An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
Ong-Bak: Muay Thai Warrior
Ong-Bak: Muay Thai Warrior known in the United States as Ong-Bak: The Thai Warrior is a 2003 Thai martial arts action film. It was directed by Prachya Pinkaew, featured stunt choreography by Panna Rittikrai and starred Tony Jaa. Ong-Bak proved to be Jaa's breakout film, with the actor hailed internationally as the next major martial arts star. Jaa went on to star in Tom-Yum-Goong and directed two prequels to Ong-Bak: Ong-Bak 2 and Ong-Bak 3. In the rural northeastern Thailand village of Ban Nong Pradu lies an ancient Buddha statue named Ong-Bak; the village falls in despair after thieves from Bangkok decapitate the statue and take the head with them. Ting, a villager skilled in Muay Thai, volunteers to travel to Bangkok to recover the stolen head of Ong-Bak, his only lead is a drug dealer who attempted to buy the statue one day earlier. Upon arriving in Bangkok with a bagful of money donated by his village, Ting meets up with his cousin Humlae, who has dyed his hair blond and begun calling himself "George".
Humlae and his friend Muay Lek are street-bike racing hustlers who make a living out of conning yaba dealers. Reluctant to help Ting, Humlae steals Ting's money and bets all of it in an underground fighting tournament at a bar on Khaosan Road. Ting tracks down Humlae and gets his money back after stunning the crowd by knocking out the champion in the ring with one kick, his extraordinary skill grabs the attention of Komtuan, a gray-haired crime lord who uses a wheelchair and needs an electrolarynx to speak. It is discovered that Don had stolen Ong-Bak's head to sell to Komtuan, who sees no value in it and orders him to dispose of it; the next day and Muay Lek are chased all over town by drug dealer Peng and his gang after a botched baccarat game scam at an illegal casino. Ting fights off most of the thugs and helps Humlae and Muay Lek escape in exchange for helping him find Don, they return to the bar, where Ting wins the respect of the crowd after defeating three opponents consecutively. The trio find Don's hideout.
The chase ends at a port in Chao Phraya River, where Ting discovers Komtuan's cache of stolen Buddha statues submerged underwater. After the statues are recovered by local police, Komtuan has his thugs kidnap Muay Lek and have Humlae tell Ting to fight his bodyguard Saming near the Thai-Burma border in exchange for Muay Lek and the Ong-Bak head. Ting is forced to throw the match against the drug-enhanced Saming, Humlae throws in the towel. After the fight, Komtuan reneges on his promise to release Muay Lek and return Ong-Bak, he orders his henchmen to kill the trio. Ting and Humlae subdue the thugs and head for a mountain cave, where Komtuan's men are decapitating a giant Buddha statue. Ting is shot by Komtuan. Before the crime lord attempts to destroy the Ong-Bak head with a sledgehammer, Humlae jumps to protect it, taking the brunt of the hammer blows; the giant Buddha statue head falls, crushing Komtuan to death and critically injuring Humlae. Humlae gives Ting the Ong-Bak head, with his dying breath, asks him to look after Muay Lek and make sure she graduates from college.
The head of Ong-Bak is restored in Ban Nong Pradu. Humlae's ashes, carried by an ordained monk, arrives into the village in a procession on an elephant's back while the villagers and Muay Lek celebrate the return of Ong Bak's head. Tony Jaa as Ting Petchtai Wongkamlao as Humlae/George Pumwaree Yodkamol as Muay Lek Chattapong Pantana-Angkul as Saming Sibtid Suchao Pongwilai as Komtuan Wannakit Sirioput as Don Chumphorn Thepphithak as Uncle Mao Rungrawee Barijindakul as Ngek Cheathavuth Watcharakhun as Peng Dan Chupong as Bodyguard Panna Rittikrai as Nong Pradu Villager Club fighters: David Ismalone as Mad Dog Hans Eric as Pearl Harbour Paul Gaius as Lee Nick Kara as Big Bear Nudhapol Asavabhakhin as Toshiro Ong-Bak introduced international audiences to a traditional form of muay Thai, a kickboxing style, known for violent strikes with fists, shins and knees; the fights were choreographed by Panna Rittikrai, Tony Jaa's mentor and a veteran director of B-movie action films. Jaa, trained in Muay Thai since childhood, wanted to bring Muay Thai to the mainstream, so he decided to make this movie.
