Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Mario Rodríguez Cobos
Mario Luis Rodríguez Cobos known by the mononym Silo, was an Argentine writer and founder of the Humanist Movement. An active speaker, he wrote books, short stories and studies related to politics, psychology and other topics. Although he described himself as a writer, many see him as a thinker, based on the diversity of issues about which he has written. Silo was born into a middle-class family of Spanish origin in Argentina, his father was winemaker Rafael Rodriguez and his mother Maria Luisa Cobos, a Basque, a music teacher. He was the youngest of three children, with siblings Guillermo, he undertook primary and secondary education with the Maristas Brotherhood achieving excellent grades, while practising gymnastics and specializing in the pommel horse and reaching high positions in the regional rankings. In addition he was involved in various youth organizations and lead a active social and intellectual life, he carried out special studies, in languages including French and Italian, philosophy.
He published articles in cultural magazines. Silo studied law for three years at the University of Buenos Aires and when they opened the Faculty of Political Science in Mendoza, he returned to his home town to continue his studies in this field. At university he began to organize research groups on human beings and their existential and social problems. Silo undertook various jobs. By 1960 – following "a rearrangement of his inner truths" as a newspaper slogan of the time reported – he began to present his proposals, while still forming study groups in Argentina and Chile. With members of these groups he organized a public talk, banned by the military government but was permitted in the mountains, away from the centres of population; the military dictatorships which subsequently beset the country were present throughout the life of Silo with successive arrests and detentions. So, on 4 May 1969, Silo spoke to some two hundred people gathered in Punta de Vacas, in the high Andes mountains near Mount Aconcagua, gave his first public exposition of the ideas, that in time, would form the basis of the Humanist Movement.
In this talk, known as «The Healing of Suffering», he explained themes such as the overcoming of pain and suffering, the meaning of life, violence and pleasure. Silo married Ana Luisa Cremaschi, whom he knew from his youth, had two sons and Federico, with whom he lived in his hometown. In 1972 he published The Inner Look and the initial groups extended to other countries because the military dictatorships provoked the exile of many of the participants. In the early 70's, Silo created the current of thought now known as New Humanism or Universalist Humanism, founded the Humanist Movement an organized group that sought to translate this thought into practice, it can be said that this thinking encompasses the whole of human existence, not only social but personal. Since the eighties, under his orientation, the Humanist Movement began a period of expansion in the world with the creation of organisms and fronts of action: the Humanist Party with a presence in more than 30 countries, The Community for Human Development, Convergence of Cultures, World Without Wars and the World Centre of Humanist Studies.
During 1981 he was invited to express his proposals in various public rallies in European and Asian cities, visiting Madrid, Rome and Mumbai and Colombo, before returning to Paris, San Francisco and Mexico City. He explained with particular force the position of nonviolence, manifested in the overcoming of suffering, the human treatment of others and the attitude of not searching for those to blame. Aspects of these talks relevant to his thought were published in the book “Silo Speaks”. On 6 October 1993 in Moscow Silo was awarded a doctorate honoris causa by the Institute of Latin American Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. In this ceremony, he supported his ideas on «conditions of dialogue», concluding his presentation with these words: «We will see no full dialogue on the fundamental questions of today’s civilization until we, as a society, begin to lose our belief in the innumerable illusions fed by the enticements of the current system. In the meantime, the dialogue will continue to be insubstantial and without any connection to the profound motivations of society.
