The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea
Han River (Korea)
The Han River or Hangang is a major river in South Korea and the fourth longest river on the Korean peninsula after the Amnok and Nakdong rivers. The river begins as two smaller rivers in the eastern mountains of the Korean peninsula, which converge near Seoul, the capital of the country; the Han River and its surrounding area have played an important role in Korean history. The Three Kingdoms of Korea strove to take control of this land, where the river was used as a trade route to China. However, the river is no longer used for navigation, because its estuary is located at the borders of the two Koreas, barred for entrance by any civilian; the river serves as a water source for over 12 million Koreans. In July 2000, the United States military admitted to having dumped toxic chemicals in the river, causing protests; the lower stretches of the Han River are lined with pedestrian walkways, bicycle paths, public parks and restaurants in Seoul. In a 2011 survey conducted by Seoul Development Institute of 800 residents and 103 urban planning and architectural experts, 51.3 percent of residents and 68.9 percent of experts voted the river the second most scenic location in the city, following Mount Namsan in the top spot.
The Han is formed by the confluence of the Namhan River, which originates in Mount Daedeok, the Bukhan River, which originates on the slopes of Kumgang Mountain in North Korea. The River flows through Seoul and merges with the Rimjin River shortly before it flows into the Yellow Sea; the two major branches of the river, the Namhan River and the Bukhan River, come together at Yangpyeong, Gyeonggi province, at which point it is referred to as the Han River. It passes through Seoul and continues on to the Yellow Sea. Broad tidal flats can be found at the mouth of the Han River, where it meets the sea along the Korean Demilitarized Zone that divides South and North Korea; the total length of the Han River is 494 kilometres. Although it is not a long river, the lower Han is remarkably broad for such a short river. Within Seoul city limits, the river is more than 1 kilometre wide. Prior to the construction of a number of major dams, the river was known for its huge coefficient of river regime of 1:390.
The Namhangang is sometimes, but not always, referred to as the "Han" in South Korea. The term "South Han" is understood irrespective of. Though "Namhan" and "Bukhan" are homophones with the acronyms Namhan and Bukhan, used in South Korea, this is a mere coincidence; the hanja for the Han River is not 韓 but 漢. The reason behind this is because the meaning of the native Korean "han", in this instance meaning "great" "large" "wide", was transliterated into Hanja with the character 漢 meant "large", thus showing the reason why the river used the word 漢 instead of 韓, it is easily mistaken with the use of 漢 in Seoul's older name, "漢城" where 漢 does not refer to Chinese people, but refers to the idea of Seoul being the "walled city on the Han". As a result, Koreans use 漢 because 韓 and 漢 sound the same, but the meaning is 韓, not "Han Chinese". Han River has been called by different names through the course of Korean history. During the period of the Han Commanderies on the peninsula and the early part of the three kingdom's period the river was referred to as the Daesu.
The state of Goguryeo called it the Arisu. Baekje called it the Ungniha; the Han River has played a central role in Korean history from the earliest times. The kingdom of Baekje was the first to lay claim to the Han River, recognizing its strategic significance as a primary waterway linking the central western region of the peninsula with the Yellow Sea, it was recognized for the river's fertile alluvial banks, a relative rarity on the mountainous peninsula. Pungnaptoseong, located south of Seoul, is posited as an early capital of Baekje, it was not long before the region near the effluence of the Han River with the Yellow Sea, around present-day Seoul, became a bone of contention between Baekje and the rising kingdom of Goguryeo. During the reign of its King Jangsu Goguryeo wrested the western terminus of the Han River from its rival Baekje; the ensuing decades would see a tug-of-war over the region until 551 when Baekje, in an alliance with Silla, confirmed its control over the Han River basin.
But this alliance was not to last, in 553 Silla broke its alliance with Baekje to seize control of the entire river as part of its bid for domination of the peninsula. With the demise of both Baekje and Goguryeo and the unification of the peninsula under Silla in 668, the Han River entered its long era as a "Korean river", first under the control of Unified Silla of the succeeding Goryeo dynasty, as part of the Joseon dynasty. During the Joseon period the Han River achieved new prominence as the primary waterway of the new Korean capital of Seoul called Hanyang. During the Korean war the South Korean military destroyed the Han Bridge; the Han River now belongs to the Republic of Korea, or South Korea, with its effluence in the Yellow Sea a few nautical miles from North Korea (though some of the river's tributa
Seoul the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area. Seoul is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world and is larger than London and Paris. Strategically situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BCE by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the city was designated the capital of Korea under the Joseon dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city; as with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. More Seoul has been a major site of modern architectural construction – major modern landmarks include the N Seoul Tower, the 63 Building, the Lotte World Tower, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Lotte World, Trade Tower, COEX, the IFC Seoul.
Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. As the birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul received over 10 million international visitors in 2014, making it the world's 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism. Today, Seoul is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from the South Korean economic boom - referred to as the Miracle on the Han River - which transformed it into the world's 7th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$635.4 billion in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. International visitors reach Seoul via AREX from the Incheon International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years by the Airports Council International. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis, with the GDP per capita in Seoul being $39,786. Inhabitants of Seoul are faced with a high cost of living, for which the city was ranked 6th globally in 2017.
Seoul is an expensive real estate market, ranked 5th in the world for the price of apartments in the downtown center. With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City, the Seoul Capital Area is home to the headquarters of 15 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung, LG, Hyundai. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences. Seoul has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, more the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit; the city has been known in the past by the names Wiryeseong, Hanseong, Keijō. During Japan's annexation of Korea, "Hanseong" was renamed "Keijō" by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja'漢', which refers to Han people or the Han dynasty and in Japanese is a term for "China", its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city", believed to have descended from an ancient word, which referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.
Ancient Gyeongju was known in documents by the Chinese-style name Geumseong, but it is unclear whether the native Korean-style name Seorabeol had the same meaning as Geumseong. Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja. On January 18, 2005, the Seoul government changed its official Chinese name from the historic Hancheng, still in common use, to Shou'er. Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul is located, began around 4000 BCE. Seoul is first recorded as the capital of Baekje in the northeastern Seoul area. There are several city walls remaining in the area. Pungnaptoseong, an earthen wall located southeast Seoul, is believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong site; as the Three Kingdoms competed for this strategic region, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in the 5th century, from Goguryeo to Silla in the 6th century. In the 11th century Goryeo, which succeeded Unified Silla, built a summer palace in Seoul, referred to as the "Southern Capital".
It was only from this period. When Joseon replaced Goryeo, the capital was moved to Seoul, where it remained until the fall of the dynasty; the Gyeongbok Palace, built in the 14th century, served as the royal residence until 1592. The other large palace, constructed in 1405, served as the main royal palace from 1611 to 1872. After Joseon changed her name to the Korean Empire in 1897, Hwangseong designated Seoul; the city was surrounded by a massive circular stone wall to provide its citizens security from wild animals and attacks. The city has grown beyond those walls and although the wall no longer stands, the gates remain near the downtown district of Seoul, including most notably Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun (commonly known as Dong
Gwangju is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea, a suburb southeast of Seoul. The city is not to be confused with the much larger Gwangju Metropolitan City, former capital of South Jeolla Province, South Korea. Bunwon-ri in Gwangju took an important role of ceramic production during the Kingdom of Joseon. There had official kilns and produced superb quality of white porcelains for use at the royal court and to export to China. In 1962, 4 myuns including 5 ris were incorporated to Seoul. In 1973, 6 of ris were separated and these came to parts of Seongnam city. In 1979, gwangju myun promoted eup. In fact, Gwangju was a county but became a city in 2001. Gwangju Toechon Tomato Festival - Gwangju City, Gyeonggi Province has been holding a festival since 2003 to promote the city's pollution-free tomatoes and sell them to consumers. Kim Yu-bin and actress Choi Soo-young and actress, member of Girls' Generation. Lee Hong-gi, singer and actor Lee Hye-ri, singer and actress Julio Ko, kyaker and educator Yoon Si Yoon and variety entertainer Chae Hyungwon, member of boy group MONSTA X Zibo, China Faku County, China Dornogovi Province, Mongolia Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia Joseon white porcelain Korean pottery and porcelain List of cities in South Korea Geography of South Korea "Corea",'Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed.
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, pp. 390–394. City government website City Council website
Baekje was a kingdom located in southwestern Korea. It was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, together with Silla. Baekje was founded at Wiryeseong. Baekje, like Goguryeo, claimed to succeed Buyeo, a state established in present-day Manchuria around the time of Gojoseon's fall. Baekje alternately battled and allied with Goguryeo and Silla as the three kingdoms expanded control over the peninsula. At its peak in the 4th century, Baekje controlled most of the western Korean peninsula, as far north as Pyongyang, may have held territories in China, such as in Liaoxi, though this view is controversial, it became a significant regional sea power, with political and trade relations with Japan. Baekje was a great maritime power. In 660 it was defeated, by an alliance of Silla and the Chinese Tang Dynasty, submitted to Unified Silla. Baekje was founded in 18 BC by King Onjo, who led a group of people from Goguryeo south to the Han River basin. According to the Chinese Records of the Three Kingdoms, during the Samhan period, one of the chiefdoms of the Mahan confederacy was called Baekje.
