RPM was a Canadian music industry publication that featured song and album charts for Canada. The publication was founded by Walt Grealis in February 1964, supported through its existence by record label owner Stan Klees. RPM ceased publication in November 2000. RPM stood for "Records, Music"; the magazine was reported to have variations in its title over the years such as RPM Weekly and RPM Magazine. RPM maintained several format charts, including Top Singles, Adult Contemporary, Urban, Rock/Alternative and Country Tracks for country music. On 21 March 1966, RPM expanded its Top Singles chart from 40 positions to 100. On December 6, 1980 the main chart became a Top 50 chart and remained this way until August 4, 1984 whereupon it returned to being a Top 100 Singles chart. For the first several weeks of its existence, the magazine did not compile a national chart, but printed the current airplay lists of several major market Top 40 stations. A national chart was introduced beginning with the June 22, 1964 issue, with its first-ever national #1 single being "Chapel of Love" by The Dixie Cups.
Prior to the introduction of RPM's national chart, the CHUM Chart from Toronto radio station CHUM was considered the de facto national chart. The final #1 single in the magazine was "Music" by Madonna; the modern Juno Awards had their origins in an annual survey conducted by RPM since its founding year. Readers of the magazine were invited to mail in survey ballots to indicate their choices under various categories of people or companies; the RPM Awards poll was transformed into a formal awards ceremony, The Gold Leaf Awards in 1970. These became the Juno Awards in following years; the RPM Awards for 1964 were announced in the 28 December 1964 issue: Top male vocalist: Terry Black Top female singer: Shirley Matthews Most promising male vocalist: Jack London Most promising female vocalist: Linda Layne Top vocal instrumental group: The Esquires Top female vocal group: Girlfriends Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: The Courriers Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Pat Hervey Industry man of the year: Johnny Murphy of Cashbox Canada Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Ed Lawson, Quality Records Top album of the year: That Girl by Phyllis MarshallA column on page 6 of that issue noted that the actual vote winner for Top Canadian Content record company was disqualified due to a conflict of interest involving an employee of that company, working for RPM.
Therefore, runner-up Capitol Records was declared the category's winner. The Annual RPM Awards for 1965 were announced in the 17 January 1966 issue, with more country music categories than the previous year: Top male vocalist: Bobby Curtola Top female singer: Catherine McKinnon Most promising male vocalist: Barry Allen Most promising female vocalist: Debbie Lori Kaye Top vocal/instrumental group: The Guess Who Top female vocal group: Girlfriends Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: Malka and Joso Top folk singer: Gordon Lightfoot Best produced single: "My Girl Sloopy", Little Caesar and the Consuls Best produced album: Voice of an Angel by Catherine McKinnon Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Dianne Leigh Most promising country male singer: Angus Walker Most promising country female singer: Sharon Strong Top country instrumental vocal group: Rhythm Pals Top country instrumentalist: Roy Penney Top country radio personality: Al Fisher, CFGM Toronto Top Canadian disc jockey: Chuck Benson, CKYL Peace River Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Charlie Camilleri, Quality Records The winners were: Top male vocalist: Barry Allen Top female singer: Catherine McKinnon Most promising male vocalist: Jimmy Dybold Most promising female vocalist: Lynda Lane Top vocal/instrumental group: Staccatos Top female vocal group: Allan Sisters Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: 3's a Crowd Top folk singer: Gordon Lightfoot Best produced single: "Let's Run Away", Staccatos Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Dianne Leigh Most promising country male singer: Johnny Burke Most promising country female singer: Debbie Lori Kaye Top country instrumental vocal group: Mercey Brothers Top country instrumentalist: Roy Penney Top country radio personality: Ted Daigle Top country radio station: CFGM Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Red Leaf Records Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Al Nair Top Canadian music industry man of the year: Stan Klees List of number-one singles in Canada List of RPM number-one alternative rock singles List of RPM number-one country singles List of RPM number-one dance singles RPM archive charts RPM Library and Archives Canada: "The RPM Story" The Canadian Encyclopedia: RPM Charts archive from 1964 to 1999 on worldcharts.co.uk Megan Thow.
