The two-finger salute is a salute given using only the middle and index fingers, while bending the other fingers at the second knuckle, with the palm facing the signer. This salute is used by the Polish Armed Forces, other uniformed services, and, in some countries, the Cub Scouts; the Polish two-finger salute is only used while wearing a headdress with the emblem of the Polish eagle or without this emblem. The salute is performed with the middle and index fingers extended and touching each other, while the ring and little fingers are bent and touched by the thumb; the tips of the middle and index fingers touch the peak of the cap, two fingers meaning honour and fatherland. It is not clear; some see its origin in Tadeusz Kościuszko's 1794 oath. Others state that it came from Polish soldiers in the Congress Kingdom army around 1815. At that time the Tsar's Viceroy in Poland Grand Duke Constantine said that Poles salute him with two fingers, while using the other two to hold a stone to throw at him.
Another legend attributes the salute to the remembrance of Battle of Olszynka Grochowska in 1831, when a soldier who lost in the battle all his fingers but the middle and index ones, saluted his superior with the wounded hand, died after it. It symbolized Country; the two-fingers salute caused problems for Polish units serving with the Allies on the western front during World War II. Allied officers, seeing what they perceived as a Cub Scout's salute, thought that Polish soldiers were deliberately being disrespectful; as a result, many soldiers were arrested. This led to the temporary use of the full hand salute. Many Cub Scout sections use a two-finger salute; the salute was devised by Robert Baden-Powell and represented the two ears of a wolf cub, since the original programme was based on Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book. However, Cubs in several national associations now use the three-finger Scout salute used by the rest of the Scout Movement; the Cub Scout salute
The Thai greeting referred to as the wai consists of a slight bow, with the palms pressed together in a prayer-like fashion. It has its origin like the Indian namaste and Burmese Mingalar Par; the higher the hands are held in relation to the face and the lower the bow, the more respect or reverence the giver of the wai is showing. The wai is traditionally observed upon formally entering a house. After the visit is over, the visitor asks for permission to leave and repeats the salutation made upon entering; the wai is common as a way to express gratitude or to apologise. The word spoken with the wai as a greeting or farewell is "sawatdi"; this verbal greeting is followed by "kha" when spoken by a female and by "khrap" when spoken by a male person. The word sawatdi was coined in the mid-1930s by Phraya Upakit Silapasan of Chulalongkorn University. Derived from the Sanskrit svasti, it had been used in Thai only as a formulaic opening to inscriptions; the nationalist government of Plaek Pibulsonggram in the early–1940s promoted its use in the government bureaucracy as well as the wider populace as part of a wider set of cultural edicts to modernise Thailand.
Waiing remains to this day an important part of social behavior among Thais, who are sensitive to their self-perceived standing in society. Foreign tourists and other visitors unaccustomed to the intricacies of Thai language and culture should not wai someone younger than them except in return for their wai. However, one should always return a wai, offered as a sign of respect. Corporate wais, such as those performed by convenience store cashiers are reciprocated with a smile or a nod. If one receives a wai while carrying goods, or for any reason that makes returning it difficult, one should still show their respect by making a physical effort to return it as best as possible under the circumstances; the wai may have been developed from an ancient greeting, said to have shown that neither individual was carrying any weapons. There exists several versions of the greeting based on social class and age; the gesture may come from India via Buddhism, which sometimes involves prostration, or the clasping of palms together and bowing to the ground.
The gesture first appears c. 4,000 years ago on the clay seals of the Indus Valley Civilization. Pranāma or Namaste, the part of ancient Indian culture has propagated to southeast Asia, part of indosphere of greater India, through the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism from India, it has influenced the following nations. In Indonesia, wai-like gestures are in use in various parts of the country, in the royal courts of Java it is called sembah, common in Lombok and Bali, where Hinduism and Buddhism is or has been practiced. In Bali the greeting word spoken during the sembah is om swastiastu, equivalent to sawatdee in Thai. Both originated from the Sanskrit svasti. In Sanskrit svasti means "safe and prosperous", astu means "hopefully", thus Om Swastiastu means: "Oh God, I hope all goodness comes from all directions."In Laos and Myanmar, similar greetings—called nop, mingalar par, respectively—are in use. In Malaysia and Brunei, it was used to convey thanks or salutations to a patron or higher personage, with the hands raised to a level in accordance with the rank or caste of the individual to whom it was directed.
