An architect is someone who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. The terms architect and architecture are used in the disciplines of landscape architecture, naval architecture. In most jurisdictions, the professional and commercial uses of the terms architect, throughout ancient and medieval history, most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Until modern times, there was no distinction between architect and engineer. In Europe, the architect and engineer were primarily geographical variations that referred to the same person. It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the gentleman architect. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century, pencils were used more often for drawing by 1600.
The availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals, until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only qualified people with appropriate license, certification, or registration with a relevant body, such licensure usually requires an accredited university degree, successful completion of exams, and a training period. To practice architecture implies the ability to independently of supervision. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses, in the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, and an understanding of business are as important as design. However, design is the force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client, the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them.
The architect participates in developing the requirements the client wants in the building, throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, the architect hired by a client is responsible for creating a design concept that meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. In that, the architect must meet with and question the client to ascertain all the requirements, often the full brief is not entirely clear at the beginning, entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make proposals to the client which may rework the terms of the brief
Community areas in Chicago
These areas are well-defined and static. Census data are tied to the community areas, and they serve as the basis for a variety of urban planning initiatives on both the local and regional levels, the Social Science Research Committee at University of Chicago defined seventy-five community areas during the late 1920s. At the time, these community areas corresponded roughly to neighborhoods or inter-related neighborhoods within the city, in the 1950s, with the citys annexations for OHare International Airport, a seventy-sixth community area was added. Community areas are distinct from neighborhoods in Chicago, community areas often encompass groups of neighborhoods. Although many community areas contain more than one neighborhood, they may share the same name, or parts of the name. The city center area covers a more than 4 square miles, lying roughly between Division Street on the north, Lake Michigan on the east, 26th Street on the south. This area is commercial hub. The three branches of the Chicago River meet in this area, the area known as the Loop is a section within downtown, surrounded by elevated tracks of the rapid transit network.
Many of downtowns commercial and financial institutions are located in the Loop, the Loop is used to identify the larger downtown area. River North contains the Magnificent Mile, a concentration of high-end retail, the Chicago Bears play in Soldier Field on the Near South Side. The citys North Side district extends north of Central−Downtown Chicago, the West Side districts, and it is the most densely populated residential section of the city, and has a considerable middle and upper-class demographic. It contains sizable public parklands and miles of beaches along Lake Michigan to the northern limits. Residential highrises line the waterfront in the eastern North Side, the district includes Eastern European, Puerto Rican, and other ethnic enclaves. It is the home of the Chicago Cubs at Wrigley Field, the West Side is made up of neighborhoods such as Austin, Garfield Park, West Town, and Humboldt Park among others. Some neighborhoods, particularly Garfield Park and Lawndale, have had long-term socio-economic problems, other West Side neighborhoods, especially those closer to downtown, have been undergoing gentrification.
The United Center, the home of the Chicago Bulls and Blackhawks, major parks on the West Side include Douglas and Humboldt Park. Garfield Park Conservatory houses one of the largest collections of plants of any U. S. city. Attractions on the West Side include the Puerto Rican Day festival, the National Museum of Mexican Art in Pilsen, the South Side is the largest section of the city, encompassing roughly 60% of the citys land area, and much was annexed in the late 19th century
1990 United States Census
Approximately 16 percent of households received a long form of the 1990 census, which contained over 100 questions. Full documentation on the 1990 census, including forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. It was the first census to designate Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander as a group separate from Asians. To increase black participation in the 1990 United States Census, the bureau recruited Bill Cosby, Magic Johnson, Alfre Woodard, the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, personally identifiable information will be available in 2062. The results of the 1990 census determined the number of seats that each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 1992 elections, this affected the number of votes each state has in the Electoral College for the 1992 presidential election. Because of population changes, twenty-one states had changes in their number of seats, eight states gained at least one seat, and thirteen states lost at least one seat.
The final result involved 19 seats being switched
Cook County, Illinois
Cook County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. It is the second-most populous county in the United States after Los Angeles County, as of 2015, the population was 5,238,216. Its county seat is Chicago, the largest city in Illinois, more than 40% of all residents of Illinois live in Cook County. Cook Countys population is larger than that of 29 individual U. S. states, there are 135 incorporated municipalities partially or wholly within Cook County, the largest of which is Chicago, which is home to approximately 54% of the population of the county. That part of the county which lies outside of the Chicago city limits is divided into 29 townships, the county is the sixth-largest in Illinois by land area. It shares the states Lake Michigan shoreline with Lake County, including its lake area, the county has a total area of 1,635 square miles, the largest county in Illinois, of which 945 square miles is land and 690 square miles is water. Land-use in Cook County is mainly urban and densely populated, Cook County is included in the Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area.