Jaa and Panna struggled to raise money to produce a demo reel to drum up interest for the making of the film. Their first reel was made on expired film stock, so they had to raise more money and start over. During the foot chase through the alleys, there is writing on a shop house door that reads "Hi Speilberg, let do it together"; this refers to the director's desire to someday work with Steven Spielberg. During the tuk-tuk chase, a pillar on the left side of the screen reads: "Hi, Luc Besson, we are waiting for you." The French producer-director's company, EuropaCorp, would go on to purchase the international distribution rights to the film. After Ong-Bak became a hit in Thailand, sales rights for outside Asia were purchased by Luc Besson's EuropaCorp, which in turn re-edited the film. Most of the subplot involving Muay Lek's sister, was removed, the final showdown between Ting and Saming was shortened. EuropaCorp re-scored the soundtrack with some hip-hop sounds, replacing the Thai rock score.
For the United King
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep; the city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand, has a population of over eight million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over fourteen million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok the nation's primate city dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance. Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which grew and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam renamed Thailand, during the late-19th century, as the country faced pressures from the West; the city was at the centre of Thailand's political struggles throughout the 20th century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule, underwent numerous coups and several uprisings.
The city grew during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailand's politics, education and modern society. The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok; the city is now a regional force in business. It is an international hub for transport and health care, has emerged as a centre for the arts and entertainment; the city is known for cultural landmarks, as well as its red-light districts. The Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Bangkok is among the world's top tourist destinations, has been named the world's most visited city in several rankings. Bangkok's rapid growth coupled with little urban planning has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure. An inadequate road network, despite an extensive expressway network, together with substantial private car usage, have led to chronic and crippling traffic congestion, which caused severe air pollution in the 1990s.
The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve the problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; the history of Bangkok dates at least back to the early 15th century, when it was a village on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, under the rule of Ayutthaya. Because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town increased in importance. Bangkok served as a customs outpost with forts on both sides of the river, was the site of a siege in 1688 in which the French were expelled from Siam. After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese Empire in 1767, the newly crowned King Taksin established his capital at the town, which became the base of the Thonburi Kingdom. In 1782, King Phutthayotfa Chulalok succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern bank's Rattanakosin Island, thus founding the Rattanakosin Kingdom; the City Pillar was erected on 21 April 1782, regarded as the date of foundation of the present city.
Bangkok's economy expanded through international trade, first with China with Western merchants returning in the early to-mid 19th century. As the capital, Bangkok was the centre of Siam's modernization as it faced pressure from Western powers in the late-19th century; the reigns of Kings Mongkut and Chulalongkorn saw the introduction of the steam engine, printing press, rail transport and utilities infrastructure in the city, as well as formal education and healthcare. Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in 1932. Allied with Japan in World War II, it was subjected to Allied bombing, but grew in the post-war period as a result of US aid and government-sponsored investment. Bangkok's role as a US military R&R destination boosted its tourism industry as well as establishing it as a sex tourism destination. Disproportionate urban development led to increasing income inequalities and migration from rural areas into Bangkok.
Following the US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973, Japanese businesses took over as leaders in investment, the expansion of export-oriented manufacturing led to growth of the financial market in Bangkok. Rapid growth of the city continued through the 1980s and early 1990s, until it was stalled by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. By many public and social issues had emerged, among them the strain on infrastructure reflected in the city's notorious traffic jams. Bangkok's role as the nation's political stage continues to be seen in strings of popular protests, from the student uprisings in 1973 and 1976, anti-military demonstrations in 1992, successive anti-government demonstrations by opposing groups from 2008 on. Administration of the city was first formalized by King Chulalongkorn in 1906, with the establishment of Monthon Krung Thep Phra Maha Nakhon as a national subdivision. In 1915 the monthon was split into several provinces, the administrative boundaries of which have since further changed.
The city in its current form was created in 1972 with the formation of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, following the merger of Phra Nakhon Province on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya and Thonburi Province on the west during the previous year. The origin of th
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Cinema of Thailand
The cinema of Thailand dates back to the early days of filmmaking, when King Chulalongkorn's 1897 visit to Bern, Switzerland was recorded by François-Henri Lavancy-Clarke. The film was brought to Bangkok, where it was exhibited; this sparked more interest in film by the Thai Royal Family and local businessmen, who brought in filmmaking equipment and started to exhibit foreign films. By the 1920s, a local film industry was started and in the 1930s, the Thai film industry had its first "golden age", with a number of studios producing films; the years after the Second World War saw a resurgence of the industry, which used 16 mm film to produce hundreds of films, many of them hard-driving action films. Competition from Hollywood brought the Thai industry to a low point in the 1980s and 1990s, but by the end of the 1990s, Thailand had its "new wave", with such directors as Nonzee Nimibutr, Pen-Ek Ratanaruang and Apichatpong Weerasethakul, as well as action hero Tony Jaa, being celebrated at film festivals around the world.