It is still used in the presence of Bruneian royalty. In Sri Lanka a similar gesture is used with the word in Sinhalese language "Ayubowan", meaning, "may you live longer". In Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu a similar gesture is used with the word Vanakkam, derived from the root word vanangu meaning to bow or to greet, it is used to greet people in India. Although not used as a greeting gesture, similar gestures are known in the Philippines to convey heartfelt gratitude to a helper or benefactor if that benefactor's social status is above that of the one, assisted; this has its origins in the pre-Hispanic and pre-Islamic Hindu-Buddhist beliefs and customs of the area. It is still used as a salutation before and after the pangalay dance of the Tausug and Bajau peoples of the Sulu Archipelago. Añjali Mudrā Gassho Indian honorifics Anthony. National Identity and Its Defenders. Chapter 4: "What Makes Thai Central Language". ISBN 974-7047-20-9
An Eskimo kiss called nose kiss or nose rub, is the act of pressing the tip of one's nose against another's nose interpreted as a friendly greeting gesture in various cultures. When early explorers of the Arctic first witnessed Inuit nose rubbing as a greeting behavior, they dubbed it Eskimo kissing; the Eskimo kiss was used as an intimate greeting by the Inuit who, when they meet outside have little except their nose and eyes exposed. The Eskimo kiss is employed by the Inuit. A kunik is a form of expressing affection between family members and loved ones, that involves pressing the nose and upper lip against the skin and breathing in, causing the loved one's skin or hair to be suctioned against the nose and upper lip. A common misconception is that the practice arose so that Inuit could kiss without their mouths freezing together. Rather, it is a non-erotic but intimate greeting used by people who, when they meet outside have little except their nose and eyes exposed. Other peoples use similar greeting practices, notably the Māori of New Zealand and Hawaiians, who practice the hongi and honi greetings, respectively.
Mongolian nomads of the Gobi Desert have a similar practice, as do certain Southeast Asian cultures, such as Bengalis, Laotians, Vietnamese, Sabu and Ibans. Nose kissing is employed as a traditional greeting by Arabs tribesmen when greeting members of the same tribe. One of the earliest representations of the'Eskimo kiss' was shown in Robert Flaherty's 1922 film Nanook of the North, considered by many to be the first documentary or ethnographic film. Many people of the non-Inuit/Eskimo public may first have learned of this convention from the film. Scenes involving Eskimo kissing have been featured in Western media, including episodes of United States TV shows, such as The Simpsons and South Park. In a sketch on Chappelle's Show, Eskimo kissing was portrayed as a stereotypically white gesture. In addition to that, the British rock band "The Kooks" has a song named "Eskimo Kiss" on their album Junk of the Heart. Nuzzle
Three-finger salute (Serbian)
The three-finger salute known as the Serb salute, is a salute which expressed the Holy Trinity, used in oath-taking, a symbol of Serbian Orthodoxy, that today is an expression, a gesture, for ethnic Serbs and Serbia, made by extending the thumb and middle fingers of one or both hands. In Serbian and Orthodox tradition, the number three is exceptionally important. Three fingers are used when symbolizing the Trinity; the Serbs, when swearing Oath used the three fingers along with the greetings "My Holy Trinity" or "for the Honorable Cross and Golden Freedom" during formal and religious events. The salute was made with both hands, raised above the head. Serbian peasants sealed a pledge by raising three fingers to the face, the face being "the focus of honour" in Balkan culture. A Serbian proverb goes "There is no cross without three fingers". Karađorđe was appointed leader of the Serbian rebels after they all raised their "three fingers in the air" and thereby swore Oath; the three fingers were viewed of as a symbol of Serbdom in the 19th century.