"Critical Miss". Ryerson Review of Journalism. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2007
Portrait of Donny
Portrait of Donny is the third studio album by the American singer Donny Osmond, released in 1972. The album reached number six on the Billboard Top LPs chart on July 22, 1972; the album had two hit singles. "Puppy Love" reached number three on the Billboard Hot 100. The album was certified Gold by the RIAA on December 30, 1972
Donald Clark Osmond is an American singer, dancer and former teen idol. Osmond has been a talk and game show host, record producer and author. In the mid-1960s, he and four of his elder brothers gained fame as the Osmonds. Osmond went solo in the early 1970s, earning several top ten hits including, "Go Away Little Girl," "Puppy Love," and "Soldier of Love." For more than 40 years, he and younger sister Marie have gained fame as Donny & Marie due to the success of their 1976–79 self-titled variety series, which aired on ABC and a string of gold records. The duo did a 1998–2000 talk show and have been headlining in Las Vegas since 2008. Osmond has been successful on two reality TV competition shows, having won season 9 of Dancing with the Stars and been the runner-up for the first season of The Masked Singer. Osmond was born on December 9, 1957, in Ogden, the seventh son of Olive May and George Virl Osmond, he is the brother of Alan, Jimmy, Wayne, Marie and Virl Osmond. Alan, Merrill and Donny were members of the popular singing group The Osmonds.
Osmond was raised as a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Utah along with his siblings. Osmond has traced some of his family ancestry back to Merthyr Tydfil in Wales. On the BBC's The One Show, a plaque was unveiled in the town to commemorate'the ancestors of Donny Osmond.' In his youth, Osmond held a ham radio license, KA7EVD. Andy Williams' father, Jay Emerson Williams, saw the Osmond Brothers perform on a Disneyland televised special as a barbershop quartet. In short order, the group was invited to audition for The Andy Williams Show. Williams had reservations about featuring children on the program, encouraged by his father to try them out, they proved in a short period of time to become an asset to the program, soon became regulars on the show and gained popularity quickly. In 1963, Donny Osmond made his debut on the show at the age of five singing "You Are My Sunshine"; the brothers continued to perform on the show throughout the 1960s along with a visit from their sister Marie.
Osmond became a teen idol in the early 1970s as a solo singer, while continuing to sing with his older brothers. Osmond, Bobby Sherman, David Cassidy were the biggest "Cover Boy" pop stars for Tiger Beat magazine in the early 1970s, his first solo hit was a cover of Roy Orbison's 1958 recording of "Sweet and Innocent", which peaked at No. 7 in the U. S. in 1971. Osmond's follow-ups "Go Away Little Girl", "Puppy Love", "Hey Girl/I Knew You When" vaulted him into international fame, further advanced by his November 20, 1972 appearance on the Here's Lucy show, where he sang "Too Young" to Lucille Ball's niece, played by Eve Plumb, sang with Lucie Arnaz. In the 1980s, all of the Osmonds abandoned their earlier image, crafted to appeal to young viewers, hoping to reach a more adult audience. While his brothers moved toward country music to modest success, Donny was able to revive his career in popular music, he made an unlikely appearance as one of several celebrities and unknowns auditioning to sing for guitarist Jeff Beck in the video for Beck's 1985 single "Ambitious" –, produced by Paul Flattery and directed by Jim Yukich – followed in 1986 by an unlikely cameo in the animated Luis Cardenas music video "Runaway".
He spent several years as a performer, before hiring the services of music and entertainment guru Steven Machat, who got Osmond together with English singer-songwriter Peter Gabriel to see whether Machat and Gabriel could turn the TV Osmond's image into a contemporary young pop act. They succeeded, returning Osmond to the US charts in 1989 with the Billboard Hot 100 No. 2 song "Soldier of Love" and its top twenty follow-up "Sacred Emotion". The campaign to market "Soldier Of Love" received considerable airplay with the singer being presented as a "mystery artist" before his identity was revealed. Launching an extensive tour in support of the Eyes Don't Lie record, he enlisted Earth Wind & Fire and Kenny Loggins guitarist Dick Smith along with keyboardist Mark Jackson. Osmond was reluctant to perform his earliest songs, in particular "Go Away Little Girl", but was convinced to sing the song live for KLOS-FM's Mark & Brian Christmas Show on December 21, 1990. Now he embraces his initial recording period with fondness, recognizes that his many fans around the world are always excited and appreciative to hear his earliest chart successes.
