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Punctuated equilibrium

Punctuated equilibrium is a theory in evolutionary biology which proposes that once a species appears in the fossil record the population will become stable, showing little evolutionary change for most of its geological history. This state of little or no morphological change is called stasis; when significant evolutionary change occurs, the theory proposes that it is restricted to rare and geologically rapid events of branching speciation called cladogenesis. Cladogenesis is the process by which a species splits into two distinct species, rather than one species transforming into another. Punctuated equilibrium is contrasted against phyletic gradualism, the idea that evolution occurs uniformly and by the steady and gradual transformation of whole lineages. In this view, evolution is seen as smooth and continuous. In 1972, paleontologists Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould published a landmark paper developing their theory and called it punctuated equilibria, their paper built upon Ernst Mayr's model of geographic speciation, I.

Michael Lerner's theories of developmental and genetic homeostasis, their own empirical research. Eldredge and Gould proposed that the degree of gradualism attributed to Charles Darwin is nonexistent in the fossil record, that stasis dominates the history of most fossil species. Punctuated equilibrium originated as a logical consequence of Ernst Mayr's concept of genetic revolutions by allopatric and peripatric speciation as applied to the fossil record. Although the sudden appearance of species and its relationship to speciation was proposed and identified by Mayr in 1954, historians of science recognize the 1972 Eldredge and Gould paper as the basis of the new paleobiological research program. Punctuated equilibrium differs from Mayr's ideas in that Eldredge and Gould placed greater emphasis on stasis, whereas Mayr was concerned with explaining the morphological discontinuity found in the fossil record. Mayr complimented Eldredge and Gould's paper, stating that evolutionary stasis had been "unexpected by most evolutionary biologists" and that punctuated equilibrium "had a major impact on paleontology and evolutionary biology."A year before their 1972 Eldredge and Gould paper, Niles Eldredge published a paper in the journal Evolution which suggested that gradual evolution was seen in the fossil record and argued that Ernst Mayr's standard mechanism of allopatric speciation might suggest a possible resolution.

The Eldredge and Gould paper was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America in 1971. The symposium focused its attention on how modern microevolutionary studies could revitalize various aspects of paleontology and macroevolution. Tom Schopf, who organized that year's meeting, assigned Gould the topic of speciation. Gould recalls that "Eldredge's 1971 publication had presented the only new and interesting ideas on the paleontological implications of the subject—so I asked Schopf if we could present the paper jointly." According to Gould "the ideas came from Niles, with yours acting as a sounding board and eventual scribe. I coined the term punctuated equilibrium and wrote most of our 1972 paper, but Niles is the proper first author in our pairing of Eldredge and Gould." In his book Time Frames Eldredge recalls that after much discussion the pair "each wrote half. Some of the parts that would seem the work of one of us were first penned by the other—I remember for example, writing the section on Gould's snails.

Other parts are harder to reconstruct. Gould edited the entire manuscript for better consistency. We sent it in, Schopf reacted against it—thus signaling the tenor of the reaction it has engendered, though for shifting reasons, down to the present day."John Wilkins and Gareth Nelson have argued that French architect Pierre Trémaux proposed an "anticipation of the theory of punctuated equilibrium of Gould and Eldredge." The fossil record includes well documented examples of both phyletic gradualism and punctuational evolution. As such, much debate persists over the prominence of stasis in the fossil record. Before punctuated equilibrium, most evolutionists considered stasis to be unimportant; the paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson, for example, believed that phyletic gradual evolution comprised 90% of evolution. More modern studies, including a meta-analysis examining 58 published studies on speciation patterns in the fossil record showed that 71% of species exhibited stasis, 63% were associated with punctuated patterns of evolutionary change.

According to Michael Benton, "it seems clear that stasis is common, that had not been predicted from modern genetic studies." A paramount example of evolutionary stasis is the fern Osmunda claytoniana. Based on paleontological evidence it has remained unchanged at the level of fossilized nuclei and chromosomes, for at least 180 million years; when Eldredge and Gould published their 1972 paper, allopatric speciation was considered the "standard" model of speciation. This model was popularized by Ernst Mayr in his 1954 paper "Change of genetic environment and evolution," and his classic volume Animal Species and Evolution. Allopatric speciation suggests that species with large central populations are stabilized by their large volume and the process of gene flow. New and beneficial mutations are diluted by the population's large size and are unable to reach fixation, due to such factors as changing environments. If this is the case the transformation of whole lineages should be rare, as the fossil record indicates.