The Samguk Sagi provides a detailed account of Baekje's founding. Jumong had left his son Yuri in Buyeo when he left that kingdom to establish the new kingdom of Goguryeo. Jumong became Divine King Dongmyeong, had two more sons with So Seo-no, Onjo and Biryu; when Yuri arrived in Goguryeo, Jumong promptly made him the crown prince. Realizing Yuri would become the next king, So Seo-no left Goguryeo, taking her two sons Biryu and Onjo south to found their own kingdoms with their people, along with ten vassals, she is remembered as a key figure in the founding of both Baekje. Onjo settled in Wiryeseong, called his country Sipje, while Biryu settled in Michuhol, against the vassals' advice; the salty water and marshes in Michuhol made settlement difficult, while the people of Wiryeseong lived prosperously. Biryu went to his brother Onjo, asking for the throne of Sipje; when Onjo refused, Biryu lost. In shame, Biryu committed suicide, his people moved to Wiryeseong, where King Onjo welcomed them and renamed his country Baekje.
King Onjo moved the capital from the south to the north of the Han river, south again all within present Seoul, under pressure from other Mahan states. King Gaeru is believed to have moved the capital north of the river to Bukhansanseong in 132 in present-day Goyang to the northwest of Seoul. Through the early centuries of the Common Era, sometimes called the Proto–Three Kingdoms Period, Baekje gained control over the other Mahan tribes. During the reign of King Goi, Baekje became a full-fledged kingdom, as it continued consolidating the Mahan confederacy. In 249, according to the ancient Japanese text Nihonshoki, Baekje's expansion reached the Gaya confederacy to its east, around the Nakdong River valley. Baekje is first described in Chinese records as a kingdom in 345; the first diplomatic missions from Baekje reached Japan around 367. King Geunchogo expanded Baekje's territory to the north through war against Goguryeo, while annexing the remaining Mahan societies in the south. During Geunchogo's reign, the territories of Baekje included most of the western Korean Peninsula, in 371, Baekje defeated Goguryeo at Pyongyang.
Baekje continued substantial trade with Goguryeo, adopted Chinese culture and technology. Buddhism became the official state religion in 384. Baekje became a sea power and continued mutual goodwill relationships with the Japanese rulers of the Kofun period, transmitting continental cultural influences to Japan; the Chinese writing system, advanced pottery, ceremonial burial, other aspects of culture were introduced by aristocrats, artisans and monks throughout their relationship. During this period, the Han River basin remained the heartland of the country. In the 5th century, Baekje retreated under the southward military threat of Goguryeo, in 475, the Seoul region fell to Goguryeo. Baekje's capital was located at Ungjin from 475 to 538. Isolated in mountainous terrain, the new capital was secure against the north but disconnected from the outside world, it was closer to Silla than Wiryeseong had been, a military alliance was forged between Silla and Baekje against Goguryeo. Most maps of the Three Kingdoms period show Baekje occupying the Chungcheong and Jeolla provinces, the core of the country in the Ungjin and Sabi periods.
In 538, King Seong moved the capital to Sabi, rebuilt his kingdom into a strong state. From this time, the official name of the country was Nambuyeo, a reference to Buyeo to which Baekje traced its origins; the Sabi Period witnessed the flowering of Baekje culture, alongside the growth of Buddhism. Under pressure from Goguryeo to the north and Silla to the east, Seong sought to strengthen Baekje's relationship with China; the location of Sabi, on the navigable Geum River, made contact with China much easier, both trade and diplomacy flourished during his reign and continuing on into the 7th century. In the 7th century, with the growing influence of Silla in the southern and central Korean peninsula, Baekje began its decline. In 660, the coalition troops of Silla and Tang of China attacked Ba
Wiryeseong was the name of two early capitals of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Both are believed to have been in the modern-day Seoul area. According to Samguk Sagi, the son of Goguryeo's founder Jumong, founded the nation of Sipje on Wiryeseong in 18 BC, while his elder brother Biryu established himself in Michuhol further to the west; the location of Michuhol is believed to be present-day Incheon. After some time, Biryu recognized that Michuhol's land was too barren and saline to sustain his people, so he moved to Wiryeseong with his people. Onjo moved further south because of Malgal to the north and Lelang to the east; the former Wiryeseong is called the latter is called Hanam Wiryeseong. The earthen walls of Pungnap Toseong and Mongchon Toseong in Songpa-gu, Seoul are believed by many to be the remains of Hanam Wiryeseong. During the Hanseong period, Baekje grew up against Southern Mahan and Northern Chinese Commanderies including Daifang, which attempted to violate their border.