Osmond was the guest vocalist on Dweezil Zappa's star-studded version of the Bee Gees' "Stayin' Alive" which appeared on Zappa's 1991 album Confessions. The song included guitar solos from Zakk Wylde, Steve Lukather, Warren DeMartini, Nuno Bettencourt, Tim Pierce. Osmond sang "No One Has To Be Alone", but the song was heard at the end of the film The Land Before Time IX: Journey to Big Water, he sang "I'll Make a Man Out of You" for Disney's Mulan. In the 2000s, he released a Christmas album, an album of his favorite Broadway songs, a compilation of popular love songs. In 2004, he returned to the UK Top 10 for the first time as a solo artist since 1973, with the George Benson-sampling "Breeze On By", co-written with former teen idol Gary Barlow, from the 1990s UK boy band Take That, reaching number 8, his forthcoming 16th album The Soundtrack of My Life features a collection of cover songs with personal meaning to Osmond. He enlisted Stevie Wonder to play harmonica on track "My Cherie Amour".
Following Marie's stint on Dancing with
ABC Records was an American record label founded in New York City in 1955. It originated. Am-Par created the Impulse! Jazz label in 1960, it acquired many labels before ABC was sold to MCA Records in 1979. ABC produced music in a variety of genres: pop, jazz, country and blues, soundtrack and polka. In addition to producing records, ABC licensed masters from independent record producers, purchased regionally released records for national distribution. American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres is an antecedent of the American Broadcasting Company, it evolved from federal antitrust actions taken against the movie studios and broadcasting companies in the 1940s and early 1950s. In 1943 the Federal Communications Commission took action against anti-competitive practices, one of which forced the Radio Corporation of America to sell the Blue Network, the sister network of NBC Red Network. Blue was purchased by the businessman Edward J. Noble, he changed its name to the American Broadcasting Company in 1946.
In 1953 ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, the divested former exhibition/cinema division of Paramount Pictures. The newly merged corporation was chaired by former Paramount Theaters executive Leonard Goldenson and was headquartered at 1501 Broadway in New York City, above the Paramount Theater in Times Square. American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres formed a records division in 1955 with Samuel H. Clark as its first president; the division was incorporated on June 1955 as Am-Par Record Corporation. By August 1955, the unit was organized with PAMCO as subsidiary publishing units. Eydie Gorme was the company's first signed artist; the company recorded its first single record, "Sincerely Yours" and "Come Home", both by Gorme. Alec Templeton's "Smart Alec" was the company's first LP recorded in September 1955. One of Gorme's singles was its first release in January 1956. "Chain Gang" by Bobby Scott in February 1956 was the company's first national hit. George Hamilton IV's "A Rose and a Baby Ruth" single was Am-Par's first million-selling single in October 1956.
In 1957, the company had two million-selling single in June with "Diana" by Paul Anka and in October with "At the Hop" by Danny & the Juniors. Am-Par Records in May 1958 debut the Apt subsidiary label with its first million-selling single, "Little Star" by the Elegants, released the same month. Chancellor Records started a trend. Chancellor had its first million-selling single in October 1958 with Lloyd Price's "Stagger Lee". Am-Par Record purchased Grand Award Records including the newly formed Command Records label, in 1959; the company started a second label for jazz, Impulse! Records, in November 1960. Impulse released its first four records were released in January 1961; the company had artists that earned three Grammy Awards in 1960. While in January 1961, the company purchased a classic label, thus Am-Par Record had a label for each music genre. Am-Par Record Corporation was renamed to ABC-Paramount Records, Inc. on December 7, 1961. The company opened a Los Angeles office in January 1962. Ray Charles formed Tangerine Records in March 1962 and arranged for ABC-Paramount to distribute Tangerine's records.
The company formed Jet Record Distributors based in Long Island City, N. Y. as its local distributor. In 1962, the company had acquired Music Guild label and library for Westminster Records. In 1965, Clark was promoted to vice-president in charge of AB-PT's non-broadcast operations. National sales manager Larry Newton was named ABC-Paramount president. On January 4, 1965, vice-president in charge of sales Larry Newton was promoted to president of ABC-Paramount Records; the previous president, Sam Clark was promoted to director of theater operations for American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres. Newton's first action as president was to restart Apt Records as a teen-oriented West Coast base label under Irwin Garr; the label was renamed ABC Records in June 1966. In 1967, Dunhill Records was purchased from Lou Adler. In 1970, ABC and Dunhill moved its headquarters to Los Angeles. Newton was promoted to vice-president in charge of ABC Pictures. Dunhill co-owner Jay Lasker was named president and referred to the combined operations as ABC/Dunhill.