Johnson v. Transportation Agency

Johnson v. Transportation Agency, 480 U. S. 616, is the only United States Supreme Court case to address a sex-based affirmative action plan in the employment context. The case was brought by Paul Johnson, a male Santa Clara Transportation Agency employee, passed over for a promotion in favor of Diane Joyce, a female employee who Johnson argued was less qualified; the Court found that the plan did not violate the protection against discrimination on the basis of sex in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Sex based affirmative action refers to policies adopted by employers and educational institutions that allow for the consideration of sex as one factor in employment actions or university admissions; because Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination in employment actions on the basis of sex, affirmative action plans must meet the test laid out by the Supreme Court in United Steelworkers v. Weber. In the context of sex based affirmative action, the Weber test requires that the plan must be aimed at "eliminat manifest... imbalances in traditionally segregated job categories."

Furthermore, the plan must not "unnecessarily trammel the interests of" male employees. The plan must be temporary. Supporters of affirmative action for women justify the need for such plans on the basis of historical discrimination and lack of opportunity for women in many traditionally male dominated fields. Under a substantive equality framework, affirmative action for women is a way of acknowledging that men and women are not always situated with respect to employment because of women's historical exclusion from traditionally male occupations. By this way of thinking, affirmative action can help level the playing field for women trying to break into a male-dominated field; some supporters argue that affirmative action is essential because studies show women are perceived as being less qualified than their peers when they are qualified. Opponents of affirmative action for women argue that affirmative action plans legalize reverse discrimination by favoring less qualified women. Another argument is that affirmative action plans are not necessary because discrimination on the basis of sex is prohibited by federal law.

Still others argue that affirmative action plans harm the intended beneficiaries by tagging them as less competent than their peers. Studies show that the American public is more supportive of sex based affirmative action than race based affirmative action. However, studies indicate that beneficiaries of affirmative action are viewed negatively by both men and women. Despite this negative perception of affirmative action beneficiaries, other studies indicate that while the beneficiaries of affirmative action, on average, have a lower educational attainment than their peers, those beneficiaries have job performance outcomes that are as good as their peers. In terms of benefits to women, a reported 30 year longitudinal study of the effect of affirmative action on hiring found that minority women benefited over the entire 30 years of the study. However, while affirmative action plans had a negative effect on white women during the 1970s and 1980s, there was a positive effect for this group during the 1990s.

Johnson had worked for the county since 1967, starting as a road yard clerk but transferring to a position doing road maintenance work. In 1979, Johnson and eleven other county employees applied for an open position as a road dispatcher. One of the other employees was the only female applicant for the position. Joyce began working for the county as an account clerk in 1970, she became the first woman to hold a position as a road maintenance worker in 1975. The Agency had adopted an affirmative action plan in 1978 that authorized the Agency to consider sex as one factor in promotion decisions where the position was one in which women were underrepresented; the plan did not include quotas, but did have a long term goal of having the proportion of women and minorities in each job classification reflect that of the labor pool. Both Johnson and Joyce were deemed qualified for the position. Johnson, scored two points higher than Joyce on the first interview portion of the application process. After a second interview, Johnson was recommended for the promotion.

Joyce was concerned that prior disagreements she had had with two members of the interview panel would negatively affect her evaluation, so she contacted the County's Affirmative Action Office. The Office recommended that Joyce be promoted, based in part on the fact that no women had held a position as a road dispatcher. Johnson filed a complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission alleging the County had violated Title VII by discriminating against him on the basis of sex; the EEOC issued a right to sue letter and Johnson brought suit in the Northern District of California. The District Court for the Northern District of California held that the Agency's plan was invalid because it was not temporary; the court held that the Agency had discriminated against Johnson because Joyce's sex was determinative in the promotion decision. The Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reversed, holding that the plan was not invalid because it did not have a fixed end date; the Supreme Court upheld the Agency's plan by a 6-3 vote.

The majority reviewed the Agency's plan under the test laid out in Weber. First, the voluntary affirmative action plan must be aimed at "eliminat manifest racial imbalances in traditionally segregated job categories." Second, the plan must not "unnecessarily trammel the interests of" male employees. In addition, the plan must be temporary. Under the fi

Ebaa News Agency

The Ebaa News Agency is a media outlet linked to Hayat Tahrir al-Sham and reports on events surrounding the group, the civil administration linked to the group, the Syrian Salvation Government. The Ebaa News Agency was created in March 2017 and has been described as mirroring ISIL's media such as the Amaq News Agency, with summaries and reports on the group's activities such as attacks and military operations, making it effective for the group's branding and advertising; the agency is considered a descendant of al-Nusra's own media apperatus that functioned similar to both Amaq and Ebaa, with correspondants and having a detached nature from the group. Ebaa News Agency covers events related to the HTS linked Syrian Salvation Government and maintains a weekly magazine, launched in June 2018 with articles and opinion pieces. Along with a weekly magazine, summaries of events related to HTS, the Ebaa News Agency publishes infographics and statistics relating to HTS' exploits and operations; the Ebaa News Agency publishes video footage of combat, HTS policing activities in areas under its control including executions, displays of equipment captured by HTS.