In the process, Baekje modified the political systems, expended its territory to Mahan and Hwanghae region, it became as a regional power. Wiryeseong served as Baekje's capital until 475, when Goguryeo's King Jangsu attacked Baekje and captured Wiryeseong, as well as the whole Han River area, killing Baekje's King Gaero. Baekje's next king Munju set the new capital at Ungjin. List of Korea-related topics History of Korea Castles in Korea Pungnap Toseong Mongchon Toseong Ungjin Sabi
Songpa-gu is a district of Seoul, South Korea. Songpa is located at the southeastern part of the capital of South Korea. Songpa is the largest population district with 647,000 residents, in Seoul; this had been called Wirye. Songpa is referred to as a part of Greater Gangnam Area along with Gangnam District and Seocho District. Songpa was at the center of 1988 Seoul Olympics, most of the sporting facilities associated with that event are located within the district. In 2009, Songpa District won the Livcom Awards of UNEP for the most liveable city. A pine tree, the tree of Songpa, represents prosperity. Five ovals symbolized pride in hosting the 1988 Seoul Olympics, it symbolizes the monk of an intangible cultural property of Songpa District. Songpa, a World-class city of culture City with the highest culture index in Korea The mayor of this district is Park Chun-hee since 2010. Neolithic people lived in the area along the Han River because of the existence of abundant water. An ancient nation, was established and more people moved to the region.
In 18 BC, the kingdom of Baekje founded its capital city, believed to be inside modern-day Songpa District. Baekje subsequently developed from a member state of the Mahan confederacy into one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. There are several city wall. Among them, Pungnap Toseong, an earthen wall in the southeastern part of modern-day Seoul, is believed to be the main Wiryeseong site, yet another earthen wall, Mongchon Toseong, located nearby, is dated from the early Baekje era. During this era, Songpa was the transportation heartland connection Hanyang, the capital of Joseon, with the rest of Joseon. There was a huge commercial hub around Samjeondo, Songpajin Sincheonjin, Songpa naruter, which influenced the Joseon economy. Songpa, once a calm rural area, started a land readjustment project in the 1970s, which transformed the region into a new, urban town. Songpa District hosted the 1988 Seoul Olympics; the Jamsil Main Stadium and the Olympic park were constructed along with multilaned expressway, large-scale apartment complexes, commercial facilities.
Songpa became a "GU", separated from Gangdong District on May 15, 1988 In pursuit of sustainable and environment-friendly urban development and participatory local autonomy, Songpa District is being development as an autonomous district of Seoul city. With the legacy of Baekjae, it is aiming to become a world-class city that leads the future of Korea. In Songpa, these are the Garden5, is the hub of Northeast Asia's distribution market, Garak Market for agricultural and aquatic products Asia‘s biggest market. Lotte World with 112 stories is planned to be built. Songpa eased regulation against construction in order to provide an optimal environment for economic activities. One factor that makes Songpa's future optimistic is the residents' community sentiment. At a time when the global economy's gloomy, public workers raised money to help create jobs for the jobless in the region. Songpa District draws its future as an "Economically revived district." To achieve this goal, a high-tech business zone is being built in Munjeong-dong.
This zone falls into three themes: future business with next generation semi-conduct, future automobile, digital contents, next generation battery, bio pharmaceutics, digital TV and display and next generation mobile set. Songpa plans to manage this three-sector zone as a driving force for the future. "Garden 5 is the biggest hub for distribution in Asia." One-stop shopping mall Garden 5 is the biggest distribution hub in Korea and meets the demand of distribution and leisure. It consists of five special blocks:'Garden 5 Life' with more than 8,300 shops. "It is hub market for agricultural and marine products in Northeast Asia." Garak Marketplace is going through remodeling until 2020 and will be set with eco-friendly products and clean environment and modernized distribution system, to be hub market in Northeast Asia. Through remodeling, the market will be transformed into theme park style market with eco-friendly underground and green, cultural park-like style on the ground. Construction for remodeling will be one by one in order.
Planned to be built in Sincheon-dong, this building will be 555-meter tall and has 624,642㎡ of floor space. It will have 5 underground floors. An estimated 1.7 trillion won will be invested and more than 23,000 jobs will be created in building a second Lotte World Building. It is expected to create 2.5 million employment effect annually. "To overcome economic crisis, public workers at Songpa-gu office saved fringe benefits and service operation expenses. As a result, 1,270 jobs were created." Focusing on reduction in unemployment rate as a way to overcome economic crisis, Songpa District launched a handful of projects. First of all, Songpa benchmarked the project of the US when it hired the job-seekers with higher educational degrees for building data base during the Great Depression. Songpa employed 120 people in computerizing important data of Songpa District. Through data