Auguste and Louis Lumière had a film exhibition that toured in Southeast Asia in 1894, on 9 June 1897, "the wonderful Parisian cinematograph" was screened in Bangkok, is the first known film screening in Thailand. That same year, the film of the visit to Europe by King Chulalongkorn was brought back to Thailand, along with camera equipment acquired by the king's brother, Prince Thongthaem Sambassatra; the prince, considered "the father of Thai cinema", made many films and his work was shown commercially. Japanese businessmen opened the first permanent cinema, the Japanese Cinematograph, in 1905. Japanese films were so popular. European and American films were called nang farang. Under another member of the royal family, Prince Kamphangphet, the Topical Film Service of the State Railway of Thailand was set up; the service produced many promotional documentaries for the railroad and other government agencies and became an important training ground for many filmmakers. One of the early works produced was Sam Poi Luang: Great Celebration in the North, a docudrama that became a hit when it was released in 1940.
Another of the first Thai films was Nang Sao Suwan, or Miss Suwanna of Siam, a Hollywood co-production with the Topical Film Service, directed and scripted by Henry MacRae. It premiered on 22 June 1923, in Bangkok at the Phathanakorn Cinematograph. Miss Suwanna has been lost over the years, with only a few still photos from it remaining; the first all-Thai feature was Chok Sorng Chan, produced by the Wasuwat brothers' Bangkok Film Company in 1927 and directed by Manit Wasuwat. That same year, a film company, Tai Phapphayon Thai Company, produced Mai Khit Loei. Seventeen films were made between 1927 and 1932, but only fragments have survived, such as a one-minute car chase from Chok Song Chan or a two- to three-minute boxing match from Khrai Di Khrai Dai. Hollywood would make movies in Siam during this time, including the documentary, Chang, by Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack, about a poor farmer struggling to carve out a living in the jungle. In making the film, they were assisted by Prince Yugala Dighambara, grandfather of modern-day filmmaker Prince Chatrichalerm Yukol.
Robert Kerr, who served as assistant director to Henry MacRae on Miss Suwanna returned to Siam in 1928 to direct his own film, The White Rose. It was shown in Bangkok in September 1928. By 1928, the first "talkies" were being imported, providing some heavy competition for the silent Thai films. In the tradition of the benshi in Japan, local cinemas had entertaining narrators to introduce the films as well as traditional Thai orchestras that were as big an audience pleaser as the films themselves, but within two or three years, silent movies had given way to the talkies; the first Thai sound film was Long Thang, produced by the Wasuwat brothers, premiered on 1 April 1932. Considered an ideological film in the period of political reform, the film proved a big success and led to the building of the Sri Krung Talkie Film Company in Bang Kapi, it produced three to four films a year. In 1933, Sri Krung made Grandpa Som's Treasure; this period up until 1942 is regarded by scholars as the "Golden Age" for Thai film.
Among the hit films of this period was the 1938 musical, Klua Mia by the Srikrung studio. It was shot on 35-mm colour stock; the stars were Chamras Suwakhon and Manee Sumonnat, the first Thai actors to be recognized as movie stars by having their names painted on their chairs while filming at the studio. As the Second World War loomed, the country being led by a dictatorship under Field Marshal Plaek Pibulsonggram film companies were pressed into service to make propaganda films to whip up nationalism. Opposition politics found their way into film, with statesman Pridi Phanomyong producing King of the White Elephant, in 1940. With all the dialogue in English, Pridi hoped to send a message to the outside world that he was unhappy with the militaristic direction his country was taking; the film depicts the story of an ancient Siamese king. The advent of sound raised another problem for cinemas in Thailand: the language of the talkies. Soon a dubbing method developed in which a dubber would provide a simultaneous translation of the dialogue by speaking Thai into a microphone at the back of the theater.
The first Thai dubber was Sin Sibunruang, or "Tit Khiaw", who had worked for Siam Film Company and was the editor of the company's film ma
Tom-Yum-Goong is a 2005 Thai martial arts action film starring Tony Jaa. The film was directed by Prachya Pinkaew, who directed Jaa's prior breakout film Ong-Bak; as with Ong-Bak, the fights were choreographed by his mentor, Panna Rittikrai. The film was distributed as Warrior King in the United Kingdom, as The Protector in the United States, as Thai Dragon in Spain, as Revenge of the Warrior in Germany, as Honor of the Dragon in Russia and CIS countries. Kham is the last of a family line of guards who once watched over the King of Thailand's war elephants. Traditionally, only the most perfect elephants could defend the throne, great care was taken in raising them. Kham grows up forming close relations to Por Yai and his calf, Kohrn. During Songkran festival, the elephants are stolen with help from Mr. Suthep, a local MP and his son who are collaborating with elephant poachers. Kham discovers that they are in the hands of Johnny, a Vietnamese gangster who runs a Thai restaurant named Tom Yum Goong Otob in Sydney, Australia.
Kham arrives in Sydney, is stalked by the police as soon as he leaves the airport. Kham coerces a gangster to lead him to Johnny's hideout. Outraged, Johnny summons countless extreme sports enthusiasts. Exhausted, Kham falls asleep in an alley. A prostitute brings him to her apartment. In his sleep, he dreams of an epic battle involving war elephants and the Jaturangkabart, the elephant protectors; when Pla leaves, Kham must escape. Two officers and Rick are taken off the case and reassigned to provide security for the Police Commissioner's meeting with Mr. Sim. In that meeting, Pla acted as a hostess girl to the two men. During the meeting, Mr. Sim and the Commissioner are murdered; the murder is instigated by Vincent, who puts the blame on Mark. Mark escapes, but is captured. With Pla's help, Kham enters Tom Yum Goong Otob, he reaches the dining hall at the top. Kham demands, "Where are my elephants?" and is met with the laughter of Johnny and his men. Johnny taunts Kham with Kohrn's bell; this enrages Kham and he fights and defeats his opponents.
He enters the storage area, containing various exotic animals ready to be eaten. Kham frees Mark and Kohrn, escaping minutes before the police arrive. Meanwhile, Madame Rose is made the new leader of the Chinese gang after she murders two other possible successors. Inspector Vincent initiates a search for Mark, who are hiding in a Buddhist monastery. Soon after their departure, the monastery is set on fire, but Kham returns, he defeats a fierce capoerista and a sword-wielding wushu expert. However, his third opponent, a giant wrestler, proves way too much for Kham; when the police arrive, he flees with Mark. By morning, Kham goes on his way. Mark is discovered by several policemen and sent to deal with Inspector Vincent, whom Pla has revealed to be the murderer. Kham arrives at a conference hall. Kohrn runs in, he finds Kohrn in an elevator lobby, where Vincent threatens to shoot him. Kham finds himself with Kohrn in a huge room, he is shown the skeleton of Por Yai, encrusted with jewels as a gift to Madame Rose.
Her men attack Kham, he attacks them more brutally than seen, by breaking many of the men's arms and legs. The wrestler from the monastery is called in, along with three others. Kohrn is thrown through a glass wall, Kham is knocked into the elephant ornament, causing two leg bones to fall off. Kham uses them as clubs to knock the wrestlers out, he stops Madame Rose before she can escape in a helicopter, crashed. Back in the lobby, Mark is shown Pla, forgiven by his boss, Inspector Lamond, he is given a new partner. Mark is interviewed by a reporter about Kham. A narration from Mark is heard, with scenes of Kham's childhood shown. Mark explains that Thai people treat elephants like they are their brothers, they hate people who hurt them. Thais dislike people who take liberties. Kham is reunited with Kohrn. Tony Jaa as Kham, the last of a family line of guards who once watched over the King of Thailand's war elephants. Kham is characterized by the juxtaposition of his red krama scarf throughout the film.
As he grows up, he bonds with his elephant Por Yai and its calf, Korn. When they are stolen, Kham journeys to Australia to get them back. Actor Nutdanai Kong portrays 9-year-old Kham. Sotorn Rungruaeng as Kham's father, who taught Kham the fighting style of the Jaturangkabat, the royal guardians of the Thai war elephants, it has been Kham's father's dream that his elephant Por Yai would be selected as one of the Royal Thai elephants. However, during a fake inspection staged by a local member of parliament, his elephants are stolen, he is wounded by a gunshot. Petchtai Wongkamlao as Sergeant Mark, a Thai-Australian policeman who patrols an area of Sydney populated by Asians, he is so popular there that the locals do him favors like giving him free mangoes and haircuts. Bongkoj Khongmalai as Pla, a Thai student in Sydney, forced to be a call girl to repay the debt of her former boyfriend, the late Wittaya who used to own Tom Yum Goong Otob, a Thai restaurant. Xing Jin as Madame Rose, a transsexual member of a Chinese gang in Sydney, in conflict with the leader, her Uncle Mr. Sim.
Damian De Montemas as Inspector Vincent, a corrupt policeman in Sydney who collaborates with Madame Rose. David Asavanond as Officer Rick, Sergeant Mark's new partner. Nathan Jones (cre