At that time ABC had another five labels: Westminster, Probe and Bluesway. At the August 29, 1970 Directors Guild meeting, ABC/Dunhill launched a number of marketing initiatives; the company planned to have writers create a broader music for the catalog market. Imprints Probe and Apt were relaunched, Probe as an label which held the international rights to ABC's albums and Apt as a label which released budget cassettes and 8-track tapes. Jazz dropped from Impulse's cover for a new slogan: "University Series of Fine Recording" and two new series were launched: Audio Treasury and Westminster Gold for classic and more youth fair respectively. By May 1972, ABC formed the ABC Leisure Group, which included ABC Records, Anchor Records, ABC Records and Tape Sales, plus a new retail record-store division. Lasker left ABC to join Ariola America Records in 1975, he was succeeded by Jerry Rubinstein, who served as company head until 1977. In November 1972, ABC bought country music company Cartwheel Records.
In 1974, ABC switched British distribution from EMI to the EMI-distributed Anchor Records, allowing ABC recordings to be issued on the ABC label in the UK, Anchor records to be distributed by ABC on the Anchor label in the US. As a cost-cutting measure, ABC Records discarded many master tapes in the 1970s to save storage space; when these recordings were reissued on compact disc in the 1980s, CD versions were often
UK Singles Chart
The UK Singles Chart is compiled by the Official Charts Company, on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.
The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday; the Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40, is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network only, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on 145 local commercial radio stations across the United Kingdom; the Big Top 40 is not regarded by the industry or wider media. There is a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00; the UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952.
According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart. The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company; the company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; the first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 18 April 2019, the UK Singles Chart has had 1352 different number-one hits; the current number-one single is "Someone You Loved" by Lewis Capaldi.
Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music. The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940. Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures. For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; the NME chart was based on a telephone poll. Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956. Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart.
It was the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample. Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956. In March 1960, Record Retailer had a Top 50 singles chart. Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was followed, in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead. Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960; the choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised. With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a smaller sample size than some ri
A cassette single is a music single in the form of a Compact Cassette. Bow Wow Wow's "C·30 C·60 C·90 Go" was the first cassette single, released in the UK in 1980, I. R. S. Records released the first cassette single in the U. S. with the Go-Go's "Vacation" in 1982. The ZTT label made good use of the format by 1984, with singles by Frankie Goes to Hollywood, Art of Noise and Propaganda being issued in unique versions on cassette. American record companies began releasing cassette singles on a large scale in 1987, beginning with A&M's Bryan Adams "Heat of the Night", when vinyl record album sales were declining in favor of cassette recordings; the format was used as a promotion in the 1990s, with Disney giving a "cassingle" to attendees of Hercules promotional events. Most cassette singles were released in a cardboard sleeve that slipped over the outside of the release; this was usually shrink wrapped in plastic. Some singles contained one song on each side, much as 45s had done, but others repeated the songs on both sides.
In some markets, cassette singles used the same packaging as standard cassettes, a plastic box with a paper insert. As the cassette maxi-single was released, more intricate packaging was incorporated that looked similar to the packaging of a regular cassette release; these were placed in regular plastic cassette cases with a paper/cardstock insert. Unlike a full-length cassette album, these were only one two-sided inlay instead of a fold-out. Maxi-singles contained four versions of a single song, i.e.: unique mixes & edits, but some contained versions of two different songs. Although the cassette had reached a high level of popularity by the late 1980s, due to the ubiquity of mobile devices such as the Sony Walkman, the boombox and car audio cassette players, cassette singles never rivalled gramophone records to near the same extent as cassette albums had done. In the U. S. cassette singles were phased out by the early 2000s. One reason for their lesser popularity was because they appeared to be an inefficient use of the media to consumers - a cassette single took up the same storage space as a full album.
In April 2013, psychedelic rock band MGMT released the first single from their third album as a cassette single, October 2014 saw the cassingle "Great Big Happy Green Moonface" from Polaris, the band's first release in fifteen years
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem