Bloemfontein is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa. Situated at an altitude of 1,395 m above sea level, the city is home to 520,000 residents and forms part of the Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality which has a population of 747,431; the city of Bloemfontein hosts the Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa, the Franklin Game Reserve, Naval Hill, the Maselspoort Resort and the Sand du Plessis Theatre. The city hosts numerous museums, including the National Women's Monument, the Anglo-Boer War Museum, the National Museum, the Oliewenhuis Art Museum Bloemfontein host sub-Saharan Africa's first digital planetarium, the Naval Hill Planetarium and Boyden Observatory, an astronomical research observatory erected by Harvard University. Bloemfontein is popularly and poetically known as "the city of roses", for its abundance of these flowers and the annual rose festival held there; the city's Sesotho name is Mangaung, meaning "place of cheetahs". The origin of the city's name is disputed.
It is borrowed from the Dutch words bloem and fontein, meaning fountain of flowers. Popular legends include an ox named "Bloem" owned by Rudolphus Martinus Brits, one of the pioneer farmers, taken by a lion near a fountain on his property, while another story names Jan Bloem, a Korana KhoiKhoi leader who settled there. Though a predominantly Afrikaner settlement, Bloemfontein was founded in 1846 as a fort by British army major Henry Douglas Warden as a British outpost in the Transoranje region, at that stage occupied by various groups of peoples including Cape Colony Trek Boers and Barolong. Warden chose the site because of its proximity to the main route to Winburg, the spacious open country, the absence of horse sickness. Bloemfontein was the original farm of Johannes Nicolaas Brits born 21 February 1790, owner and first inhabitant of Bloemfontein. Johann – as he was known – sold the farm to Major Warden. With colonial policy shifts, the region changed into the Orange River Sovereignty and the Orange Free State Republic.
From 1902–10 it served as the capital of the Orange River Colony and since that time as the provincial capital of the Free State. In 1910 it became the Judicial capital of the Union of South Africa The Orange Free State was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century. Extending between the Orange and Vaal rivers, its borders were determined by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1848 when the region was proclaimed as the Orange River Sovereignty, with a seat of a British Resident in Bloemfontein; as the capital of the Orange Free State Republic the growth and maturing of the Republic resulted in the growth of Bloemfontein. Numerous public buildings that remain in use today were constructed; this was facilitated by the excellent governance of the Republic and the compensation from the British for the loss of the diamond rich Griqualand area. The old Orange Free State's presidential residence the Old Presidency is a museum and cultural space in the city.
A railway line was built in 1890 connecting Bloemfontein to Cape Town. The writer J. R. R. Tolkien was born in the city on 3 January 1892, though his family left South Africa following the death of his father, Arthur Tolkien, while Tolkien was only three, he recorded that his earliest memories were of "a hot country". In 1899 the city was the site of the Bloemfontein Conference, which failed to prevent the outbreak of the Second Boer War; the conference was a final attempt to avert a war between the South African Republic. With its failure the stage was set for war, which broke out on 11 October 1899; the rail line from Cape Town provided a centrally located railway station, proved critical to the British in occupying the city later. On 13 March 1900, following the Battle of Paardeberg, British forces captured the city and built a concentration camp nearby to house Boer women and children; the National Women's Monument, on the outskirts of the city, pays homage to the 26,370 women and children as well as 1,421 old men who died in these camps in various parts of the country.
The hill in town was named Naval Hill after the naval guns brought in by the British in order to fortify the position against attack. On 31 May 1910 eight years after the Boers signed the Peace Treaty of Vereeniging that ended the Anglo-Boer War between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, South Africa became a Union. Due to disagreements over where the Union's capital should be, a compromise was reached that allowed Bloemfontein to host Appellate Division and become the Union's judicial capital. Bloemfontein was given financial compensation. On 8 January 1912, the South African Native National Congress was founded in Bloemfontein; the Union of South Africa had not granted rights to black South Africans, causing the organisation's creation. Its primary aim was to fight for the rights of black South Africans. From 1 to 9 January 1914, James Barry Munnik Hertzog and his supporters met in Bloemfontein to form the National Party of the Orange Free State, to
Inanda Seminary School
Inanda Seminary School is one of the oldest schools for girls in South Africa. It was founded in 1853 at Inanda, a settlement just over 20 miles north of Durban, by Daniel and Lucy Lindley, an American missionary couple. On 20 November 1834 Daniel and Lucy Virginia Lindley married and they were sent by the American Board of Missions to South Africa; when they arrived in Cape Town they still had 1,000 miles to cover. Their journey took a year by ox cart to get to Matabeleland. However, their plans were thwarted by the fighting, taking place between the descendants of Dutch colonists and the Matebele, they ministered to the Boers but they did not find success with native Africans until they set up the mission at Inanda. In 1869 they realised that the Adams School was creating educated African men but they had no prospect of finding an educated "good wife", they said "who are they going to marry? – these naked girls". The couple thought this was a problem and decided to found a school for nineteen young girls who would board at Inanda.