It is surrounded by what are known as the five collar counties, Cook County was created on January 15,1831, out of Putnam County by an act of the Illinois General Assembly. It was the 54th county established in Illinois and was named after Daniel Cook and he served as the second U. S. Representative from Illinois and the states first Attorney General, in 1839, DuPage County was carved out of Cook County. Cook County is the home rule county in Illinois. The Cook County Code is the codification of Cook Countys local ordinances, Cook Countys current County Board president is Toni Preckwinkle. The Circuit Court of Cook County, which is a State agency funded, in part, by Cook County, the Cook County Department of Corrections, known as the Cook County Jail, is the largest single-site jail in the nation. The Cook County Juvenile Detention Center, under the authority of the Chief Judge of the State court, is the first juvenile center in the nation, the Cook County Law Library is the second-largest county law library in the nation.
In the 1980s, Cook County was ground zero to an extensive FBI investigation called Operation Greylord, ninety-two officials were indicted, including 17 judges,48 lawyers,8 policemen,10 deputy sheriffs,8 court officials, and a state legislator. The Bureau of Health Services administers the public health services and is the third-largest public health system in the nation. Three hospitals are part of system, John H. Stroger. Hospital of Cook County, Provident Hospital, and Oak Forest Hospital of Cook County, the Cook County Department of Transportation is responsible for the design and maintenance of roadways in the county
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
1980 United States Census
Approximately 16 percent of households received a long form of the 1980 census, which contained over 100 questions. Full documentation on the 1980 census, including forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Microdata from the 1980 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, personally identifiable information will be available in 2052. Between the 1980 census and the 1990 census, the United States population increased by approximately 22,164,837 or 9. 8%, historic US Census data 1981 U. S Census Report Contains 1980 Census results
Pullman National Monument
Pullman National Monument, known as The Pullman District and Pullman Historic District, is located in Chicago and was the first model, planned industrial community in the United States. The district is significant for its origins in the Pullman Company, one of the most famous company towns in the United States. It was built for George Pullman as a place to produce the famous Pullman sleeping cars, located in what is now the Pullman community area of Chicago, the district includes the Pullman factory and the Hotel Florence, named after George Pullmans daughter. Also within the district is the A, philip Randolph Pullman Porter Museum, named for the prominent leader A. Philip Randolph, which recognizes and explores African American labor history, parts of the site, in recent decades have been owned by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency prior to gifting them to the federal government. The area is east of Cottage Grove Avenue, from East 103rd St. to East 115th St and it was named a Chicago Landmark district on October 16,1972.
It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 8,1969, preservationists had hoped to extend the district to include Schlitz Row, but the taverns located there have been demolished. The district was named a National Monument on February 19,2015, George Pullman was born in Brocton, New York and studied engineering. By the 1850s, Chicago was emerging as a major city, Pullman designed a method to raise buildings, which allowed better drainage. This innovation led Pullman to great financial success, with this new-found wealth, Pullman founded the Pullman Palace Car Company to manufacture sleeping cars in 1867. Through a focus on luxury and customer comfort, Pullman gained a market share in the railroad car sector. The expensive cars were rented out to railroads with trained employees. Pullman was an advocate of employee welfare in a city that was a hotbed for labor unrest in the 1870s. When a new factory was required to demand, Pullman was presented with an opportunity to integrate employee betterment with manufacturing efficiency.
As land values were skyrocketing in the city proper, Pullman purchased 4,000 acres south of Chicago and he organized the Pullman Land Association to oversee non-manufacturing real estate and transferred all but 500 acres to its control. Solon Spencer Beman was commissioned with the design of the town buildings. Nathaniel Franklin Barrett was tasked with the layout and landscape design, former Chicago superintendent of sewage Benzette Williams developed the utilities and drainage system. The project began in early 1880 and the first factory buildings were completed by fall
Gentrification is a process of renovation of deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents. This is a common and controversial topic in politics and in urban planning, conversations surrounding gentrification have evolved, as many in the social-scientific community have questioned the negative connotations associated with the word gentrification. Gentrification is typically the result of increased interest in a certain environment, early gentrifiers may belong to low-income artist or boheme communities, which increase the attractiveness and flair of a certain quarter. In addition to these benefits, gentrification can lead to population migration. The term gentrification has come to refer to a phenomenon that can be defined in different ways. Historians say that gentrification took place in ancient Rome and in Roman Britain, the word gentrification derives from gentry—which comes from the Old French word genterise, of gentle birth and people of gentle birth.
In England, Landed gentry denoted the social class, consisting of gentlemen and this change has the potential to cause displacement of long-time residents and businesses. When long-time or original neighborhood residents move from an area because of higher rents, mortgages. Gentrification is a housing and health issue that affects a communitys history and culture and it often shifts a neighborhoods characteristics, e. g. racial-ethnic composition and household income, by adding new stores and resources in previously run-down neighborhoods. German geographers have a more distanced view on gentrification, actual gentrification is seen as a mere symbolic issue happening in a low amount of places and blocks, the symbolic value and visibility in public discourse being higher than actual migration trends. Gerhard Hard assumes that urban flight is more important than inner city gentrification. Volkskunde scholar Barbara Lang introduced the term symbolic gentrification with regard to the Mythos Kreuzberg in Berlin, Lang assumes that complaints about gentrification often come from those who have been responsible for the process in their youth.
When former students and bohemians started raising families and earning money in better paid jobs, especially Berlin is a showcase of intense debates about symbols of gentrification, while the actual processes are much slower than in other cities. The citys Prenzlauer Berg district is, however, a child of the capitals gentrification. This leads to mixed feelings amidst the local population, the neologism Bionade-Biedermeier was coined about Prenzlauer Berg. It describes the milieu of the former quartier of the alternative scene. There are several approaches that attempt to explain the roots and the reasons behind the spread of gentrification, bruce London and J. John Palen compiled a list of five explanations, demographic-ecological, political-economical, community networks, and social movements. The first theory, demographic-ecological, attempts to explain gentrification through the analysis of demographics, social organization and this theory frequently refers to the growing number of people between the ages of 25 and 35 in the 1970s, or the baby boom generation
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The term may be used to only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans. As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are of West and Central African descent and are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of 73. 2–80. 9% West African, 18–24% European, according to US Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities, immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, believed to be inferior to white people, they were treated as second-class citizens.
The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, in 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States. The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, the ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic, the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence they had come. The first recorded Africans in British North America were 20 and odd negroes who came to Jamestown, as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. Typically, young men or women would sign a contract of indenture in exchange for transportation to the New World, the landowner received 50 acres of land from the state for each servant purchased from a ships captain.
An indentured servant would work for years without wages. The status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery, servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Africans could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom and they raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of slavery when they sentenced John Punch. One of Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black slaves, John Casor
1940 United States Census
The census date of record was April 1,1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved and this census introduced sampling techniques, one in 20 people were asked additional questions on the census form. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939, the 1940 census collected the following information, In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original sheets were microfilmed. As required by Title 13 of the U. S. Code, non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Also, aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, on April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration.
The records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release, several organizations are compiling indices, why the huge interest in the 1940 Census. 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder. com
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 85,000 places listed on the countrys National Register of Historic Places, a National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, and it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed, prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. The first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17,1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the data gathered under this legislation. Because listings often triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9,1960,92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A.
Seaton, more than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States, there are NHLs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nations NHLs, three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states, California, Massachusetts, there are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia. Some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, and foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U. S. commonwealths and territories,5 in U. S. -associated states such as Micronesia, over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are privately owned, the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks. A friends group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve, protect, if not already listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation.
About three percent of Register listings are NHLs, american Water Landmark List of U. S
Household income in the United States
Household income is an economic measure that can be applied to one household, or aggregated across a large group such as a county, city, or the whole country. It is commonly used by the United States government and private institutions to describe a households economic status or to track trends in the US. Household income is measured in various ways, one key measure is the real median level, meaning half of households have income above that level and half below, adjusted for inflation. According to the Federal Reserve, this measure was $56,516 in 2015 and this was the largest one-year percentage increase on record. However, it remained 2. 5% below the 1999 peak of $57,909, the Census Bureau estimated real median household income at $55,775 in 2015, up $2,062 or 3. 8% from the 2014 level of $53,713. Household income varies geographically and by race, the overall median has continued to rise steadily, if slowly, to $57,616 in September 2016 according to one unofficial source that reports monthly versus annually.
After falling somewhat due to the Great Recession in 2008 and 2009, inequality rose again during the economic recovery, the residents of the household do not have to be related to the head of the household for their earnings to be considered part of the households income. As households tend to share an economic context, the use of household income remains among the most widely accepted measures of income. The U. S. Census Bureau reported in September 2016 that real median income was $55,775 in 2015. This was the third year with a statistically significant increase by their measure. The U. S. Census Bureau reported in September 2014 that, U. S. real median income was $51,939 in 2013 versus $51,759 in 2012. In 2013, real median income was 8.0 percent lower than in 2007. Real median household income averaged $50,781 from 1964-2013, ranging from a low of $43,558 in 1967 to a high of $56,895 in 1999, the recovery from the 2007-2009 recession had not translated into higher incomes for the typical American family.
For instance, the retirement of the Baby Boom generation should push down overall median income, analysis of different working age groups indicate a similar pattern of stagnating median income as well. But foreign-produced goods became sharply cheaper, meaning imports climbed and production moved overseas, and computers took over for humans in many manufacturing and administrative tasks, eroding middle-class jobs growth and suppressing wages. Another line of analysis, known as compensation, presents a more complete picture of real wages. The Kaiser Family Foundation conducted a study in 2013 which shows that employer contributions to healthcare costs went up 78% from 2003 to 2013. The marketplace has made a trade-off, expanding benefits packages vs. increasing wages, measured relative to GDP, total compensation and its component wages and salaries have been declining since 1970