In February 2018, Ebaa News Agency published photographs of several pieces of captured equipment by Hayat Tahrir al-Sham from Ahrar al-Sham after the former took control of the latter's base during the Syrian Liberation Front–Tahrir al-Sham conflict, the display included photos of self-propelled artillery, tanks and APCs belonging to Ahrar al-Sham, HTS claimed via the Ebaa News Agency to have captured 20 tanks, 4 technicals and several artillery pieces. In April 2018, Ebaa News Agency published footage of HTS fighters engaged in combat against ISIL in the Yarmouk Camp, a suburb in southern Damascus, the footage included point-of-view shots from HTS fighters with helmet cameras, Ebaa released photos of a tunnel dug by ISIL with captions saying "network of tunnels dug by the Kharijites", claimed that HTS expelled ISIL from the area took full control of the tunnels dug by the group. In June 2018, the Ebaa News Agency announced that HTS had arrested Saad al-Hunayti, a Jordanian scholar and friend of the Jihadist ideologue and cleric Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, who had traveled to Syria in 2014 to mediate tensions between ISIL and al-Nusra, joined ISIL due to a lack of implementation of Sharia by al-Nusra, until fleeing back to rebel held areas after a series of defeats by ISIL, he was arrested on the grounds of being affiliated with ISIL and orchestrating assassinations in Idlib.

News of his arrest was condemned by Maqdisi and he demanded that HTS release Hunayti. On 29 December 2018, Ebaa News Agency published a statement in favor the Taliban's peace talks with the United States, saying that the talks were nessicary in order for the United States with withdraw from Afghanistan, that the Taliban has the advantage. In July 2019, the Ebaa News Agency in its weekly magazine published an article saying taking selfies was a security risk, because the photos could contain metadata such was location, the model of the phone used and the time the photo as taken; the article published information explaining how to reduce these risks such as turning off settings and getting apps that remove this information

Callenish Circle

Callenish Circle was an extreme metal band from the Netherlands. They recorded three of their albums for Metal Blade Records, broke up in February 2007. In the early 2000s things were going well for the band. In 2002 they toured with God Dethroned, played at the Dutch version of Ozzfest and the German Party San Open Air, opened for Dimmu Borgir, their fourth album was released by Metal Blade in 2003. In 2006 they toured Mexico, before they decided to break up in 2007. A part of their song is used as an outro in the online review show Angry Joe Show; the song is found on the Flesh Power Dominion album. Lovelorn Drift of Empathy Escape Graceful... Yet Forbidding Flesh Power Dominion My Passion // Your Pain Forbidden Empathy Wim Vossenbass Remy Dieteren − guitar Gavin Harte − drums Ronny Tijssen − guitar Patrick Savelkoulvocals Jos Evers − guitar Maurice Wagemans − bass John Gorissen − bass Roland Schuschke − bass René Rokx − bass Callenish Circle official website Callenish Circle at MySpace Callenish Circle discography at MusicBrainz

Theatre in Saudi Arabia

The modern Saudi theatre traces its beginnings with the foundation of the current Saudi Arabia state. However, the Hijaz play in Medina was established during the Turkish Ottoman era. A popular theatre including dance, Arabic Poetry. Theatre activities are still popular today in the kingdom. Saudi theatre has existed in and been produced by several establishments such as schools, governmental sectors, private sectors; the history of the Theatrical activities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia back to 1928 when the first play entitled "Dialogue between the ignorant and uneducated" performed in Qassim in front of King Abdulaziz. There were theatrical activities were very active during the Ottoman in Hijaz. Ministry of Culture and Information is one of the several organizations that have been established throughout the country to preserve and sponsors the Saudi theater; the Saudi Arabian Society for Culture and Arts, The King Fahd Cultural Center, King Abdulaziz Center for World Culture sponsors the Saudi theater activities in the kingdom.

There are several theaters in the kingdom. The Theater of King Fahd Cultural Center in Riyadh is considered the largest theater in Saudi Arabia with the largest number of seats that serve more than 3000 people, it hosted many theatre activities. The theater of King Abdulaziz Center for World Culture has around 900 seats, plan to open in the second half of 2017

Wayland Historic District

The Wayland Historic District is a predominantly residential historic district on the east side of Providence, Rhode Island. It is a large area, covering about 122 acres, bounded on the north by Everett and Laurel Avenues, on the east by Blackstone Boulevard and Butler Avenue, on the west by Arlington Avenue, on the south by Angell and South Angell Streets; this area, in the 19th century part of the Moses Brown farm, was platted for development in 1891, with most of the construction taking place in the early decades of the 20th century. Most of the residential properties in the district are single-family houses built in revival styles popular at the time, they are set on similarly-sized lots with uniform setbacks, were built without garages. There are a number of two-family houses, a small number of apartment buildings, most of which are found on the arterial roads of the area. There are several religious buildings, including several churches; the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Providence, Rhode Island