The cost of this was borne by the American Missionary Board. The headteacher, Mary Kelly Edwards, was brought from Ohio and she was to serve the school for nearly sixty years; when the Lindley family left South Africa in April 1873 they left one of their daughters who went on teach at the school. The Lindleys left the mission. Dube was the son of one of the first Christian converts at the mission. Dube was to die in 1877 but not before he had fathered John Dube, to found a newspaper, Ohlange High School and take a leading role in creating the African National Congress. Lindley left Inanda having created what would become Inanda Seminary School, the Seminary, a church and several schools based in native huts; the school was able to avoid the full force of the Bantu Education Act. This act required schools that were not teaching white students to create a curriculum, inline with the governments ambitions for its black population; the school was allowed to operate outside the act, denied to nearby Adams College.
In 1956 Adams College had the choice of delivering unambitious education or selling its building and closing. The College chose to close. Racial discrimination did not just happen outside the school. In the 1960s the black teachers were paid less than white teachers and there were separate places for them to sleep and eat, it was acknowledged as a problem but the funds were not made available to solve the problem. The living condition was solved on a school holiday. In the 1960s and 70s the school would receive 1500 applications from prospective students and these were whittled down to 90, based on a selection principle that involved recommendations, special exams, previous work and interview; the students nearly all came from families who could afford the fees but the school always funded a small number of students to ensure that it did not become devoted to "money snobbery". In the 1970s the government again put the school under pressure; this time they refused to renew the visas for non-South African staff, removing their right of residence in the country.
The school was managed by the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa but the government's decision resulted in the loss of some dedicated members of staff. This move when combined with the diminishing charitable donations from abroad put the school on the brink of closure; the school was saved by the intervention of its own alumni who took the school back into private ownership. Nokutela Dube - founded a school Mary Mdiniso - first female senator in Swaziland Nozizwe Charlotte Madlala-Routledge - Deputy Minister of Health Baleka Mbete - Deputy President Thandi Orleyn - Chair of BP Southern Africa Manto Tshabalala-Msimang - Minister of Health Nonkululeko Nyembezi-Heita - successful business executive Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela and Research Chair for Historical Trauma and Transformation, Stellenbosch University Inanda was one of six schools identified as a historic school in 2007; this number has now grown to ten schools which have been identified because they have played an important part in South Africa's history.
The school still has a daily service and the academic record is that 70% of girls who leave the school go on to further education
Sir Thomas More, venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author and noted Renaissance humanist. He was a councillor to Henry VIII, Lord High Chancellor of England from October 1529 to 16 May 1532, he wrote Utopia, published in 1516, about the political system of an ideal island nation. More opposed the Protestant Reformation, in particular the theology of Martin Luther, Henry VIII, John Calvin and William Tyndale. More opposed the king's separation from the Catholic Church, refusing to acknowledge Henry as Supreme Head of the Church of England and the annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. After refusing to take the Oath of Supremacy, he was executed. Of his execution, he was reported to have said: "I die the King's good servant, but God's first". Pope Pius XI canonised More in 1935 as a martyr. Pope John Paul II in 2000 declared him the patron saint "of Statesmen and Politicians". Since 1980, the Church of England has remembered More liturgically as a Reformation martyr.
The Soviet Union honoured him for the purportedly communist attitude toward property rights expressed in Utopia. Born on Milk Street in London, on 7 February 1478, Thomas More was the son of Sir John More, a successful lawyer and a judge, his wife Agnes, he was the second of six children. More was educated at St Anthony's School considered one of London's best schools. From 1490 to 1492, More served John Morton, the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor of England, as a household page. Morton enthusiastically supported the "New Learning", thought of the young More. Believing that More had great potential, Morton nominated him for a place at the University of Oxford. More began his studies at Oxford in 1492, received a classical education. Studying under Thomas Linacre and William Grocyn, he became proficient in both Greek. More left Oxford after only two years—at his father's insistence—to begin legal training in London at New Inn, one of the Inns of Chancery. In 1496, More became a student at Lincoln's Inn, one of the Inns of Court, where he remained until 1502, when he was called to the Bar.
According to his friend, theologian Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, More once contemplated abandoning his legal career to become a monk. Between 1503 and 1504 More lived near the Carthusian monastery outside the walls of London and joined in the monks' spiritual exercises. Although he admired their piety, More decided to remain a layman, standing for election to Parliament in 1504 and marrying the following year. More continued ascetic practices for the rest of his life, such as wearing a hair shirt next to his skin and engaging in flagellation. A tradition of the Third Order of Saint Francis honours More as a member of that Order on their calendar of saints. More married Jane Colt in 1505. Erasmus reported that More wanted to give his young wife a better education than she had received at home, tutored her in music and literature; the couple had four children before Jane died in 1511: Margaret, Elizabeth and John. Going "against friends' advice and common custom," within thirty days More had married one of the many eligible women among his wide circle of friends.
He chose Alice Harpur Middleton to head his care for his small children. The speed of the marriage was so unusual that More had to get a dispensation of the banns of marriage, due to his good public reputation, he obtained. More had no children from his second marriage, although he raised Alice's daughter from her previous marriage as his own. More became the guardian of two young girls: Anne Cresacre would marry his son, John More. An affectionate father, More wrote letters to his children whenever he was away on legal or government business, encouraged them to write to him often. More insisted upon giving his daughters the same classical education as his son, a unusual attitude at the time, his eldest daughter, attracted much admiration for her erudition her fluency in Greek and Latin. More told his daughter of his pride in her academic accomplishment in September 1522, after he showed the bishop a letter she had written: When he saw from the signature that it was the letter of a lady, his surprise led him to read it more eagerly … he said he would never have believed it to be your work unless I had assured him of the fact, he began to praise it in the highest terms … for its pure Latinity, its correctness, its erudition, its expressions of tender affection.
He took out at once from his pocket a portague … to send to you as a pledge and token of his good will towards you. More's decision to educate his daughters set an example for other noble families. Erasmus became much more favourable once he witnessed their accomplishments. A portrait of More and his family, Sir Thomas More and Family, was painted by Holbein, but it was lost in a fire in the 18th century. More's grandson commissioned a copy. In 1504 More was elected to Parliament to represent Great Yarmouth, in 1510 began representing London. From 1510, More served as one of the two undersheriffs of the City of London, a position of considerable responsibility in which he earned a reputation as an honest and effective public servant. More became Maste
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher
Apartheid was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on baasskap, which encouraged state repression of Black African and Asian South Africans for the benefit of the nation's minority white population; the economic legacy and social effects of apartheid continue to the present day. Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid, which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, grand apartheid, which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race. Prior to the 1940s, some aspects of apartheid had emerged in the form of minority rule by White South Africans and the enforced separation of Black South Africans from other races, which extended to pass laws and land apportionment. Apartheid was adopted as a formal policy by the South African government after the election of the National Party at the 1948 general election.
A codified system of racial stratification began to take form in South Africa under the Dutch Empire in the late-eighteenth century, although informal segregation was present much earlier due to social cleavages between Dutch colonists and a creolised, ethnically diverse slave population. With the rapid growth and industrialisation of the British Cape Colony in the nineteenth century, racial policies and laws became rigid. Cape legislation that discriminated against Black South Africans began appearing shortly before 1900; the policies of the Boer republics were racially exclusive. The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949, followed by the Immorality Amendment Act of 1950, which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines; the Population Registration Act, 1950 classified all South Africans into one of four racial groups based on appearance, known ancestry, socioeconomic status, cultural lifestyle: "Black", "White", "Coloured", "Indian", the last two of which included several sub-classifications.
Places of residence were determined by racial classification. From 1960–1983, 3.5 million Non-White South Africans were removed from their homes and forced into segregated neighbourhoods, in one of the largest mass evictions in modern history. Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the Black population to ten designated "tribal homelands" known as bantustans, four of which became nominally independent states; the government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans. Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century, it was the target of frequent condemnation in the United Nations and brought about an extensive arms and trade embargo on South Africa. During the 1970s and 1980s, internal resistance to apartheid became militant, prompting brutal crackdowns by the National Party government and protracted sectarian violence that left thousands dead or in detention.
Some reforms of the apartheid system were undertaken, including allowing for Indian and Coloured political representation in parliament, but these measures failed to appease most activist groups. Between 1987 and 1993, the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress, the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule. In 1990, prominent ANC figures such as Nelson Mandela were released from prison. Apartheid legislation was repealed on 17 June 1991, pending democratic, multiracial elections set for April 1994. Apartheid is an Afrikaans word meaning "separateness", or "the state of being apart" "apart-hood", its first recorded use was in 1929. Under the 1806 Cape Articles of Capitulation the new British colonial rulers were required to respect previous legislation enacted under Roman Dutch law and this led to a separation of the law in South Africa from English Common Law and a high degree of legislative autonomy.
The governors and assemblies that governed the legal process in the various colonies of South Africa were launched on a different and independent legislative path from the rest of the British Empire. In the days of slavery, slaves required passes to travel away from their masters. In 1797 the Landdrost and Heemraden of Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet extended pass laws beyond slaves and ordained that all Khoikhoi moving about the country for any purpose should carry passes; this was confirmed by the British Colonial government in 1809 by the Hottentot Proclamation, which decreed that if a Khoikhoi were to move they would need a pass from their master or a local official. Ordinance No. 49 of 1828 decreed that prospective black immigrants were to be granted passes for the sole purpose of seeking work. These passes were to be issued for Coloureds and Khoikhoi, but not for other Africans, who were still forced to carry passes; the United Kingdom's Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery throughout the British Empire and overrode the Cape Articles of Capitulation.
To comply with the act the South African legislation was expanded to include Ordinance 1 in 1835, which changed the status of slaves to indentured labourers. This was followed by Ordinance 3 in 1848, which introduced an indenture system for Xhosa, little different from slave
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students