However, in some latitudes of the world something new has begun to move, something that, beginning in a dialogue of specialists, will begin to move into the public arena.». In early 2002, Silo announced his retirement from the Humanist Movement, after being its driving force for 32 years, he did it by moving the orientation of the Humanist Movement to an assembly composed of the general coordinators of the movement. By August 2007 there were about 400 members in this assembly. In mid-2002 he launched Silo's Message understood as an experience and a path. Among his more recent projects he gave impetus to the construction of complexes known as Parks of Study and Reflection in Argentina, Spain, USA, Italy and Egypt, among other geographical locations; the money to build these parks was gathered from voluntary donations. During the first decade of the 21st century he returned to speak at Punta de Vacas on several occasions with proposals of reconciliation, access to the profound and the sacred of human being, accepting invitations to speak about his Message and going to more humble places, like family homes, or small halls in the same neighbourhood of Men
Aconcagua Provincial Park
Aconcagua Provincial Park is located in the Mendoza Province in Argentina. The Andes mountain range draws all types of thrill seekers ranging in difficulty including hiking, skiing, etc. Besides it draws history lovers; this range plays an important place in the history of Latin America. In 1818 General Don Jose de San Martin crossed these mountains during war with the Spanish Empire securing independence for Chile by his daring raid; the summit of the mountain Aconcagua, the tallest mount in the Andes range, was considered unattainable for many years until January 14, 1897 Matthias Zurbriggen, a member of the FitzGerald expedition reached it. Since many climbers made the same ascent to the top. Needless to say it is a dangerous endeavor that requires stamina and experience; some of the more visited attractions that draw tourists all year long besides Mount Aconcagua are Horcones Lagoon and Plaza de Mulas or Plaza Francia
Ciudad de Mendoza is the capital of the province of Mendoza in Argentina. It is located in the northern-central part of the province, in a region of foothills and high plains, on the eastern side of the Andes; as of the 2010 census, Mendoza had a population of 115,041 with a metropolitan population of 1,055,679, making Greater Mendoza the fourth largest census metropolitan area in the country. Ruta Nacional 7, the major road running between Buenos Aires and Santiago, runs through Mendoza; the city is a frequent stopover for climbers on their way to Aconcagua and for adventure travelers interested in mountaineering, horse riding and other sports. In the winter, skiers come to the city for easy access to the Andes. Two of the main industries of the Mendoza area are Argentine wine; the region around Greater Mendoza is the largest wine-producing area in Latin America. As such, Mendoza is one of the nine Great Wine Capitals, the city is an emerging enotourism destination and base for exploring the region's hundreds of wineries located along the Argentina Wine Route.
On March 2, 1561, Pedro del Castillo founded the city and named it Ciudad de Mendoza del Nuevo Valle de La Rioja after the governor of Chile, Don García Hurtado de Mendoza. Before the 1560s the area was populated by tribes known as the Puelches; the Huarpes devised a system of irrigation, developed by the Spanish. This allowed for an increase in population; the system is still evident today in the wide trenches, which run along all city streets, watering the 100,000 trees that line every street in Mendoza. It is estimated that fewer than 80 Spanish settlers lived in the area before 1600, but prosperity increased due to the use of indigenous and slave labor, the Jesuit presence in the region; when nearby rivers were tapped as a source of irrigation in 1788 agricultural production increased. The extra revenues generated from this, the ensuing additional trade with Buenos Aires, no doubt led to the creation of the state of Cuyo in 1813 with José de San Martín as governor, it was from Mendoza that San Martín and other Argentinian and Chilean patriots organized the army with which they won the independence of Chile and Peru.
Mendoza suffered a severe earthquake in 1861. The city was rebuilt, incorporating innovative urban designs that would better tolerate such seismic activity. Mendoza was rebuilt with large squares and wider streets and sidewalks than any other city in Argentina. Avenue Bartolomé Mitre and additional small squares are examples of that design. Tourism, wine production, more the exploitation of hard commodities such as oil and uranium ensure Mendoza's status as a key regional center. Important suburbs such as Godoy Cruz, Guaymallén, Las Heras, Luján de Cuyo and Maipú have in recent decades far outpaced the city proper in population. Comprising half the metro population of 212,000 in 1947, these suburbs grew to nearly ⅞ of the total metro area of over 1,000,000 by 2015, making Mendoza the most dispersed metro area in Argentina. Mendoza has several museums, including the Museo Cornelio Moyano, a natural history museum, the Museo del Área Fundacional on Pedro del Castillo Square; the Museo Nacional del Vino, focusing on the history of winemaking in the area, is 17 kilometres southeast of Mendoza in Maipú.