Njegoš mentioned "the crossing with three fingers has not remained" when speaking of the Islamization of Serbs, a central theme in The Mountain Wreath. Paja Jovanović's painting, The Takovo Uprising, depicts Miloš Obrenović holding a war flag and saluting with three fingers; the Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik, which supported that Serbs had three faiths, criticized the Pan-Serbists who according to them only "truly believed those Serbs, who cross with three fingers". A short story published in 1901 surrounds a Serbian despot meeting with a Szilágyi, who has the despot's three fingers cut off by Franciscan friars after discussing the right way of crossing. Serbian Metropolitan Nikolaj Velimirović called for a Serbian salute in which three fingers were to be raised along the greeting: "Thus Help Us God!". In 1937, Velimirović began a sermon protesting the Catholic support for separation of state and religion in Yugoslavia with "Rise three fingers Orthodox Serbs!". During World War II, the Catholic church in Independent Croatia sought that the Serbs renounce crossing with three fingers.
A letter from the Chetniks to the Yugoslav Partisans stressed that the real government was in London and that they would kill all who did not cross themselves with three fingers. An Ustashe song went. Vuk Drašković, the leader of the Serbian Renewal Movement political party, said in a 2007 interview that he first used it in 1990 at the founding meeting of the party, inspired by Paja Jovanović's painting. During the March 1991 street demonstrations in Belgrade, the three fingers were massively used by Drašković's supporters, representing the three demands that the Serbian Renewal Movement had put before the government. During the Yugoslav wars, the salute was used as a Serb symbol. In the prelude of the Bosnian War, Bosnian Serbs were encouraged to vote in the 1991 referendum through posters which displayed the three fingers. During the wars, Serb soldiers raised the three fingers as a sign of victory. According to political scientist Anamaria Dutceac Segeste, the significance of the salute is diverse: although it has been used by nationalists, it cannot be monopolized as such.
The salute is used by sport fans and players when celebrating victories. After winning the 1995 European basketball championship, the entire then-Yugoslav team displayed the three fingers. Sasha Djordjevic says. Just: that's Serbia, that's us, that's me – nothing else. It's my pride." Serbian tennis player Novak Djokovic raises three fingers after his victories. The salute is used by members and supporters of all Serbian political parties on their rallies during election campaigns, it can be seen at all kinds of street celebrations. Croats and Kosovo Albanians, who have been at war with Serbs, find the salute provocative. A 1998 Politika news article spoke of the "perennial demonization" of the salute, "which had entered the catalogue of planitarian gestures", together with the closed fist, outstretched palm and V sign; when Russian peacekeeping troops entered Sarajevo in 1994, they used the salute when greeting the Serb troops, because of this, they were branded pro-Serb. There were instances. During the Croatian War, there were instances of massacred Serb civilians having had their three fingers on the right hand cut off.
A Croatian Serb woman interviewed by war correspondent Misha Glenny had had her three fingers shot off. A Serbian nationalistic song went "From Ulcinj to Trieste, the crossing will be with three fingers". In response, Croatian nationalistic songs went "You wanted to reach Serb. Fuck your three fingers", "We'll break all your fingers and not only those three". In a famous photograph of the Red Star Belgrade team celebrating their victory at the 1990–91 European Cup, eight players are seen using the Serb salute, while a Croatian player, Robert Prosinečki, is not. In 2001, Australian football team Perth Glory's Bobby Despotovski was sanctioned by the Australian Soccer Federation for giving the salute to
A fist bump is a gesture similar in meaning to a handshake or high five. A fist bump can be a symbol of giving respect or approval, it may be part of a dap greeting. It is used in baseball and hockey as a form of celebration with teammates, with opposition players at the end of a game. In cricket it is a common celebratory gesture between batting partners. Fist bumps are given as a form of friendly congratulation. A fist bump, according to Merriam Webster Dictionary, is a gesture in which two people bump their fists together; the gesture is performed when two participants each form a closed fist with one hand and lightly tap the front of their fists together. The participant's fists may be horizontally oriented. Unlike the standard handshake, performed only with each participants' right hand, a fist bump may be performed with participants using either hand; the "fist bump" or "pound" can be traced back to the late 1800s when boxers would be instructed to touch gloves at the start of a contest. This became the customary greeting between boxers in and out of the ring.
Baseball Hall of Famer Stan Musial used the fist-bump during the 1950-60's as an option to shaking hands. Musial was convinced that he was catching too many colds by picking up germs while shaking thousands of hands each year, so he adopted the fist bump as a friendly alternative. Smithsonian researcher LaMont Hamilton suggests that the dap originated during the Vietnam War as a modified form of the Black Power salute, prohibited by the US military. Pat Benatar is seen giving another dancer a fist bump at the end of her 1983 video for the song "Love Is A Battlefield." The "Fist Bump" was first seen in Australia in September 1990 at the Wetherill Park Indoor Cricket Centre between two opening batsmen, Mick Tyler and Bob Minney. At the completion of the first successful batting over for the pair they met mid-pitch and "Fist Bumped" with their batting gloves, they continued to "Fist Bump" for the remainder of the game and it continued into the future. Now this act can be seen on various sporting fields/arenas around Australia, at an International level too.
Time magazine wonders if it evolved from the high-five. They cite knuckle bumping in the 1970s with basketball player Baltimore Bullets guard Fred Carter. Others trace the gesture to the Wonder Twins, minor characters in the 1970s Hanna-Barbera superhero cartoon Super Friends, who touched knuckles and cried "Wonder Twin powers, activate!". In light of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the Dean of Medicine at the University of Calgary, Tom Feasby, suggested that the fist bump may be a "nice replacement of the handshake" in an effort to prevent transmission of the virus. A medical study has found that fist bumps and high fives spread fewer germs than handshakes. Fist bumping behavior has been observed in chimpanzees, according to a book published by Margaret Power in 1991. In early June 2008, the Fox News Channel ran a news piece about a fist bump of Barack Obama and his wife at the end of one of Obama's meetings in his presidential running. In it, anchor E. D. Hill said the gesture may be a "terrorist fist jab".
Fox apologized for the term. Because of the reduced skin contact and resulting bacterial transfer, one study has recommended that the fist bump and high five be adopted as a more hygienic alternative to the handshake. Safire, William. "Fist Bump". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved July 15, 2008
The Bellamy salute is a palm-out salute described by Francis Bellamy, the author of the American Pledge of Allegiance, as the gesture, to accompany the pledge. During the period when it was used with the Pledge of Allegiance, it was sometimes known as the "flag salute". Both the Pledge and its salute originated in 1892. During the 1920s and 1930s, Italian fascists and Nazis adopted a salute, similar, and, derived from the Roman salute, a gesture, popularly believed to have been used in ancient Rome; this resulted in controversy over the use of the Bellamy salute in the United States. It was replaced by the hand-over-heart salute when Congress amended the Flag Code on December 22, 1942; the inventor of the Bellamy salute was James B. Upham, junior partner and editor of The Youth's Companion. Bellamy recalled that Upham, upon reading the pledge, came into the posture of the salute, snapped his heels together, said "Now up there is the flag. Another signal is given. Standing thus, all repeat together “I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands.
At the words, “to my Flag,” the right hand is extended gracefully, palm upward, toward the Flag, remains in this gesture till the end of the affirmation. The initial civilian salute was replaced with a hand-on-heart gesture, followed by the extension of the arm as described by Bellamy. Though the instruction called for the palm to be up, many found this awkward, performed it with the palm down. By the 1920s, Italian fascists adopted what has been called the Roman salute to symbolize their claim to have revitalized Italy on the model of ancient Rome. A similar ritual was adopted by the German Nazis; the similarity to the Bellamy salute led to confusion during World War II. From 1939 until the attack on Pearl Harbor, detractors of Americans who argued against intervention in World War II produced propaganda using the salute to lessen those Americans' reputations. Among the anti-interventionist Americans was aviation pioneer Charles Lindbergh. Supporters of Lindbergh's views would claim that Lindbergh did not support Adolf Hitler, that pictures of him appearing to do the Nazi salute were pictures of him using the Bellamy salute.
In his Pulitzer Prize winning biography Lindbergh, author A. Scott Berg explains that interventionist propagandists would photograph Lindbergh and other isolationists using this salute from an angle that left out the American flag, so it would be indistinguishable from the Hitler salute to observers. In order to prevent further confusion or controversy, the United States Congress instituted the hand-over-the-heart gesture as the salute to be rendered by civilians during the Pledge of Allegiance in the United States, instead of the Bellamy salute; this was done when Congress amended the Flag Code on December 22, 1942. There was some resistance to dropping the Bellamy salute, for example from the Daughters of the American Revolution, but this opposition died down following Nazi Germany's declaration of war against the United States on December 11, 1941. Olympic salute Raised fist Roman salute A. Scott. Lindbergh. New York City: Berkley Trade. ISBN 978-0425170410. Retrieved January 13, 2015. United States Department of Veteran Affairs History of discontinuation of the Bellamy salute, Glenn Kessler
Scout sign and salute
The three-finger salute is used by members of Scout and Guide organizations around the world when greeting other Scouts and in respect of a national flag at ceremonies. In most situations, the salute is made with the right hand, palm face out, the thumb holding down the little finger, with the fingertips on the brow of the head. There are some variations of the salute between national Scouting organizations and within some programme sections. A "half-salute", known as the Scout Sign, is used in certain situations; the hand is still held palm facing out, the thumb holding the little finger, but the hand is held at the shoulder instead. Other organizations with historical ties to Scouting such as Scouts Royale Brotherhood and Alpha Phi Omega use it as well. In his book, Scouting for Boys, Robert Baden-Powell chose the three-finger salute for Scouts to represent the three aspects of the Scout Promise: Honor God and Country Help Others Obey the Scout Law Cub Scout sections can use a two-finger salute, depending on the national Scouting organization they belong to.
This is done to represent the two rules of the original Cub Scout / Wolf Cub law. The salute is performed with the right hand. In The Wolf Cub's Handbook, Baden-Powell wrote: "Why two fingers? Well, you know, it is used as the badge of the Wolf Cub. Your two fingers in the salute are the two ears of the Wolf." Baden-Powell intended for Scouts to salute each other in greeting when they first saw each other for the first time using the "secret sign", or half-salute. This was regardless of. Officers, such as Patrol Leaders, Scoutmasters, or members of the armed forces, were to be saluted with a full-salute. Full-salutes were required at the hoisting of the Union Flag, the playing of the national anthem, or at funerals. In Scouts Canada the Salute is rendered vertically, palm out similar to British Army/Commonwealth salutes, except if the member is a Sea Scout where it is palm in/angled down.. Beaver Scouts in Canada use a variant of the two-fingered sign with the fingers bent forwards forming "teeth".
When they move up to Cub Scouts part of the ceremony sometimes includes a Scouter straightening the fingers to change from the Beaver to Cub sign. The half-salute is used by Swiss Scouts when shaking hands with other Scouts or leaders on greeting or parting. Additional meaning of the thumb holding down the little finger as explained in Switzerland: the big and strong protects the weak and little; the Scout Association uses the three-fingered salute including Cub Scouts. The two-fingered Cub salute was abandoned by the Scout Association following a recommendation by the Advance Party Report in 1966, that "there should be only one salute for the whole Movement"; the Scout Sign is used while making or reaffirming the Beaver Scout, Cub Scout or Scout Promise and at no other time. The Baden-Powell Scouts' Association uses both two fingered salutes. Girlguiding UK only uses the Guide Sign; as a member of WFIS and part of the international Traditional Scouting movement. The scout sign and salute differs by section in the BPSA-US.
The Timberwolf section uses the two-finger salute, the two finger scout salute as defined in the 1938 PO&R, while the Pathfinder and Rovers use the traditional three-finger sign and salute. Cub Scouts use the two finger Scout sign and salute— the sign is presented with the fingers apart to represent the ears of Akela the wolf. Boy Scouts, Varsity Scouts and Sea Scouts use the three finger sign and salute; the Scout Sign is performed with the upper arm parallel to the ground and the forearm vertical, forming a right angle at the elbow. The Scout Sign is used when reciting any of the ideals of the BSA such as the Scout Oath and Scout Law, it is used to gain the attention of the group. The salute is rendered in the American style with the palm in and is only used to salute the flag of the United States. Early BSA protocol required Scouts to salute each other, but this was discontinued in 1972; as a member of WAGGGS, the Girl Scouts of the USA use the three-fingered sign at shoulder height. The three fingers represent other people and the Girl Scout Law.
This differs from the 1913 version where the first finger represented Country. All World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members share the three fingered sign, with the palm facing out held at shoulder height, elbow by the side and the thumb holding the little finger; this is used in numerous situations of respect including when making or reciting the Promise, receiving awards, honouring a flag, honouring the dead and meeting other Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. In the latter case, it may be used in conjunction with the left handshake