Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Sagarmāthā was one of the fourteen zones of Nepal until the restructuring of zones into provinces. Sagarmāthā is a Nepali word derived from सगर् meaning "sky" and माथा meaning "head", it includes mountain districts of the Himalayas in the north, hill districts in the center, valley districts of the Terai in the south. It is bordered by China to the north, India to the south, the Koshi Zone to the east and the Janakpur Zone to the west. Sagarmāthā is divided into six districts: The main city of the Sagarmāthā Zone was Rajbiraj, the headquarters. Other towns of the Sagarmāthā hill area were Katari, Diktel and Namche Bazaar. Triyuga is an emerging city in the zone. Sagarmāthā Zone took its name from the Nepalese name for Mount Everest, located in the north of the zone within the Sagarmatha National Park in the Solu Khumbu district. Sagarmāthā means "the Head in the Great Blue Sky". Development Regions of Nepal List of zones of Nepal List of districts of Nepal Sagarmatha National Park List of districts of Nepal
Udayapur District (Nepali: उदयपुर जिल्लाListen, is one of 14 districts of Province No. 1 of eastern Nepal. The district, with Triyuga as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,063 km² and in 2001 had a population of 287,689, in 2011 of 317,532; the district border of Udayapur is drawn by Natural border with hills. Koshi river in the east of the district separates it from Sunsari District, Sun Kosi river in the north draw a borderline which separates it from Bhojpur and Khotang. Sindhuli District lies in the west across the Tawa khola and foothills of shiwalik in the south separates it from outer terai of Siraha and Saptari. Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve lies in the east occupying the area of Udayapur and Saptari District. According to the former administrative divisions of Nepal, Udayapur falls in Eastern Development Region in Sagarmatha Zone. Before the unification of modern Nepal by Shah kings. Udayapur District was under Sen dynasty; the Kingdom name was Chaudandi and capital of the Kingdom was Udayapurgadhi.
The last king of the Chaudandi was Karna Sen who fled to Bijayapur when Gorkha army envaded and captured the Sen Kingdom Chaudandi. Before 1972, Panchawati was Headquarter of Udayapur District, it moved to Gaighat in 1972. Udayapur district is surrounded by Mahabharat hills from north and Shiwalik from south, whereas both hills meet together by west which forms the region a valley Udayapur valley. Udayapur valley is about 30 km long and between 2 km to 4 km wide, it is drained by the Triyuga river flowing east to join the Koshi river. Forest cover takes up 67% of the total land area of the district. 28% of the land is cultivated. Small and large river and ponds remain the main source of water in the district. Ponds like Rauta Pokhari, Suke Pokhari, Tapli Pokhari, Jogidaha Chure Forest Pond and Jhilke Pokhari are key water resources in the district; the district does not possess larger lakes. Triyuga is the largest river in this district. Other two major rivers are Tawa Khola from Western side and Vaidyanath River from mid-side unite with Tawa River.
Other rivers in the district are Kakaru Khola, Yari Khola, Baruwa Khola, Bahadura Khola and Rasuwa Khola. Sunkosi, Kamala rivers lie on the district border; this inner Terai district covers elevations between 360 metres to 2310 metres above sea level. Different topography and altitude have established three distinct physiographic zones in the district as mentioned below. Mahabharat hill range in this district stretches from Sun Kosi River on northern side and links to Inner Terai and in some stretches, to Churiya hills. About 60% of the district is covered by middle hills with steep slope and rugged mountain topography. From nearly 1100 m to 2310 m, this land consists of high hills like Lekhani, Rautapokhari; the Churiya hills stretch across elevations between 550 m to 1100 m. reaching from the upper Mahabharata to Terai land in the south leaving some plain inner Tarai land in between. It occupies about 9% of land of the district and consists of small valleys of inner Terai including Nepaltar and Mainatar as well as plains like Bahuntar and Hardeni.
These valleys are situated on Panchawati, Rauta and Tawashri VDC respectively. This region occupies around 31% of the district at elevations between 360m to 550 m above sea level; this region is situated on the border of Triyuga and Tawa River. Where inner Tarai exists the Churiya range lies to the south of this region; this region is affected by the problem of river cutting or floods. Major places of district like Gaighat and Beltar lie in this region. According to the census of 2011 the total population of Udaypur district is 317,532. Major ethnicities in the district are Chhetri, Magar, Tharu and others; the literacy rate is 53.31 percent. Udayapur District is administered by Udayapur District Coordination Committee; the Udayapur DCC is elected by Udayapur District Assembly. The head of Udayapur DCC is Mr. Khadag Bahadur Pariyar and Mrs. Ganga Rai is deputy head of Udayapur DCC. Udayapur District Administration Office under Ministry of Home Affairs co-operate with Udayapur DCC to maintain peace and security in the district.