The Casa de Fader, a historic house museum, is an 1890 mansion once home to artist Fernando Fader in nearby Mayor Drummond, 14 kilometres south of Mendoza. The mansion is home to many of the artist's paintings; the Fiesta Nacional de la Vendimia occurs in early March each year. Part of the festivities include a beauty pageant, where 17 beauty queens from each department of Mendoza Province compete, one winner is selected by a panel of about 50 judges; the queen of Mendoza city's department acts as host for the other queens. In 2008, National Geographic listed Mendoza as one of the top 10 historic destinations in the world. Mendoza has a number of universities, including the major Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, as well as University of Mendoza, a branch of Universidad Congreso, Aconcagua University, UTN and Champagnat University. Mendoza is a popular place to learn Spanish, there are a number of Spanish language schools, including Intercultural, Green Fields and SIMA; the city is centered around Plaza Independencia with Avenida Sarmiento running through its center east-west, with the east side pedestrianized.
Other major streets, running perpendicular to Sarmiento, include Bartolomé Mitre, San Martín, 9 de Julio, those running parallel include Colón, Las Heras. Four smaller plazas, San Martín, Chile and España, are located 2 blocks off each corner of Independence Plaza. Unique to Mendoza are the exposed stone ditches small canals, which run alongside many of the roads supplying water to the thousands of trees; the Parque General San Martín was designed by Carlos Thays. Its grounds include the Mendoza Zoological Park and a football stadium, it is the home of the Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. A view of the city is available from the top of Cerro de la Gloria. Mendoza is 380 km from Santiago, Chile. Gov. Francisco Gabrielli International Airport serves Mendoza, with flights to/from Buenos Aires taking less than 2 hours and less than 1 hour to/from Santi
The Province of Mendoza is a province of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region. It borders to the north with San Juan, the south with La Pampa and Neuquén, the east with San Luis, to the west with the republic of Chile, its capital city is the homonymous city of Mendoza. Covering an area of 148.827 km², it is the seventh biggest province of Argentina with 5.35% of the country's total area. The population for 2010 is 1,741,610 inhabitants, which makes it the fourth most populated province of the country, or 4.35% of the total national population. Archeological studies have determined that the first inhabitants in the area date from the Holocene, but there are few remains of those people to know their habits; the earliest sites of human occupation in Mendoza Province, Agua de la Cueva and Gruta del Indio, are 12-13,000 years old. In the basins of the Atuel River, in 300 BC lived a group of people that lived via hunting and the cultivation of maize and beans.
Those valleys saw the rise of ancestor of the Huarpes. They were influenced by the Inca empire during the 15th century. Oral tradition sets the arrival of the Inca Túpac Yupanqui to Coquimbo in 1470. Puelches and other groups received a strong influence of the Mapuches; the first Spanish conquerors came around 1550 from the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1561 Mendoza was founded by the conquistador Pedro del Castillo; until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776, the area of what is now Mendoza Province belonged to the Captaincy General of Chile. With the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, its 30,000 inhabitants became part of the intendency of Cuyo de Córdoba del Tucumán, but in 1813 the intendency was separated and the Province of Cuyo created, with José de San Martín as its first Governor, he received important support from Mendoza when he led his Army of the Andes from Plumerillo to the 1817 crossing of the Andes, in his campaign to end Spanish rule in Chile.
