The Altiplano, Andean Plateau or Bolivian Plateau, in west-central South America, is the area where the Andes are the widest. It is the most extensive area of high plateau on Earth outside Tibet; the bulk of the Altiplano lies in Bolivia, but its northern parts lie in Peru, its southern parts lie in Chile and Argentina. The plateau hosts several cities of these four nations, including El Alto, La Paz and Puno; the northeastern Altiplano is more humid than the southwestern area. The latter area has salt flats, due to its aridity. At the Bolivia -- Peru border lies the largest lake in South America. South of that in Bolivia was Lake Poopó, declared dried up and defunct as of December 2015, it is unclear. The Altiplano was the site of several pre-Columbian cultures, including the Chiripa and the Inca Empire. Spain conquered the region in the 16th century. Major economic activities in the Altiplano include mining and vicuña herding, services in the cities. There is some international tourism; the Altiplano is an area of inland drainage lying in the central Andes, occupying parts of northern Chile and Argentina, western Bolivia and southern Peru.
Its height averages about 3,750 meters less than that of the Tibetan Plateau. Unlike conditions in Tibet, the Altiplano is dominated by massive active volcanoes of the Central Volcanic Zone to the west, such as Ampato, Parinacota, Paruma and Licancabur, the Cordillera Real in the north east with Illampu, Huayna Potosí, Janq'u Uma and Illimani; the Atacama Desert, one of the driest areas on the planet, lies to the southwest of the Altiplano. The Altiplano is noted for hypoxic air caused by high elevation. At various times during the Pleistocene epoch, both the southern and northern Altiplano were covered by vast pluvial lakes. Remnants are Lake Titicaca, straddling the Peru–Bolivia border, Poopó, a salt lake that extends south of Oruro, Bolivia. Salar de Uyuni, locally known as Salar de Tunupa, Salar de Coipasa are two large dry salt flats formed after the Altiplano paleolakes dried out; the term Altiplano is sometimes used to identify the altitude zone and the type of climate that prevails within it: it is colder than that of the tierra fría but not as cold as that of the tierra helada.
Scientists classify the latter as commencing at an elevation of 4,500 meters. Alternate names used in place of altiplano in this context páramos. In extentum, the climate is cool and humid to semi-arid and arid, with mean annual temperatures that vary from 3 °C near the western mountain range to 12 °C near Lake Titicaca; the diurnal cycle of temperature is wide, with maximum temperatures in the order of 12 to 24 °C and the minimum in the order of -20 to 10 °C. The coldest temperatures occur in the southwestern portion of the Altiplano during the months of June and July, which correspond to the austral winter; the seasonal cycle of rainfall is marked, with the rainy season concentrated between December and March. The rest of the year tends to be dry, cool and sunny. Snowfall may happen between April and September to the north, but it is not common. Several mechanisms have been put forth for the formation of the Altiplano plateau; such weaknesses would cause the partition of tectonic deformation and uplift into the eastern and western cordillera, leaving the necessary space for the formation of the altiplano basin.
Magmatic processes rooted in the asthenosphere might have contributed to uplift of the plateau Climate has controlled the spatial distribution of erosion and sediment deposition, controlling the lubrication along the subducting Nazca Plate and hence influencing the transmission of tectonic forces into South America. Climate determined the formation of internal drainage and sediment trapping within the Andes blocking tectonic deformation in the central area between the two cordilleras, expelling deformation towards the flanks of the orogen Convective removal of the dense lower lithosphere beneath the Altiplano caused that region to isostatically'float' higher Qulla Uros Quechua Aymara Lake Tauca Gran Chaco Guatemalan Highlands Mexican Plateau Puna de Atacama Yungas Photo Gallery: Argentinian Puna Water resources of Chilean Altiplano Steinmetz, George. "Altiplano - Where Bolivia meets the sky". National Geographic Magazine
Maihueniopsis is a genus of the cactus family, containing 18 species. The former genus Puna R. Kiesling is now synonym to Maihueniopsis. Maihueniopsis archiconoidea F. Ritter Maihueniopsis atacamensis F. Ritter Maihueniopsis bonnieae E. F. Anderson Maihueniopsis camachoi F. Ritter Maihueniopsis clavarioides E. F. Anderson Maihueniopsis colorea F. Ritter Maihueniopsis crassispina F. Ritter Maihueniopsis darwinii F. Ritter Maihueniopsis domeykoensis F. Ritter Maihueniopsis glomerata R. Kiesling Maihueniopsis grandiflora F. Ritter Maihueniopsis minuta R. Kiesling Maihueniopsis nigrispina R. Kiesling Maihueniopsis ovata F. Ritter Maihueniopsis rahmeri F. Ritter Maihueniopsis subterranea E. F. Anderson Maihueniopsis tarapacana F. Ritter Maihueniopsis wagenknechtii F. Ritter
Puna is one of the 9 districts of Hawaii County on the Island of Hawaiʻi. It is located on the windward side of the island and shares borders with South Hilo district in the north and Kaʻū district in the west. With a size of just under 320,000 acres or 500 sq. miles. Puna is smaller than the island of Kauaʻi. Puna cropland supports floriculture and macadamia nuts. Most of the state’s papayas crops are grown in the lower Puna area, regarded as the best place in the Islands to grow the crop. Kīlauea is one of the world's most active volcanoes, is in one of its longest active phases; the current eruption has been continuously in action since 1983 along Kīlauea's East Rift Zone, continuously monitored by the Hawaii Volcano Observatory. The Royal Gardens subdivision and the villages of Kaimu and Kalapana have been destroyed by these flows and in the Fall of 2014, it touched the outskirts of Pahoa, the main village in Puna, before halting and seeking a new course south into the ocean at Kamokuna. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, when constructed, had two entrances.
The entrance from lower Puna was cut off in 1986, several miles of the road along the ocean were covered by several flows that occurred over the course of the eruption. Millions of tourists come each year to witness the spectacle of a torrent of lava plunging into the sea and exploding as it hits the water. Lava flows have continued to add new land to the old shoreline resulting in an unstable delta that periodically forms cracks and may plunge into the sea. In June 2014, a lava flow dubbed the June 27th flow started flowing from a vent of a spatter cone called Puʻu ʻŌʻō on the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano in a northwest direction towards the villages of Kaohe Homesteads and Pahoa. In early September it appeared that the lava flow was en route to the small community of Kaohe Homesteads. Community leaders and state officials began to draw up plans for evacuations and the mayor signed an emergency proclamation as residents of the Kaohe Homesteads subdivision learned that lava from Kilauea Volcano was just 0.8 miles away and could reach them within a week.
On September 13, a release from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory stated that the flow had begun to shift away from the subdivision as it had interacted with both the cracks and down-dropped blocks within the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea volcano and a natural valley that leveled away from Kaohe Homesteads. In early October 2014, the lava flow was heading towards the community of Hawaii. On October 25, the flow had crossed Cemetery Road at Apa'a Road near the Pahoa Recycling and Transfer Station, a waste/trash station, closed and relocated due to the lava flow; the flow was advancing on a nearby cemetery and triggered the first series of evacuations. On November 10, the flow claimed a home. Officials feared that if the lava flow continued on its path it would cover and close the only route in and out of lower Puna, Highway 130. On October 22, The National Park Service announced that it would help state and county officials create an emergency route along 8 miles of the buried Chain of Craters Road in order to help Puna residents who would lose access to the rest of Hawai‘i if that lava flow covered Highway 130.
Construction of the Chain of Craters alternate route began by making a path over a wall of lava rock covering the road in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. The $12 million to $15.5 million route, to be re-established between the park and Kalapana as a gravel road, would have been the only road in and out of lower Puna, if the June 27 lava flow had made its way to the sea. The park closed. Nearly 8 miles of the roadway known as Chain of Craters Road inside the park and Highway 130 outside of it, had been covered by past flows from the ongoing Puʻu ʻŌʻō eruption that threatened Pahoa. Chain of Craters Road, which opened in 1965, had portions blocked or covered by lava for 37 years of its 49-year existence, according to the park; the road is about 19 miles long inside the park. However, that lava flow stopped just short of the village of Pahoa. In 2016 a new flow emerged from Puʻu ʻŌʻō in a southerly direction, the shortest way to the ocean, across an area, covered in lava during the preceding decades.