The officer of District Administration office called CDO and current CDO of Udayapur DAO is Bishnu Kumar Karkee. Udayapur District Court is a Judicial court to see the cases of people on district level. Udayapur District is divided into total 8 local level bodies, 4 local level body categorized into Rural municipality and 4 into Municipality: Formerly, Udayapur had three municipality and many VDCs. VDCs were the local administrative units for villages. Fulfilling the requirement of the new constitution of Nepal 2015, on 10 March 2017 all VDCs were nullified and formed new units after grouping VDCs. Udayapur District is divided into 2 Parliamentary constituencies and 4 Provincial constituencies: Gaighat, the headquarter of Udaydpur District is connected with NH-09, which connects Udayapur with NH-01 at Kadmaha. Kadmaha is 28 KM at distance from Gaighat; the NH-09 connects Gaighat to Khotang, 127 KM at distance from Gaighat but the road is not paved. Feeder Road F057 connects Gaighat to Chatara via Beltar-Basaha at 70 KM at distance in east, across the Koshi river.
The F057 feeder road connects Sindhuli via Katari. Tribeni: It is a place in Katari municipality where the three rivers Kamla and Dudhauli adjoins, it is visited by many devotees on the occasion of Makar Sankrati every year. On this occasion, a large fair is organized. Rauta: Rauta is a holy pl
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, is now published annually by SIL International, a U. S.-based, Christian non-profit organization. SIL's main purpose is to study and document languages to promote literacy and for religious purposes; as of 2018, Ethnologue contains web-based information on 7,097 languages in its 21st edition, including the number of speakers, dialects, linguistic affiliations, availability of the Bible in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale. Ethnologue has been published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas; the organization studies numerous minority languages to facilitate language development, to work with speakers of such language communities in translating portions of the Bible into their languages.
The determination of what characteristics define a single language depends upon sociolinguistic evaluation by various scholars. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based on mutual intelligibility. Shared language intelligibility features are complex, include etymological and grammatical evidence, agreed upon by experts. In addition to choosing a primary name for a language, Ethnologue provides listings of other name for the language and any dialects that are used by its speakers, government and neighbors. Included are any names that have been referenced regardless of whether a name is considered official, politically correct or offensive; these lists of names are not complete. In 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an'SIL code', to identify each language that it described; this set of codes exceeded the scope of other standards, e.g. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2; the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into a draft international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard, called ISO 639-3. This standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue. In only one case and the ISO standards treat languages differently. ISO 639-3 considers Akan to be a macrolanguage consisting of two distinct languages and Fante, whereas Ethnologue considers Twi and Fante to be dialects of a single language, since they are mutually intelligible; this anomaly resulted because the ISO 639-2 standard has separate codes for Twi and Fante, which have separate literary traditions, all 639-2 codes for individual languages are automatically part of 639–3 though 639-3 would not assign them separate codes. In 2014, with the 17th edition, Ethnologue introduced a numerical code for language status using a framework called EGIDS, an elaboration of Fishman's GIDS, it ranks a language from 0 for an international language to 10 for an extinct language, i.e. a language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity.
In December 2015, Ethnologue launched a metered paywall. As of 2017, Ethnologue's 20th edition described 237 language families including 86 language isolates and six typological categories, namely sign languages, pidgins, mixed languages, constructed languages, as yet unclassified languages. In 1986, William Bright editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it "is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world". In 2008 in the same journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said: "Ethnologue...has become the standard reference, its usefulness is hard to overestimate."In 2015, Harald Hammarström, an editor of Glottolog, criticized the publication for lacking citations and failing to articulate clear principles of language classification and identification. However, he concluded that, on balance, "Ethnologue is an impressively comprehensive catalogue of world languages, it is far superior to anything else produced prior to 2009." Starting with the 17th edition, Ethnologue has been published every year.
Linguasphere Observatory Register Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert. The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110198744. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. Linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights?. Routledge. ISBN 9781135662356. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Paolillo, John C.. "Evaluating language statistics: the Ethnologue and beyond". UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Pp. 3–5. Retrieved October 8, 2015. Web version of Ethnologue