The Province of Cuyo was divided in 1820, Mendoza parted ways with San Luis and San Juan Provinces. The 1861 earthquake nearly destroyed the city of Mendoza, which had to be entirely reconstructed. In 1885 railways were built to the province, allowing for easy transport of the region's wines to the country's trade hub of Buenos Aires. Following the development of the wine industry in the province around 1900, Mendoza began to grow attracting tens of thousands of European immigrants Spaniards. In 1939 the National University of Cuyo, one of the more important universities of the country, was founded in the province. In reaction to President Juan Perón's populist policies, some of which taxed agriculture to finance urban development and public works, Mendoza landowners formed the conservative Democratic Party, which secured the Vice Governor's post in 1958. Increasing their presence in the Mendoza Legislature, the Democrats became an obstacle to progressive Governor Ernesto Ueltschi, an ally of president Arturo Frondizi's.
With majorities in both houses by 1961, they had Gov. Ueltschi removed and Democrat Vice-governor Francisco Gabrielli appointed in his stead. Elected governor in his own right in 1963, Gov. Gabrielli was deposed following the June 1966 coup against President Arturo Illia. In contrast to the pragmatism that had distinguished his 1963–66 term, Gabrielli governed with a hard line, freezing state salaries and ordering large utility rate increases, used the Mendoza police to repress dissent and took foreign policy prerogatives like collaborating with Chilean saboteurs opposed to their country's new Marxist president, Salvador Allende; these events came to a head in April, 1972, when violent protests forced the newly unpopular Gabrielli to resign. Upon the return to democracy in March 1973, Mendoza voters turned to a left-leaning Peronist, Alberto Martínez Baca. Enacting needed labor and land reforms, Martínez Baca, made the mistake of appointing affiliates of the extreme-left Montoneros movement, an organization whose armed wing had perpetrated a string of violent crimes since 1970.
Alarmed by this move from the otherwise pragmatic Martínez Baca, President Perón had him removed in June 1974. Becoming more politically independent-minded following these two disappointments, Mendoza voters elected centrist Radical Civic Union as well as populist Justicialist Party lawmakers since Argentina's return to democracy in 1983. Though Mendoza has prospered since its critical wine industry was left reeling from the 1983 collapse of state-owned vintner Bodegas GIOL, whose dictatorship-era receivers had run the wine conglomerate, accumulated over US$6 billion of debt. Elected in 2003, Radical Civic Union Governor Julio Cobos highlighted this independent sentiment by parting ways with many in his party and endorsing newly elected Peronist President Néstor Kirchner's policies in 2004. Over the opposition of his party, Julio Cobos accepted the post of running mate to first lady Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of the ruling Front for Victory, in the presidential elections of October 2007.
Fernández and Cobos won in the first round, Cobos became Vice President of Argentina. The province is represented by three senators in the Argentine Senate María Perceval, Ernesto Sanz and Mónica Troadello. Mendoza is represented by 10 deputies in the Argentine
A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement; the word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church; the word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French hamel. This, in turn, is a diminutive of Old French ham borrowed from Franconian languages. Compare with modern French hameau, Dutch heem, German Heim, Old English hām and Modern English home. In Afghanistan the counterpart of the hamlet is the qala meaning "fort" or "hamlet"; the Afghan qala is a fortified group of houses with its own community building such as a mosque, but without its own marketplace. The qala is the smallest type of settlement in Afghan society, trumped by the village, larger and includes a commercial area.
In Australia a hamlet is a small village. A hamlet differs from a village in having no commercial premises, but has residences and may have community buildings such as churches and public halls. In Canada's three territories, hamlets are designated municipalities; as of January 1, 2010: Northwest Territories had 11 hamlets, each of which had a population of less than 900 people as of the 2016 census. In Canada's provinces, hamlets are small unincorporated communities within a larger municipality, such as many communities within the single-tier municipalities of Ontario or within Alberta's specialized and rural municipalities. Canada's two largest hamlets—Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park—are located in Alberta, they each have populations, within their main urban area, in excess of 60,000—well in excess of the 10,000-person threshold that can choose to incorporate as a city in Alberta. As such, these two hamlets have been further designated by the Province of Alberta as urban service areas. An urban service area is recognized as equivalent to a city for the purposes of provincial and federal program delivery and grant eligibility.
During the 18th century, for rich or noble people, it was up-to-date to create their own hameau in their gardens. They were a group of some houses or farms with rustic appearance, but in fact were comfortable; the best known is the Hameau de la Reine built by the queen Marie-Antoinette in the park of the Château de Versailles. Or the Hameau de Chantilly built by Prince of Condé in Chantilly, Oise. Lieu-dit is another name for hamlet; the difference is that a hamlet is permanently inhabited. The German word for hamlet is Weiler. A Weiler has, compared to no infrastructure; the houses and farms of a Weiler can be scattered. In North West Germany, a group of scattered farms is called Bauernschaft. In a Weiler there are no street names, the houses are just numbered. In different states of India, there are different words for hamlet. In Haryana and Rajasthan it is called "dhani" or "Thok". In Gujarat a hamlet is called a "nesada". In Maharashtra it's called a "pada". In southern Bihar in the Magadh division, a hamlet is called a "bigha".
All over Indonesia, hamlets are translated as kampung. They are known as dusun in Central Java and East Java, banjar in Bali, jorong or kampuang in West Sumatra. In Pakistan a hamlet is called a gron. In Poland a hamlet is called osada, is a small rural settlement differing by type of buildings or inhabited by population connected with some place or workplace, it can be a part of other settlement, like village. In Romania hamlets are called cătunuri, they represent villages that contain several houses at most, they are considered villages, statistically, they are placed in the same category. Like villages, they do not have a separate administration, thus are not an administrative division, but are part of a parent commune. In the Russian language there are several words which mean "a hamlet", but all of them are equal; the most common word is деревня. A hamlet in Russia has a church, some little shops, a school and a local culture center, in which different culture events and national holidays take place.
A hamlet in Russia consists of several tens of wooden houses. In the past hamlets were the most common kind of settlement in Russia, but nowadays many hamlets in Russia are settled only during the summer as places for vacation because people go to towns and cities in order to find better
Puente del Inca
Puente del Inca, is a natural arch that forms a bridge over the Las Cuevas River, a tributary of the Mendoza River. It is located in Mendoza Province, near Las Cuevas; the nearby hot springs are named Puente del Inca. Both glaciers and the hot springs were involved in the formation of the arch. During an ice age, glaciers would have expanded down throughout the entire valley; the water that flows from the hot springs is rich in mineral content, to the point that it has been known to petrify small objects in a layer of minerals. The piles of debris left by the glaciers were encrusted over time into a single solid mass. During a period where the climate was wet, a powerful river formed in the valley, it cut a channel through the lower, least encrusted layers of debris, which eroded into the large opening of the arch. In March 1835, Charles Darwin visited the site, made some drawings of the bridge with large stalactites. In the early 20th century there was a large thermal resort and spa that used the hot springs to cure certain illnesses.
There was a railway station, still standing, tourists arrived by train to the resort. This was one of the last Argentine stations of the Transandine Railway before the train continued into Chile, traveling through a long tunnel under the Andes; the area is located between the two trail-heads for climbing Aconcagua, the highest mountain in the western hemisphere. The abandoned railway station has been turned into a mountaineering museum, founded by a group of mountain climbers from Rosario to display the cultural history of the area; the museum is run by the founding group of friends. Situated at 2,740 m above sea level, Puente del Inca has a cold semi-arid climate, with moderate summers and snowy winters. Despite its classification as a semi-arid area, the area has a continental temperature profile, i.e. that at least one month sees an average temperature above 10°C and at least one month sees an average temperature below 0°C. This is due to its strong Andean influence, far distance from its nearest ocean and its high altitude.
Nonetheless, this type of climate is rare to both South America and the Southern Hemisphere, since it can only be found on other spots who are located in mountains with profoundly prominent altitudes. Argentinastravel.com: Puente del Inca in Mendoza, Argentina Pictures from Puente del Inca