The emergency road connecting Hwy 130 to the Chain of Craters Road was severed by the new flow. In 2018 this road was again cleared through the 2016 lava to provide emergency access around the 2018 lower Puna eruption. On May 3, 2018, a fissure opened and lava started spewing out on Mohala Street in Leilani Estates. By June 5, 2018, reports from Hawai'i County officials indicated that hundreds of homes in several subdivisions had been destroyed by the ongoing eruption. By early August, over 13.7 square miles had been covered by lava, including about 875 acres of new land offshore. For statistical purposes, the United States Census Bureau has defined many of these communities as a census-designated places; the census definition of these areas may not correspond to local understanding of the area with the same name. ʻĀinaloa Black Sands Eden Roc Fern Acres Fern Forest Glenwood Hawaiian Acres Hawaiian Beaches Hawaiian Paradise Park Kalapana Kapoho Keaʻau Kehena Kurtistown Leilani Estates Mountain View Nānāwale Estates Orchidland Pāhoa Vacationland Hawaii Volcano Village The affordable housing prices have led to an enormous increase in developments in Puna, have made this district the fastest growing area on the Big Island.
In the last 20 years the population has grown by nearly 20,000 people and it is esti
The Puna grassland ecoregion, of the montane grasslands and shrublands biome, is found in the central Andes Mountains of South America. It is considered one of the eight Natural Regions in Peru, but extends south, across Bolivia, as far as northern Argentina and Chile; the term puna encompasses diverse ecosystems of the high Central Andes above 3200–3400 m. The puna is found above the treeline at 3200–3500 m elevation, below the permanent snow line above 4500–5000 m elevation, it extends from central Peru in the north, across the Altiplano plateau of Peru and Bolivia, south along the spine of the Andes into northern Argentina and Chile. Other sources claim that it goes from 4000 m to the snow line of Puna grassland; the puna is a diverse ecosystem that comprises varied ecoregions labeled wet/moist puna, dry puna and desert puna. This ecoregion is a high elevation, montane grassland in the southern high Andes, occurring from northern Peru to northern Bolivia; the wet puna shares its border on the west with the Sechura desert and the east with the wet Peruvian Yungas.
The characteristically mountainous landscape contains high lakes, mountain valleys, snow-covered mountains, plateaux. The high elevation of the wet puna causes the area to have large temperature differences between night and day; the average annual temperature is low, ranging from 5 to 7 °C. Temperatures shift from characteristic summer highs in the drop to winter lows at night; this extreme temperature shift has caused selective adaptation to occur and many endemic plants such as the Culcitium and Polylepis center their diversity in the wet puna. The ecoregion contains snow-capped peaks, glacial lakes, several rivers that originate in the Cordilleras; the biggest lake in the ecoregion is Lake Titicaca, the highest navigable lake in the world, at an elevation of 3800 m. The Suches and Tiwanacu rivers in Bolivia are the lakes tributaries; the areas in the north surrounding Lake Titicaca have eight wet months, the areas in the south have one to two wet months. The average precipitation in this region ranges from 400 to 2000 mm.
This ecoregion is a dry, high elevation montane grassland of the southern high Andes. It extends into northern Chile and Argentina and east into western Bolivia occurring above 3500 m between the tree and permanent snow lines; the vegetation of the dry puna consists of tropical alpine herbs with dwarf shrubs. Within the dry puna are salt flats, high plateaus, snow-covered peaks and volcanoes. Dry puna is distinguished from the other types of puna by its diminished annual rainfall; the dry puna receives less than 400 mm of rainfall each year. The region lies at an elevation of 3500–5000 m above sea level; the dry puna is oligothermic as well. The average temperatures in this ecoregion range from 8 to 11 degrees Celsius and are lowest in the south; as a result of the elevation, varied temperatures and lack of rainfall, the Central Andean dry puna is a unique ecoregion with adapted flora and fauna. The southern region of the dry puna encompasses an drier puna known as the desert puna. In the desert puna the average rainfall ranges from only 51–406 mm.
The desert puna is dominated by the huge salt lakes and is known for the scattered halophytes around and in the depressions. These salt lakes are home to the endemic Andean flamingo; the World Wildlife fund defines three distinct puna sub-ecoregions: NT1003 Central Andean wet puna – With about 1000 mm of precipitation each year, it tends to be covered by grasses mixed with herbs, lichens and ferns. Wet areas rushes; the Polylepis forests of 10,000 years ago were cleared by fire for agriculture and grazing. Many areas are farmed, it extends from north-central Peru, adjacent to the páramos, reaches southeast to along the eastern altiplano of Bolivia. NT1002 Central Andean puna – Covering most of southern Peru, the region is dominated by shrublands and thickets of tola shrubs. NT1001 Central Andean dry puna – Mostly in the southern part of the Central Andes along the western cordillera of Bolivia. There is little agriculture. Puna soils are composed of a stony layer; the average soil profile is 33 cm deep.
The Puna ecosystem has a low diversity of bacteria in its soils. The rhizosphere of the grasses are dominated by the Bacillas species, these organisms are composed of dormant cells that enable them to survive in the extreme climatic conditions in the Puna ecosystem; the dormant bacterial community of Puna grasses is similar to those found in desert soils. The puna flora is characterized by its unique assemblages of mat forming species. Many of these species, most notably the large Azorella compacta has been harvested for fuel and medicinal use; the vegetation with the puna grassland displays complex patterns of spatial variation, despite the low cover and overall density. The puna belt which ranges from wet puna in the north of the Andes to dry puna to the southwestern Andes is composed by poaceae and shrubs of the asteraceae family. Other representative grasses include species Jarava ichu, Calamagrostis vicunarum, Festuca dolichophylla. There are several main rock unit formations in the Puna with distinct soil conditions that can be used to identify the main flora of each area.
Up to 3000 m above the desert, the arid vegetation of the mountainous steppe is characterized by columnar cacti, arid shrubs and herbs. Vegetation located be
Pune called Poona, is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. It is the ninth most populous city in the country with an estimated population of 3.13 million. Along with its Industrial Estate Pimpri Chinchwad and the three cantonment towns of Pune and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region. According to the 2011 census, the urban area has a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region is estimated at 7.27 million. Situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is the administrative headquarters of its namesake district. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire and so was one of the most important political centres on the Indian subcontinent. Pune is ranked the number one city in India in the ease of living ranking index; the city is considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra.
It is known as the "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune. Research institutes of information technology, education and training attract students and professionals from India and overseas. Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange programmes with colleges in Europe. Pune is an important centre for civil services training; the earliest reference to Pune is an inscription on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 CE, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning "sacred news". By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi. Copper plates dated 858 and 868 CE show that by the 9th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed at the location of the modern Pune; the plates indicate. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of the territory ruled by the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327.
Pune was part of the Jagir granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Maloji Bhosale's grandson, the founder of the Maratha Empire, was born at Shivneri, a fort not far from Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period 1660 to 1705. After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again between 1636 and 1647, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town, he stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of the areas around Pune and the neighbouring Maval region. He developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order; the Lal Mahal was commissioned in 1631 and construction was completed in 1640 AD. Shivaji spent his young years at the Lal Mahal, his mother, Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity of the city.
From 1703 to 1705, towards the end of the 27-year-long Mughal–Maratha Wars, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb and its name was changed to Muhiyabad. Two years the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort, Pune, from the Mughals. In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu, he moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728, marking the beginning of the transformation of what was a kasbah into a large city. He commissioned the construction of the Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River; the construction was completed in 1730. Bajirao's son and successor, Nanasaheb constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada and the city; the aqueduct was still in working order in 2004. The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in a great expansion of Pune, with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill and many Maruti, Vishnu, Rama and Ganesh temples.
The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa, he developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed; the Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802 Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805; the Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818. The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817; the Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city.
The Southern Command of the Indian Army was established in 1895 and has its headquarters in Pune cantonment. The city was known as Poona during British rule. Poona Municipality was established in 1858. A rai