist and where he worked until he died, he was one of only a few Jewish artists working in Amsterdam. Of the ten known works he signed, two are dated. Most of his copper engravings pertain to the Book of Esther, he is known for his portraits of the rabbis Jacob Judah Leon and Menasse ben Israel, for the Jewish marriage contracts he illustrated. In Amsterdam, Italia developed a new way of illustrating the parchment scrolls that contained the Book of Esther, scrolls which were used during Purim--during those services, the text was read out loud, while congregants read along with their own copies.
Italia's illustrations included triumphal arches, portraits of the main characters, narrative scenes and vignettes against the backdrop of Dutch landscapes. They merged the Jewish diaspora and Jews' integration in the Dutch Republic with the Dutch experience of liberation from their Spanish overlords after the Eighty Years' War. Italia's scrolls were popular at a time when the Esther story held considerable importance in the Netherlands. M. Narkiss: The Oeuvre of the Jewish Engraver Salom Italia. In: Tarbiz. 25, 1956, pp. 441–451. Salli Kirschenstein: Juedische Graphiker aus der Zeit von 1625–1825. Berlin 1918. Narkiss, Bezalel. "Italia, Shalom". Encyclopaedia Judaica. 10. Detroit/New York. P. 787. ISBN 978-0-02-865938-1. Assaf, Sharon. Salom Italia's the Dutch Golden Age. Essay Series in Jewish Culture and Art. 1. Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum. ISBN 978-90-81586-03-0. Articles at Joods Historisch Museum Esther Rolle im Jewish Museum New York. Ketubba im Israel Museum Jerusalem
The Journal of Alloys and Compounds is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering experimental and theoretical approaches to materials problems that involve compounds and alloys. It is published by Elsevier and the editor-in-chief is L. Schultz, it was the first journal established to focus on a group of inorganic elements. The journal was established by William Hume-Rothery in 1958 as the Journal of the Less-Common Metals, focussing on the chemical elements in the rows of the periodic table for the Actinide and Lanthanide series; the lanthanides are sometimes referred to as the rare earths. The journal was not limited to articles about those specific elements: it included papers about the preparation and use of other elements and alloys; the journal developed out of an international symposium on metals and alloys above 1200°C which Hume-Rothery organized at Oxford University on September 17-18, 1958. The conference included more than 100 participants from several countries; the papers presented at the symposium "The study of metals and alloys above 1200°C" were published as volume 1 of the journal.
It was the first journal dealing with a category of inorganic elements. The title of "Less-Common Metals" was something of a misnomer, since these metals are found commonly, but in small amounts; the journal obtained its current name in 1991 and is considered a rich source of information on hydrogen-metal systems. In 2017, Elsevier was reported to be retracting 3 papers from the journal, one of several to be affected by falsified reviews, which led to a broader discussion of the processes for reviewing journal articles; the journal is abstracted and indexed in: Chemical Abstracts Service Current Contents/Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences Science Citation Index ScopusAccording to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2018 impact factor of 4.175. Official website